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Journal ArticleDOI

Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland

01 Feb 2012-Journal of Public Health Policy (Palgrave Macmillan UK)-Vol. 33, Iss: 1, pp 46-58
TL;DR: Analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey data and translation of laws and original source material finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country.
Abstract: The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Psychosocial factors known to be associated with the increased risk of suicidal behavior in general are reviewed and how some of these factors may be especially important in understanding suicide among soldiers are described.
Abstract: Suicide is difficult to predict and prevent and remains a leading cause of death worldwide. Although soldiers historically have had a suicide rate well below that of the general population, the suicide rate among members of the U.S. Army has increased markedly over the past several years and now exceeds that of the general population. This paper reviews psychosocial factors known to be associated with the increased risk of suicidal behavior in general and describes how some of these factors may be especially important in understanding suicide among soldiers. Moving forward, the prevention of suicide requires additional research aimed at: (a) better describing when, where, and among whom suicidal behavior occurs, (b) using exploratory studies to discover new risk and protective factors, (c) developing new methods of predicting suicidal behavior that synthesize information about modifiable risk and protective factors from multiple domains, and (d) understanding the mechanisms and pathways through which suic...

296 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...In support of this suggestion, suicide among soldiers in the Israeli Army decreased by 40% following reforms in 2006 that decreased soldiers’ access to firearms on weekends (Rosenbaum, 2012)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The final communications of two mass murderers are analyzed to demonstrate that the forensic psycholinguistic approach may assist in providing an enhanced understanding of the motives, psychopathology, and classification of mass murderers whose offenses can seem similar from a purely behavioral perspective.

35 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Firearm-related suicide attempt injuries are more common in states with less strict gun laws, and these injuries tend to be associated with a higher mortality, particularly for young adults and suicide-prone populations.

29 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Leveraging EHR data for spatial and temporal analytics may be a widely applicable strategy for infection control and quality improvement at other institutions and for other infectious diseases.
Abstract: This analysis of the Global Terrorism Database evaluates differences in the use of firearms in terrorist attacks between the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand.

13 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Characteristics of violence-related casualties differed significantly among diverse ethnic populations living in the same country, and each population group showed specific attributes regarding injury mechanism, circumstances, severity and hospital utilization.
Abstract: Populations of different ethnicity and country of origin living in the same country may possess particular features of violence-related injuries. This study aims to compare violence-related injury characteristics and circumstances, hospital resource utilization and in-hospital mortality among the major ethnic groups in Israel. A study based on the Israeli National Trauma Registry database of patients hospitalized due to violence-related injuries between 2008 and 2017. Data included demographic, injury and hospitalization characteristics and in-hospital mortality. Statistical analysis included χ2-test and multiple logistic regression. During the study period, 16,151 violence related-hospitalizations were reported, of which; 46.1% were Arab Israelis (AI), 3.2% were Israelis born in Ethiopia (IBE), 12.7% were Israelis born in the former Soviet Union (IBFSU) and 38.0% were all other Israelis (AOI). The proportion of violence-related hospitalizations among AI, IBE and IBFSU was greater than their respective proportion in the Israeli population. In comparison to the other groups, stab injuries were significantly greater among IBE (30% vs 39%); unarmed brawl-related injuries were greater among IBFSU (22–41% vs 49%) and firearm injuries were greatest among AI (2–8% vs 23%). These differences in violence mechanism persisted even after accounting for age, gender, injury place and time differences. The foreign born groups had higher rates for injuries sustained on the street/road (58% for IBE, 54% for IBFSU vs 46% for AI and AOI, each), with IBE also showing higher rates for weekend and weeknight injuries compared to the other groups (83% vs 71–75%). IBE were more likely to suffer from severe and critical injuries (19% vs 12–16%), to be admitted to the intensive care unit (17% vs 9–11%) and to have prolonged hospital stays of seven days or more (20% vs 16–17%), with no significant difference in in-hospital mortality between the comparison groups. Characteristics of violence-related casualties differed significantly among diverse ethnic populations living in the same country. Each population group showed specific attributes regarding injury mechanism, circumstances, severity and hospital utilization. Violence prevention programs should be culturally adapted and take into account ethnicity and country of origin of the target population.

11 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models is a comprehensive manual for the applied researcher who wants to perform data analysis using linear and nonlinear regression and multilevel models.
Abstract: Data Analysis Using Regression and Multilevel/Hierarchical Models is a comprehensive manual for the applied researcher who wants to perform data analysis using linear and nonlinear regression and multilevel models. The book introduces a wide variety of models, whilst at the same time instructing the reader in how to fit these models using available software packages. The book illustrates the concepts by working through scores of real data examples that have arisen from the authors' own applied research, with programming codes provided for each one. Topics covered include causal inference, including regression, poststratification, matching, regression discontinuity, and instrumental variables, as well as multilevel logistic regression and missing-data imputation. Practical tips regarding building, fitting, and understanding are provided throughout.

9,098 citations

Book
05 Jul 2017

211 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Israeli male suicides that occurred during compulsory military service were studied using preinduction assessment data, service records, and extensive postmortem interviews with family and peers to suggest a complex relationship between suicide and mental disorder.
Abstract: • Forty-three consecutive Israeli male suicides, 18 to 21 years of age, that occurred during compulsory military service were studied using preinduction assessment data, service records, and extensive postmortem interviews with family and peers. At preinduction, subjects, as a group, appeared above average in intelligence, physical fitness, and measures predictive of successful adaptation to military service. Active duty performance was generally satisfactory. Ascertained post mortem, 53.5% met formal criteria for major depressive disorder; most cases, however, appeared recent and reactive. Narcissistic and/or schizoid traits were common. Substance abuse was absent and antisocial personality disorder was rare (4.7%). Furthermore, in eight patients (18.6%) no Axis I diagnosis could be made; half of these also lacked any significant Axis II pathology. These findings, at partial variance with US studies, suggest a complex relationship between suicide and mental disorder. The striking failure of intensive screening and preventive measures to prevent these suicides highlights unresolved questions of etiology and intervention.

202 citations