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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PNPBP.2020.110145

Gut microbiota, kynurenine pathway and mental disorders - Review.

02 Mar 2021-Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (Elsevier)-Vol. 106, pp 110145
Abstract: The intestine and the gut-associated limphoid tissue constitute the largest immunity organ of the human body. Among several possible tryptophan metabolism routes, the kynurenine pathway can be influenced by the gut microbiota. Disturbances of gut biodiversity may cause increased gut permeability and cause systemic inflammation, also related to central nervous system. Proinflammatory cytokines induce kynurenine pathway enzymes resulting in formation of neuroactive metabolites, which are being associated with several psychiatric disorders. The kynurenine pathway may also be influenced by certain bacteria species directly. The aim of this review is to highlight the current knowledge on the interaction of gut microbiota and the central nervous system with the kynurenine pathway taken into special account. Up to date study results on specific psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, autism spectrum disorders, depression and alcoholism are presented. Available evidence suggests that toxicity of kynurenine metabolites may be reduced by adjunction of probiotics which can affect proinflammatory cytokines. Due to their potential for modulation of the kynurenine pathway, gut microbiota pose an interesting target for future therapies.

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Topics: Kynurenine pathway (71%), Kynurenine (64%), Gut flora (56%) ... show more
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9 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13020507
04 Feb 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: Alterations in the gut microbiome and fecal metabolites have been detected in anorexia nervosa (AN), but differences in those profiles between restricting AN (ANR) and binge-purging AN (ANBP) type have not been explored. We made a secondary analysis of our previous data concerning microbiome and metabolomics profiles of 17 ANR women, six ANBP women and 20 healthy controls (HC). Twelve fecal metabolites differentiating ANR patients, ANBP patients and HC were identified. Both patient groups showed decreased intra-individual bacterial richness with respect to healthy controls (HC). Compared to ANR subjects, ANBP patients had a significant increase in relative abundances of Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteriales, and Eubacteriacae and a significant decrease in relative abundances of Odoribacter, Haemophilus, Pasteurellaceae, and Pasteurellales. The heatmaps of the relationships of selected fecal metabolites with microbial families showed different structures among the three groups, with the heatmap of ANBP patients being drastically different from that of HC, while that of ANR patients resulted more similar to HC. These findings, although preliminary because of the relatively small sample size, confirm the occurrence of different gut dysbiosis in ANR and ANBP and demonstrate different connections between gut microorganisms and fecal metabolites in the two AN types.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12974-021-02175-2
Li Ming Chen1, Chun Hui Bao1, Yu Wu1, Shi Hua Liang2  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which mainly includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is a group of chronic bowel diseases that are characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bloody stools. IBD is strongly associated with depression, and its patients have a higher incidence of depression than the general population. Depression also adversely affects the quality of life and disease prognosis of patients with IBD. The tryptophan-kynurenine metabolic pathway degrades more than 90% of tryptophan (TRP) throughout the body, with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the key metabolic enzyme, being activated in the inflammatory environment. A series of metabolites of the pathway are neurologically active, among which kynerunic acid (KYNA) and quinolinic acid (QUIN) are molecules of great interest in recent studies on the mechanisms of inflammation-induced depression. In this review, the relationship between depression in IBD and the tryptophan-kynurenine metabolic pathway is overviewed in the light of recent publications.

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Topics: Inflammatory bowel disease (60%), Ulcerative colitis (53%), Population (51%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYT.2021.677039
Peifen Zhang1, Huimin Huang2, Xingle Gao1, Jiajun Jiang1  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe affective disorder, mainly characterized by alternative depressive and manic or hypomanic episodes, yet the pathogenesis of BD has not been fully elucidated. Recent researches have implicated the altered kynurenine (KYN) metabolism involved in the neurobiology of BD. Excessive activation of the immune system also occurs in patients with BD, which further accelerates the KYN pathway for tryptophan metabolism. Changes of the KYN metabolites have effects on neuronal receptors and are involved in neuroendocrine transmissions. Interactions between KYN metabolism and the immune system may contribute to the neuropathogenesis of BD. Various studies have shown that alterations of the KYN metabolites were associated with mood, psychotic symptoms, and cognitive functions in patients with BD. In this review, we briefly introduce the KYN pathway and describe the immune dysregulation in BD as well as their interactions. We then focus on the research advances on the KYN metabolism in BD, which hold promise for identifying novel treatment targets in patients stricken with this disorder.

