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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MA14051208

Granite Powder vs. Fly Ash for the Sustainable Production of Air-Cured Cementitious Mortars.

04 Mar 2021-Materials (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 14, Iss: 5, pp 1208
Abstract: The partial replacement of cement in concrete with the addition of granite powder and fly ash can help to reduce the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere associated with cement production. The aim of the article is to compare the performance of granite powder and fly ash for the sustainable production of air-cured cementitious mortars. The morphological, chemical, and granulometric properties of these additives were first compared with the properties of cement. Afterward, a series of mortars modified with the addition of granite powder and fly ash was made. The properties of the fresh mixes and the mechanical properties of the hardened composites were then tested. Finally, based on the obtained results, a cost analysis of the profitability of modifying cementitious composites with granite powder or fly ash was investigated. The obtained results allow similarities and differences between granite powder and fly ash in relation to cement to be shown. To conclude, it should be stated that both of these materials can successfully be used for the sustainable production of air-cured cementitious composites. This conclusion has a significant impact on the possibility of improving the natural environment by reducing the amount of cement production. More sustainable production of cement-based materials could enable CO2 emissions to be decreased. The use of granite powder for the production of cementitious mortars can significantly reduce the amount of this material deposited in landfills.

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Topics: Fly ash (62%), Cementitious (60%), Cement (57%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MA14133640
29 Jun 2021-Materials
Abstract: The use of fly ash in cement composites adversely affects its mechanical properties during the first days of mixture curing. Modern technology, in the form of an admixture containing the hydrated calcium silicates, allows to accelerate the hardening and binding process of concrete. In this paper, studies on the influence of the admixture on properties of concretes with the ordinary Portland cements (OPC) containing the addition of siliceous fly ash (FA) have been carried out. As part of the experimental research, the authors conducted a series of studies for cement pastes modified with the addition of FA and the CSH nano-admixture (NA). In order to compare the mixtures, the following tests of cement pastes were carried out: the compressive and flexural strength, heat of hydration, SEM and rheological shrinkage. The mechanical parameters were tested after 4, 8, 12 and 24 h. The hydration heat test and microstructure analysis were carried out during the first 24 h of the concrete curing. All tests were carried out on the standard samples. On the basis of the heat of hydration test, much higher hydration heat was found in mixtures modified with the NA. During the shrinkage test, a positive effect of the NA was observed-the shrinkage during the first 28 days of mixture curing was lower than in the reference samples. The application of the CSH nano-admixture to cement pastes with the addition of FA has brought positive effects. Apart from a significant increase in strength in the first 24 h of mixture curing, a reduction in the rheological shrinkage was observed. The admixture can be successfully used in the ash concretes, in which a higher early strength is required.

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Topics: Cement (57%), Fly ash (56%), Shrinkage (56%) ... show more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/EN14154558
28 Jul 2021-Energies
Abstract: The article presents studies of plain concretes prepared based on a quaternary binder containing various percentages of selected supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). The possibilities of nanotechnology in concrete technology were also used. An additional important environmental goal of the proposed solution was to create the possibility of reducing CO2 emissions and the carbon footprint generated during the production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). As the main substitute for the OPC, siliceous fly ash (FA) was used. Moreover, silica fume (SF) and nanosilica (nS) were also used. During examinations, the main mechanical properties of composites, i.e., compressive strength (fcm) and splitting tensile strength (fctm), were assessed. The microstructure of these materials was also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition to the experimental research, simulations of the possible reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, as a result of the proposed solutions, were also carried out. It was found that the quaternary concrete is characterized by a well-developed structure and has high values of mechanical parameters. Furthermore, the use of green concrete based on quaternary binders enables a significant reduction in CO2 emissions. Therefore quaternary green concrete containing SCMs could be a useful alternative to plain concretes covering both the technical and environmental aspects. The present study indicates that quaternary binders can perform better than OPC as far as mechanical properties and microstructures are concerned. Therefore they can be used during the production of durable concretes used to perform structures in traditional and industrial construction.

