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Journal ArticleDOI

Gobierno y administración de sistemas de riego

04 May 2016-Región y Sociedad (El Colegio de Sonora)-Vol. 17, Iss: 34, pp 3-33

AbstractLa propuesta es diferenciar gobierno y administracion en los sistemas de riego, argumentando que el analisis que permite la caracterizacion de esta ultima no se puede realizar observando unicamente el locus de autoridad. Desde la perspectiva de la administracion, hay casos de autogobierno en que los regantes mismos realizan todas las tareas con base en sistemas de conocimiento local, otros en que toda la administracion se encuentra a cargo de personal contratado. Hay casos de administracion burocratica y tecnocratica en sistemas con distinto locus de autoridad (Estado/regantes). Ademas, se propone que mientras el autogobierno de sistemas de riego no parece tener limites de tamano, la administracion sin burocracia ni personal especializado parece estar acotada a sistemas de riego de una extension determinada. No obstante, se argumenta que el gobierno influye sobre el caracter de la administracion, dado que su descentralizacion disminuye o evita que sea burocratica/tecnocratica. more

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TL;DR: This paper presents a state of the art on some selected socioeconomic subjects as they appear in the irrigation literature, and analyzes the way in which they are conceived, thought and articulated with the more “technical” factors of irrigation.
Abstract: “Knowledge Assessment on Sustainable Water Resources Management for Irrigation” (KASWARMI) project made evident cases of unsuccessful or non sustainable irrigation experiences that could only be explained by the underestimation of deep socioeconomic issues. This involves not only the social factors related to the implementation/ adoption of new or better technologies by a wide spectrum of users but also the way in which water use and irrigation projects are conceived, planned and implemented by scientists, politicians and practitioners. The project was interested in assessing the social science inputs irrigation specialists receive. With this objective, this paper presents a state of the art on some selected socioeconomic subjects as they appear in the irrigation literature, and analyzes the way in which they are conceived, thought and articulated with the more “technical” factors of irrigation. This should be useful to raise new avenues of research and to enhance articulation of “technical” and social science approaches in quest of a more close to sustainability irrigation practices. A first search covered eight of the most prestigious journals devoted to irrigation subjects. After this search yielded meager results in terms of the amount of papers found, a new search was conducted, without restraining to specific journals but moving freely with a deliberate thematic purpose. The results showed less socioeconomic issues than desirable in the papers within easy reach of irrigation engineers, a meager presence of Latin American cases and an approach to socioeconomic subjects that lack comprehensiveness, as they did not appear to be fully articulated with the technical subjects of irrigation.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article constitutes a preliminary exploration, of an eminently biographical nature, of a longer project that seeks to analyse the impact of Mexican anthropology in Catalonia in the last third of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first century, with special attention to the work of professionals in the Mexican anthropological sciences, derived from the Spanish republican exile. After a first section dedicated to the presentation of the process of introducing anthropology at the University of Barcelona, around the figure of Claudi Esteva Fabregat, a second section is dedicated to the characterisation of the social and institutional environment in which the arrival of the exiles to Mexico is framed. This is followed by a presentation of the foundational role played by Pere Bosch i Gimpera and Joan Comas i Camps, exiled at the zenith of their academic careers. The following sections address the biography and major contributions of young exiles educated in Mexico (ENAH and UNAM), who had come from Barcelona (Angel Palerm, Claudi Esteva and Pedro Armillas), Valencia (Santiago Genoves), Madrid (Pedro Carrasco, Jose L. Lorenzo and Carmen Viqueira) and Logrono (Enrique Nalda). They all become essential figures in anthropology in the second half of the twentieth century. We also report on the work of eight members of the second generation who were children of exiles: Gloria Artis Espriu, Gloria Artis Mercadet, Armando Bartra, Roger Bartra, Andres Fabregas, Jordi Gussinyer and finally Jacinta and Juan Vicente Palerm. The text concludes with examples of existing bilateral connections.

