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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.JPCLETT.1C00205

Grain Size Influences Activation Energy and Migration Pathways in MAPbBr3 Perovskite Solar Cells.

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (American Chemical Society (ACS))-Vol. 12, Iss: 9, pp 2423-2428
Abstract: Ion migration in perovskite layers can significantly reduce the long-term stability of the devices. While perovskite composition engineering has proven an interesting tool to mitigate ion migration, many optoelectronic devices require a specific bandgap and thus require a specific perovskite composition. Here, we look at the effect of grain size to mitigate ion migration. We find that in MAPbBr3 solar cells prepared with grain sizes varying from 2 to 11 μm the activation energy for bromide ion migration increases from 0.17 to 0.28 eV. Moreover, we observe the appearance of a second bromide ion migration pathway for the devices with largest grain size, which we attribute to ion migration mediated by the bulk of the perovskite, as opposed to ion migration mediated by the grain boundaries. Together, these results suggest the beneficial nature of grain engineering for reduction of ion migration in perovskite solar cells.

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Topics: Perovskite (structure) (57%), Grain boundary (53%), Grain size (51%)
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8 results found



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/D1EE01508G
Saba Gharibzadeh1, Paul Fassl1, Ihteaz M. Hossain1, Pascal Rohrbeck2  +14 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Advancing inverted (p–i–n) perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is key to further enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of flexible and perovskite-based tandem photovoltaics. Yet, the presence of defects at grain boundaries and in particular interfacial recombination at the perovskite/electron transporting layer interface induce severe non-radiative recombination losses, limiting the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (FF) of PSCs in this architecture. In this work, we introduce a dual passivation strategy using the long chain alkylammonium salt phenethylammonium chloride (PEACl) both as an additive and for surface treatment to simultaneously passivate the grain boundaries and the perovskite/C60 interface. Using [2-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethyl]phosphonic acid (2PACz) as a hole transporting layer and a methylammonium (MA)-free Cs0.18FA0.82PbI3 perovskite absorber with a bandgap of ∼1.57 eV, prolonged charge carrier lifetime and an on average 63 meV enhanced internal quasi-Fermi level splitting are achieved upon dual passivation compared to reference p–i–n PSCs. Thereby, we achieve one of the highest PCEs for p–i–n PSCs of 22.7% (stabilized at 22.3%) by advancing simultaneously the VOC and FF up to 1.162 V and 83.2%, respectively. Using a variety of experimental techniques, we attribute the positive effects to the formation of a heterogeneous 2D Ruddlesden–Popper (PEA)2(Cs1−xFAx)n−1Pbn(I1−yCly)3n+1 phase at the grain boundaries and surface of the perovskite films. At the same time, the activation energy for ion migration is significantly increased, resulting in enhanced stability of the PSCs under light, humidity, and thermal stress. The presented dual passivation strategy highlights the importance of defect management both in the grain boundaries and the surface of the perovskite absorber layer using a proper passivation material to achieve both highly efficient and stable inverted p–i–n PSCs.

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Topics: Perovskite (structure) (56%), Passivation (56%), Grain boundary (52%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S12613-021-2341-Z
Abstract: Metal halide perovskite solar cells have attracted considerable attention because of their high-power conversion efficiency and cost-effective solution-processable fabrication; however, they exhibit poor structural stability. Two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden—Popper (RP) perovskites could address the aforementioned issue and present excellent stability because of their hydrophobic organic spacer cations. However, the crystallographic orientation of 2D crystals should be perpendicular to the bottom substrates for charges to transport fast and be collected in solar cells. Moreover, controlling the crystallographic orientation of the 2D RP perovskites prepared by the solution process is difficult. Herein, we reviewed the progress of recent research regarding 2D RP perovskite films with the focus on the crystallographic orientation mechanism and orientation controlling methods. Furthermore, the current issues and prospects of 2D RP perovskites in the photovoltaic field were discussed to elucidate their development and application in the future.

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3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/CPLU.202100204
Lijun Su1, Maria Méndez, Jesús Jiménez-López, Miaoli Zhu1  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Sep 2021-ChemPlusChem
Abstract: Previous studies have revealed that for some perovskite compositions, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) improved after storing the devices in different ambient conditions. With the aim of better understanding such improvements, we focus our attention on the carrier/ionic dynamic kinetics of fresh and aged PSCs with different perovskite compositions (MAPbI3 and MAPbBr3 ) and using spiro-OMeTAD as HTM. For that, we use transient photovoltage (TPV), a technique used to analyse the different recombination kinetics at equilibrium and at different illumination times. We observe that the aging treatment causes significant changes on the kinetics behaviour for bromide-based devices, resulting in a positive influence on the cell performance (from 3.5 % to 6.1 % PCE, in reverse scan). However, the kinetics for those iodide-based perovskite solar cells remains unchangeable (from 16.3 % to 15.0 % PCE, in reverse scan).