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Topics: Silica fume (54%), Portland cement (53%), Compressive strength (52%) ... show more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CONBUILDMAT.2021.125021
Hongwei Song1, Ayaz Ahmad2, Furqan Farooq2, Krzysztof Ostrowski  +3 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: The cementitious composites have different properties in the changing environment. Thus, knowing their mechanical properties is very important for safety reasons. The most important in the case of concrete is the Compressive strength (CS). To predict the CS of concrete Machine learning (ML) approaches has been essential. This study includes the collection of data from the experimental work and the application of ML techniques to predict the CS of concrete containing fly ash. The chemical and physical properties of all the materials used in this study were evaluated. Although, the emphasis of this research is on the use of supervised machine learning algorithms to forecast the CS of concrete. The Gene expression programming (GEP), Artificial neural network (ANN), and Decision tree (DT) algorithms were investigated for the prediction of outcome (CS). Concrete samples (cylinders) with different mix ratios were cast and tested at various ages to maintain the required data for applying it to run the models. Total 98 data points were collected from the experimental approach, in which seven parameters namely cement, fly ash, superplasticizer, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, water, and days were taken as input to predict the output which was CS parameter. The experimental data is further validated by mean of k-fold cross-validation using R2, root mean error (RME), and Root mean square error (RMSE). In addition, statistical checks were incorporated to evaluate the model performance. In comparison, the bagging algorithm shows high accuracy towards the prediction of outcome as indicated by its high coefficient correlation (R2) value equals to 0.95, while R2 value for GEP, ANN and DT comes to 0.86, 0.81 and 0.75 respectively.

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Topics: Superplasticizer (53%), Aggregate (composite) (50%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S40684-021-00377-W
Abstract: Nowadays, the recycled fine aggregate sourced from construction and demolition waste is not frequently used in manufacturing of epoxy resin coatings. Therefore, the main novelty of the article is to prepare green epoxy resin coatings modified with recycled fine aggregate in a replacement ratio of natural fine aggregate ranged from 20 to 100%. The microstructural properties of the aggregates and epoxy resin were analyzed using micro-computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and nanoindentation. The macroscopic mechanical properties were examined using pull-off strength tests. The highest improvement of the mechanical properties was observed for epoxy resin coatings modified with 20% of natural fine aggregate and 80% of recycled fine aggregate. It has been found that even 100% of natural fine aggregate can be successfully replaced using the recycled fine aggregate with consequent improvement of the pull-off strength of analyzed epoxy resin coatings. In order to confirm the assumptions resulting from the conducted research, an original analytical and numerical failure model proved the superior behavior of modified coating was developed.

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Topics: Epoxy (58%), Aggregate (composite) (54%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJADHADH.2021.103009
Abstract: One of the most important adhesive properties of coatings is their pull-off strength. The research investigated the effect of quartz powders on the adhesive properties of epoxy resin coatings. As a filler to epoxy resin, three fractions of quartz powders were used. The main aim of the research was to determine the effect of the amount and particle size of the waste quartz powder on the adhesive properties of epoxy resin. Three series of epoxy resin coatings were carried out with the content of each of the three selected waste quartz powders in a weight amount from 0% to 29%. The coatings were made on a concrete substrate with two surface treatment methods (raw and ground). The adhesive properties of the coatings were tested using the pull-off method, determining the pull-off strength value according to ASTM D4541 . The average pull-off strength of the modified coatings ranged from 2.48 to 3.36 MPa, and the reference coatings (without the waste quartz powder) from 2.89 to 2.91 MPa. Studies have shown that all selected types of waste quartz powder can be used as potential fillers in epoxy coatings in an amount of up to 29% by weight of the coating mass, without significantly deteriorating the adhesion of this coating.

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Topics: Epoxy (61%), Adhesive (54%), Coating (53%)

References
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28 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2012.10.049
Abstract: Cement industry has been always among the largest CO2 emission sources. Almost 5–7% of global CO2 emissions are caused by cement plants, while 900 kg CO2 is emitted to the atmosphere for producing one ton of cement. In this work, global strategies and potentials toward mitigation of CO2 emissions in cement plant have been discussed and the most promising approaches have been introduced. Moreover the barriers against worldwide deployment of such strategies are identified and comprehensively described. Three strategies of CO2 reduction including energy saving, carbon separation and storage as well as utilizing alternative materials in detail have been reviewed. In case of energy saving approaches, shifting to more efficient process for example from wet to dry process with calciner, shows the best results since potentially reduces up to 50% of required energy and mitigates almost 20% of CO2 emissions in the process. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also considered as an effective way to avoid release of CO2. However economical and technical challenges still play a remarkable obstacle against implementing such processes in the cement plant. As far as alternative materials are the case, utilizing waste-derived fuel (WDF) and industrial by-products instead of conventional fuels and materials result in the significant emission mitigation. Industrial wastes which can be used as both fuel and raw material simultaneously mitigate emissions in cement plants and landfills.

