04 Mar 2021-Vol. 2, Iss: 3, pp 035005

Abstract: In the next decade, the demands for computing in large scientific experiments are expected to grow tremendously. During the same time period, CPU performance increases will be limited. At the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), these two issues will confront one another as the collider is upgraded for high luminosity running. Alternative processors such as graphics processing units (GPUs) can resolve this confrontation provided that algorithms can be sufficiently accelerated. In many cases, algorithmic speedups are found to be largest through the adoption of deep learning algorithms. We present a comprehensive exploration of the use of GPU-based hardware acceleration for deep learning inference within the data reconstruction workflow of high energy physics. We present several realistic examples and discuss a strategy for the seamless integration of coprocessors so that the LHC can maintain, if not exceed, its current performance throughout its running.

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Topics: Hardware acceleration (55%), Large Hadron Collider (52%), Coprocessor (52%) ... show more

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11 results found

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Abstract: Machine learning methods have a long history of applications in high energy physics (HEP). Recently, there is a growing interest in exploiting these methods to reconstruct particle signatures from raw detector data. In order to benefit from modern deep learning algorithms that were initially designed for computer vision or natural language processing tasks, it is common practice to transform HEP data into images or sequences. Conversely, graph neural networks (GNNs), which operate on graph data composed of elements with a set of features and their pairwise connections, provide an alternative way of incorporating weight sharing, local connectivity, and specialized domain knowledge. Particle physics data, such as the hits in a tracking detector, can generally be represented as graphs, making the use of GNNs natural. In this chapter, we recapitulate the mathematical formalism of GNNs and highlight aspects to consider when designing these networks for HEP data, including graph construction, model architectures, learning objectives, and graph pooling. We also review promising applications of GNNs for particle tracking and reconstruction in HEP and summarize the outlook for their deployment in current and future experiments.

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Topics: Deep learning (55%), Domain knowledge (50%)

21 Citations

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Abstract: We develop and study FPGA implementations of algorithms for charged particle tracking based on graph neural networks. The two complementary FPGA designs are based on OpenCL, a framework for writing programs that execute across heterogeneous platforms, and hls4ml, a high-level-synthesis-based compiler for neural network to firmware conversion. We evaluate and compare the resource usage, latency, and tracking performance of our implementations based on a benchmark dataset. We find a considerable speedup over CPU-based execution is possible, potentially enabling such algorithms to be used effectively in future computing workflows and the FPGA-based Level-1 trigger at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

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Topics: Speedup (53%), Firmware (51%), Artificial neural network (51%) ... show more

15 Citations

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Joosep Pata^{1}, Javier Duarte^{2}, Jean-Roch Vlimant^{3}, Maurizio Pierini^{1} +1 more•Institutions (3)

Abstract: In general-purpose particle detectors, the particle-flow algorithm may be used to reconstruct a comprehensive particle-level view of the event by combining information from the calorimeters and the trackers, significantly improving the detector resolution for jets and the missing transverse momentum. In view of the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it is necessary to revisit existing reconstruction algorithms and ensure that both the physics and computational performance are sufficient in an environment with many simultaneous proton-proton interactions (pileup). Machine learning may offer a prospect for computationally efficient event reconstruction that is well-suited to heterogeneous computing platforms, while significantly improving the reconstruction quality over rule-based algorithms for granular detectors. We introduce MLPF, a novel, end-to-end trainable, machine-learned particle-flow algorithm based on parallelizable, computationally efficient, and scalable graph neural networks optimized using a multi-task objective on simulated events. We report the physics and computational performance of the MLPF algorithm on a Monte Carlo dataset of top quark-antiquark pairs produced in proton-proton collisions in conditions similar to those expected for the high-luminosity LHC. The MLPF algorithm improves the physics response with respect to a rule-based benchmark algorithm and demonstrates computationally scalable particle-flow reconstruction in a high-pileup environment.

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Topics: Event reconstruction (61%), Large Hadron Collider (51%), Benchmark (computing) (50%)

7 Citations

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Abstract: Recent work has demonstrated that geometric deep learning methods such as graph neural networks (GNNs) are well suited to address a variety of reconstruction problems in high energy particle physics. In particular, particle tracking data is naturally represented as a graph by identifying silicon tracker hits as nodes and particle trajectories as edges; given a set of hypothesized edges, edge-classifying GNNs identify those corresponding to real particle trajectories. In this work, we adapt the physics-motivated interaction network (IN) GNN toward the problem of particle tracking in pileup conditions similar to those expected at the high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider. Assuming idealized hit filtering at various particle momenta thresholds, we demonstrate the IN's excellent edge-classification accuracy and tracking efficiency through a suite of measurements at each stage of GNN-based tracking: graph construction, edge classification, and track building. The proposed IN architecture is substantially smaller than previously studied GNN tracking architectures; this is particularly promising as a reduction in size is critical for enabling GNN-based tracking in constrained computing environments. Furthermore, the IN may be represented as either a set of explicit matrix operations or a message passing GNN. Efforts are underway to accelerate each representation via heterogeneous computing resources towards both high-level and low-latency triggering applications.