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
30 Sep 2015
Abstract: En este trabajo se confrontan las conocidas propuestas de A. Maass, T. F. Glick y E. Ostrom, sobre las caracteristicas del gobierno de las acequias valencianas y la gestion hidraulica en ellas realizada, con informaciones procedentes de los numerosos estudios sobre los regadios de esta zona mediterra- nea publicados desde los anos ochenta. El cotejo arroja como balance que el nucleo explicativo compartido por los tres autores glosados (gran virtualidad de la autonomia local de que gozaron los colectivos de usuarios de las aguas, quienes rigieron las acequias, articulandose con instituciones municipales y oficiales de la monarquia), se manifiesta como una propuesta teorica que mantiene plena vigencia, siendo valida para seguir guiando futuras investigaciones. Pero, al mismo tiempo, se pone de relieve que existen aspectos concretos (tales como la supuesta composicion campesina de las comunidades de regantes, el caracter democratico de las entidades hidraulicas o la ultraestabilidad que se atribuye a las instituciones que regian el manejo del agua) que deben someterse a debate, puesto que no se constata su vigencia en el conjunto de huertas a lo largo de los siglos xiii-xviii

4 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The efficient management of water for agriculture is important to solve water shortage. To address this situation, in 2009, small irrigation systems were analyzed in order to understand the peasant logic in technological practices and agreements on water management in the state of Puebla, Mexico. Through a statistical sample of 105 producers, information was collected through a questionnaire on social variables of the producers, infrastructure and operation of the irrigation systems. Agricultural practices such as spatial and temporal arrangements in crops, diversification, rotation, and use of the irrigation tip were identified, as well as loan and water purchase arrangements, distribution of water by shifts and works to clean the channels. It was concluded that there are successes and limitations in the logic deployed by producers to address the problems of water shortage, infrastructure and operation of irrigation systems which can serve as a basis for interventions.

1 citations

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01 Jan 1985
Abstract: Donald Worster examines the development history of the American West, identifying the elite of technology and wealth who have controlled its most essential resource: water.

647 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The provision and production of many public goods and services involve the joint effort of government officials and citizen-users. This paper examines the successful experience of irrigation governance and management in Taiwan as a means of understanding how joint efforts can be established and sustained through institutional arrangements. Several principles for institutional design, including a careful definition of the scope of farmers' participation, complementarity of interests between individuals, reduction of asymmetries involved in the use of authority, and the existence of domains of autonomy are identified as instrumental to the success in Taiwan.

219 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Karl Wittfogel's writings on the evolution of irrigation systems are examined in light of his distinction between hydraulic and hydroagricultural systems. Wittfogel recognized that different hydraulic conditions allowed for the development of different types of irrigation systems: hydraulic societies have tended to develop in massive riverine environments, while hydroagricultural societies have tended to develop along smaller water sources in regions where geographical features hydraulically compartmentalized the countryside. Robert Hunt's recent refutation of Wittfogel's model is examined in light of Wittfogel's own writings about the size and density of hydraulic and hydroagricultural societies. It is argued that Hunt's critique of Wittfogel's model fails because it ignores the specific variables which Wittfogel postulated as primarily influencing the administrative character of irrigation societies. ISSUES OF IRRIGATION and power have played an important role in the development of materialist cross-cultural theory building ever since Marx and Engels first recognized that the irrigation-based economies of Asia had evolved differently from those of the feudal and capitalist West (Krader 1975). In the late 1950s and 1960s, Karl Wittfogel's "hydraulic" theory strongly influenced anthropological theories of state formation. Though Wittfogel's theory of the hydraulic state and "Oriental despotism" were partly derived from Marx and Engels's writings, Wittfogel's theories must be seen as having distinct epistemological and political roots. In the last few decades, Wittfogel's theories have been summarily dismissed by critics who claim that small-scale irrigation societies have evolved around the world without developing into the hydraulic states purportedly predicted by Wittfogel. I believe that Wittfogel's critics have unfairly ignored much of his thought by not addressing his distinction between hydraulic and hydroagricultural societies.1 This paper reexamines the theoretical basis of Wittfogel's model and tries to clarify exactly what Wittfogel claimed about the determinative role of irrigation in social formation. Robert Hunt's (1988) critique of Wittfogel's model is examined in light of Wittfogel's writings on hydraulic density and his distinction between hydraulic and hydroagricultural economies. Specifically, it is shown that Hunt's dismissal of Wittfogel's theory due to the localized management exhibited by many contemporary irrigation systems is premature.

87 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
William W. Kelly1
Abstract: Sharer, Robert J., and Arlen F. Chase 1976 New Town Ceramic Complex. In Prehistoric Pottery Analysis and the Ceramics of Barton Ramie. Peabody Museum Memoirs, Vol. 18. Cambridge: Harvard University. Smith, Robert E. 1971 The Pottery of Mayapan. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 66. Thompson, J. Eric S. 1970 Maya History and Religion. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 1981 The Itza of Tayasal, Peten. In Ancient Mesoamerica, Selected Readings. J. A. Graham, ed. pp. 297-303. Palo Alto, Calif.: Peek Publications. (Orig. 1951.) VonDaniken, Erich 1974 Chariots of the Gods? New York:

53 citations

01 Jan 1993

30 citations