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639 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSER.2011.01.005
Abstract: The cement sub-sector consumes approximately 12–15% of total industrial energy use. Therefore, a state of art review on the energy use and savings is necessary to identify energy wastage so that necessary measures could be implemented to reduce energy consumption in this sub-sector. In this paper energy use at different sections of cement industries, specific energy consumption, types of energy use, details of cement manufacturing processes, various energy savings measures were reviewed and presented. Various energy savings measures were critically analyzed considering amount of energy that can be saved along with the implementation cost. Amount of CO2 reduction has been presented along with the payback period for different energy savings measures as well. This study complied a comprehensive literature on the cement industries in terms of Thesis (MS and PhD), peer reviewed journals papers, conference proceedings, books, reports, websites. It has been observed that China producing major share of global cement production. Coal contribute major share of fuel used in cement industries. However, along with conventional fuels, industries are moving towards the use of alternative fuels to reduce environmental pollution. It was reported that cement industries are moving from wet process to dry process as it consume less energy compared to wet process.

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Topics: Energy accounting (63%), Energy consumption (59%), Energy conservation (59%) ... show more

426 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSER.2011.02.014
M.B. Ali1, Rahman Saidur1, Md. Sazzad Hossain1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The cement subsector consumes approximately 12–15% of the total industrial energy use. Therefore, this subsector releases CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as a result of burning fossil fuels to produce energy needed for the cement manufacturing process. The cement industry contributes about 7% of the total worldwide CO2 emissions. This study complied a comprehensive literature in terms of Thesis (MS and PhD), peer reviewed journals papers, conference proceedings, books, reports, websites for emission generation and mitigation technique. Emission released associated with the burning of fuels have been presented in this paper. Different sources of emissions in a cement industry has been identified and presented in this study. Different techniques to reduce CO2 emissions from the cement manufacturing industries are reviewed and presented in this paper. The major techniques are: capture and storage CO2 emissions, reducing clinker/cement ratio by replacing clinker with different of additives and using alternative fuels instead of fossil fuels. Apart from these techniques, various energy savings measures in cement industries expected to reduce indirect emissions released to the atmosphere. Based on review results it was found that sizeable amount of emission can be mitigated using different techniques and energy savings measures.

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Topics: Clinker (cement) (54%), Fossil fuel (52%)

370 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSER.2013.02.024
Abstract: The proper use of alternative fuels and materials in the cement industry is essential for the planning and promotion of different methods that can decrease the environmental impacts, lower the consumption of energy and material resources, and reduce the economic costs of this industry. Because of the great potential for the cement industry to save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), many new research advances associated with the promising approach of introducing waste materials as alternative fuels or sustainable raw materials into the cement manufacturing process have been developed in recent years. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to provide a literature review of these approaches based on previously published research studies. The analysis is specially focused on the technical, economic, and environmental effects of the uses of five solid wastes, namely, municipal solid waste (MSW), meat and bone animal meal (MBM), sewage sludge (SS), biomass, and end-of-life tyres (ELT), in the cement industry.

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Topics: Co-processing (60%), Municipal solid waste (56%)

189 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CEMCONCOMP.2008.06.003
Abstract: The cement industry has for some time been seeking procedures that would effectively reduce the high energy and environmental costs of cement manufacture. One such procedure is the use of alternative materials as partial replacements for fuel, raw materials or even clinker. The present study explores the reactivity and burnability of cement raw mixes containing fired red or white ceramic wall tile wastes and combinations of the two as alternative raw materials. The results showed that the new raw mixes containing this kind of waste to be technically viable, and to have higher reactivity and burnability than a conventional mix, providing that the particle size of the waste used is lower than 90 μm. The mineralogical composition and distribution in the experimental clinker prepared were comparable to the properties of the clinker manufactured with conventional raw materials. Due to the presence of oxides such as ZnO, ZrO 2 and B 2 O 3 in tile glazing, the content of these oxides was higher in clinker made with such waste. The mix of red and white ceramic wall tile waste was found to perform equally or better than each type of waste separately, a promising indication that separation of the two would be unnecessary for the purpose described above.

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Topics: Clinker (waste) (61%), Co-processing (61%), Portland cement (57%) ... show more

178 Citations


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