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Topics: Perovskite (structure) (52%)

1 Citations



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28 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.4864778
Abstract: Thin-film solar cells based on Methylammonium triiodideplumbate (CH3NH3PbI3) halide perovskites have recently shown remarkable performance First-principle calculations show that CH3NH3PbI3 has unusual defect physics: (i) Different from common p-type thin-film solar cell absorbers, it exhibits flexible conductivity from good p-type, intrinsic to good n-type depending on the growth conditions; (ii) Dominant intrinsic defects create only shallow levels, which partially explain the long electron-hole diffusion length and high open-circuit voltage in solar cell The unusual defect properties can be attributed to the strong Pb lone-pair s orbital and I p orbital antibonding coupling and the high ionicity of CH3NH3PbI3

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1,716 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NCOMMS8497
Abstract: Understanding the mechanism of ionic transport in organic–inorganic halide perovskites is crucial for the design of future solar cells. Here, Eames et al. undertake a combined experimental and computational study to elucidate the ion conducting species and help rationalize the unusual behaviour observed in these perovskite-based devices.

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Topics: Perovskite (structure) (55%)

1,605 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/C6EE00413J
Yuchuan Shao1, Yanjun Fang1, Tao Li1, Qi Wang1  +8 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The efficiency of perovskite solar cells is approaching that of single-crystalline silicon solar cells despite the presence of a large grain boundary (GB) area in the polycrystalline thin films. Here, by using a combination of nanoscopic and macroscopic level measurements, we show that ion migration in polycrystalline perovskites dominates through GBs. Atomic force microscopy measurements reveal much stronger hysteresis both for photocurrent and dark-current at the GBs than on the grain interiors, which can be explained by faster ion migration at the GBs. The dramatically enhanced ion migration results in the redistribution of ions along the GBs after electric poling, in contrast to the intact grain area. The perovskite single-crystal devices without GBs show negligible current hysteresis and no ion-migration signal. The discovery of dominating ion migration through GBs in perovskites can lead to broad applications in many types of devices including photovoltaics, memristors, and ion batteries.

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Topics: Grain boundary (55%), Perovskite (structure) (54%)

643 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.4824147
10 Oct 2013-APL Materials
Abstract: The performance of perovskite solar cells recently exceeded 15% solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency for small-area devices. The fundamental properties of the active absorber layers, hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites formed from mixing metal and organic halides [e.g., (NH4)PbI3 and (CH3NH3)PbI3], are largely unknown. The materials are semiconductors with direct band gaps at the boundary of the first Brillouin zone. The calculated dielectric constants and band gaps show an orientation dependence, with a low barrier for rotation of the organic cations. Due to the electric dipole of the methylammonium cation, a photoferroic effect may be accessible, which could enhance carrier collection.

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Topics: Hybrid solar cell (60%), Perovskite (structure) (58%), Band gap (58%) ... show more

489 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1039/C6EE03352K
Konrad Domanski1, Bart Roose2, Taisuke Matsui3, Michael Saliba1  +16 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: Perovskites have been demonstrated in solar cells with a power conversion efficiency of well above 20%, which makes them one of the strongest contenders for next generation photovoltaics. While there are no concerns about their efficiency, very little is known about their stability under illumination and load. Ionic defects and their migration in the perovskite crystal lattice are some of the most alarming sources of degradation, which can potentially prevent the commercialization of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In this work, we provide direct evidence of electric field-induced ionic defect migration and we isolate their effect on the long-term performance of state-of-the-art devices. Supported by modelling, we demonstrate that ionic defects, migrating on timescales significantly longer (above 103 s) than what has so far been explored (from 10−1 to 102 s), abate the initial efficiency by 10–15% after several hours of operation at the maximum power point. Though these losses are not negligible, we prove that the initial efficiency is fully recovered when leaving the device in the dark for a comparable amount of time. We verified this behaviour over several cycles resembling day/night phases, thus probing the stability of PSCs under native working conditions. This unusual behaviour reveals that research and industrial standards currently in use to assess the performance and the stability of solar cells need to be adjusted for PSCs. Our work paves the way for much needed new testing protocols and figures of merit specifically designed for PSCs.

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Topics: Photovoltaics (52%)

376 Citations


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