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Topics: High energy particle (57%), Tracking (particle physics) (57%), Graph (abstract data type) (53%)

6 Citations

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Abstract: In general-purpose particle detectors, the particle-flow algorithm may be used to reconstruct a comprehensive particle-level view of the event by combining information from the calorimeters and the trackers, significantly improving the detector resolution for jets and the missing transverse momentum. In view of the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it is necessary to revisit existing reconstruction algorithms and ensure that both the physics and computational performance are sufficient in an environment with many simultaneous proton–proton interactions (pileup). Machine learning may offer a prospect for computationally efficient event reconstruction that is well-suited to heterogeneous computing platforms, while significantly improving the reconstruction quality over rule-based algorithms for granular detectors. We introduce MLPF, a novel, end-to-end trainable, machine-learned particle-flow algorithm based on parallelizable, computationally efficient, and scalable graph neural network optimized using a multi-task objective on simulated events. We report the physics and computational performance of the MLPF algorithm on a Monte Carlo dataset of top quark–antiquark pairs produced in proton–proton collisions in conditions similar to those expected for the high-luminosity LHC. The MLPF algorithm improves the physics response with respect to a rule-based benchmark algorithm and demonstrates computationally scalable particle-flow reconstruction in a high-pileup environment.

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Topics: Event reconstruction (60%), Large Hadron Collider (51%)

6 Citations

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102 results found

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27 Jun 2016-

Abstract: Deeper neural networks are more difficult to train. We present a residual learning framework to ease the training of networks that are substantially deeper than those used previously. We explicitly reformulate the layers as learning residual functions with reference to the layer inputs, instead of learning unreferenced functions. We provide comprehensive empirical evidence showing that these residual networks are easier to optimize, and can gain accuracy from considerably increased depth. On the ImageNet dataset we evaluate residual nets with a depth of up to 152 layers—8× deeper than VGG nets [40] but still having lower complexity. An ensemble of these residual nets achieves 3.57% error on the ImageNet test set. This result won the 1st place on the ILSVRC 2015 classification task. We also present analysis on CIFAR-10 with 100 and 1000 layers. The depth of representations is of central importance for many visual recognition tasks. Solely due to our extremely deep representations, we obtain a 28% relative improvement on the COCO object detection dataset. Deep residual nets are foundations of our submissions to ILSVRC & COCO 2015 competitions1, where we also won the 1st places on the tasks of ImageNet detection, ImageNet localization, COCO detection, and COCO segmentation.

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Topics: Deep learning (53%), Residual (53%), Convolutional neural network (53%) ... show more

93,356 Citations

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01 Jan 2015-

Abstract: We introduce Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. The method is straightforward to implement, is computationally efficient, has little memory requirements, is invariant to diagonal rescaling of the gradients, and is well suited for problems that are large in terms of data and/or parameters. The method is also appropriate for non-stationary objectives and problems with very noisy and/or sparse gradients. The hyper-parameters have intuitive interpretations and typically require little tuning. Some connections to related algorithms, on which Adam was inspired, are discussed. We also analyze the theoretical convergence properties of the algorithm and provide a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework. Empirical results demonstrate that Adam works well in practice and compares favorably to other stochastic optimization methods. Finally, we discuss AdaMax, a variant of Adam based on the infinity norm.

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Topics: Stochastic optimization (63%), Convex optimization (54%), Rate of convergence (52%) ... show more

78,539 Citations

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06 Jul 2015-

Abstract: Training Deep Neural Networks is complicated by the fact that the distribution of each layer's inputs changes during training, as the parameters of the previous layers change. This slows down the training by requiring lower learning rates and careful parameter initialization, and makes it notoriously hard to train models with saturating nonlinearities. We refer to this phenomenon as internal covariate shift, and address the problem by normalizing layer inputs. Our method draws its strength from making normalization a part of the model architecture and performing the normalization for each training mini-batch. Batch Normalization allows us to use much higher learning rates and be less careful about initialization, and in some cases eliminates the need for Dropout. Applied to a state-of-the-art image classification model, Batch Normalization achieves the same accuracy with 14 times fewer training steps, and beats the original model by a significant margin. Using an ensemble of batch-normalized networks, we improve upon the best published result on ImageNet classification: reaching 4.82% top-5 test error, exceeding the accuracy of human raters.

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Topics: Normalization (statistics) (61%), Initialization (52%)

23,723 Citations

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Abstract: Training Deep Neural Networks is complicated by the fact that the distribution of each layer's inputs changes during training, as the parameters of the previous layers change. This slows down the training by requiring lower learning rates and careful parameter initialization, and makes it notoriously hard to train models with saturating nonlinearities. We refer to this phenomenon as internal covariate shift, and address the problem by normalizing layer inputs. Our method draws its strength from making normalization a part of the model architecture and performing the normalization for each training mini-batch. Batch Normalization allows us to use much higher learning rates and be less careful about initialization. It also acts as a regularizer, in some cases eliminating the need for Dropout. Applied to a state-of-the-art image classification model, Batch Normalization achieves the same accuracy with 14 times fewer training steps, and beats the original model by a significant margin. Using an ensemble of batch-normalized networks, we improve upon the best published result on ImageNet classification: reaching 4.9% top-5 validation error (and 4.8% test error), exceeding the accuracy of human raters.

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Topics: Normalization (statistics) (61%), Vanishing gradient problem (53%), Initialization (52%)

17,151 Citations

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28 Sep 2011-

Abstract: Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.

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Topics: NIST (62%), Community cloud (59%), Cloud computing (59%) ... show more

14,469 Citations