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Topics: Kynurenine pathway (53%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPHAR.2021.687757
Xiuqing Zhu1, Jinqing Hu1, Shuhua Deng1, Yaqian Tan1  +13 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background: Emerging evidence implicates the dysregulated kynurenine pathway (KP), an immune-inflammatory pathway, in the pathophysiology of mood disorders (MD), including depression and bipolar disorder characterized by a low-grade chronic pro-inflammatory state. The metabolites of the KP, an important part of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, serve as immune system modulators linking the gut microbiota (GM) with the host central nervous system. Aim: This bibliometric analysis aimed to provide a first glimpse into the KP in MD, with a focus on GM research in this field, to guide future research and promote the development of this field. Methods: Publications relating to the KP in MD between the years 2000 and 2020 were retrieved from the Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC), and analyzed in CiteSpace (5.7 R5W), biblioshiny (using R-Studio), and VOSviewer (1.6.16). Results: In total, 1,064 and 948 documents were extracted from the Scopus and WoSCC databases, respectively. The publications have shown rapid growth since 2006, partly owing to the largest research hotspot appearing since then, "quinolinic acid." All the top five most relevant journals were in the neuropsychiatry field, such as Brain Behavior and Immunity. The United States and Innsbruck Medical University were the most influential country and institute, respectively. Journal co-citation analysis showed a strong tendency toward co-citation of research in the psychiatry field. Reference co-citation analysis revealed that the top four most important research focuses were "kynurenine pathway," "psychoneuroimmunology," "indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase," and "proinflammatory cytokines," and the most recent focus was "gut-brain axis," thus indicating the role of the KP in bridging the GM and the host immune system, and together reflecting the field's research foundations. Overlap analysis between the thematic map of keywords and the keyword burst analysis revealed that the topics "Alzheimer's disease," "prefrontal cortex," and "acid," were research frontiers. Conclusion: This comprehensive bibliometric study provides an updated perspective on research associated with the KP in MD, with a focus on the current status of GM research in this field. This perspective may benefit researchers in choosing suitable journals and collaborators, and aid in the further understanding of the field's hotspots and frontiers, thus facilitating future research.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMOLB.2021.760669
Xiuqing Zhu1, Jiaxin Huang1, Shanqing Huang1, Yuguan Wen1  +6 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Alcohol dependence (AD) is a condition of alcohol use disorder in which the drinkers frequently develop emotional symptoms associated with a continuous alcohol intake. AD characterized by metabolic disturbances can be quantitatively analyzed by metabolomics to identify the alterations in metabolic pathways. This study aimed to: i) compare the plasma metabolic profiling between healthy and AD-diagnosed individuals to reveal the altered metabolic profiles in AD, and ii) identify potential biological correlates of alcohol-dependent inpatients based on metabolomics and interpretable machine learning. Plasma samples were obtained from healthy (n = 42) and AD-diagnosed individuals (n = 43). The plasma metabolic differences between them were investigated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (AB SCIEX® QTRAP 4500 system) in different electrospray ionization modes with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring scans. In total, 59 and 52 compounds were semi-quantitatively measured in positive and negative ionization modes, respectively. In addition, 39 metabolites were identified as important variables to contribute to the classifications using an orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) (VIP > 1) and also significantly different between healthy and AD-diagnosed individuals using univariate analysis (p-value < 0.05 and false discovery rate < 0.05). Among the identified metabolites, indole-3-carboxylic acid, quinolinic acid, hydroxy-tryptophan, and serotonin were involved in the tryptophan metabolism along the indole, kynurenine, and serotonin pathways. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed significant changes or imbalances in alanine, aspartate, glutamate metabolism, which was possibly the main altered pathway related to AD. Tryptophan metabolism interactively influenced other metabolic pathways, such as nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism. Furthermore, among the OPLS-DA-identified metabolites, normetanephrine and ascorbic acid were demonstrated as suitable biological correlates of AD inpatients from our model using an interpretable, supervised decision tree classifier algorithm. These findings indicate that the discriminatory metabolic profiles between healthy and AD-diagnosed individuals may benefit researchers in illustrating the underlying molecular mechanisms of AD. This study also highlights the approach of combining metabolomics and interpretable machine learning as a valuable tool to uncover potential biological correlates. Future studies should focus on the global analysis of the possible roles of these differential metabolites and disordered metabolic pathways in the pathophysiology of AD.

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Topics: Metabolomics (53%), Ascorbic acid (53%)

References
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163 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRN2639
Abstract: Chronic exposure to stress hormones, whether it occurs during the prenatal period, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood or aging, has an impact on brain structures involved in cognition and mental health. However, the specific effects on the brain, behaviour and cognition emerge as a function of the timing and the duration of the exposure, and some also depend on the interaction between gene effects and previous exposure to environmental adversity. Advances in animal and human studies have made it possible to synthesize these findings, and in this Review a model is developed to explain why different disorders emerge in individuals exposed to stress at different times in their lives.

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Topics: Cognition (50%)

4,146 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2013.11.024
Elaine Y. Hsiao1, Sara Mcbride1, Sophia Hsien1, Gil Sharon1  +8 moreInstitutions (2)
19 Dec 2013-Cell
Abstract: Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), are defined by core behavioral impairments; however, subsets of individuals display a spectrum of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities. We demonstrate GI barrier defects and microbiota alterations in the maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model that is known to display features of ASD. Oral treatment of MIA offspring with the human commensal Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition, and ameliorates defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors. MIA offspring display an altered serum metabolomic profile, and B. fragilis modulates levels of several metabolites. Treating naive mice with a metabolite that is increased by MIA and restored by B. fragilis causes certain behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that gut bacterial effects on the host metabolome impact behavior. Taken together, these findings support a gut-microbiome-brain connection in a mouse model of ASD and identify a potential probiotic therapy for GI and particular behavioral symptoms in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

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Topics: Gut–brain axis (52%)

2,043 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.1010529108
Rochellys Diaz Heijtz1, Shugui Wang, Farhana Anuar, Yu Qian  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Microbial colonization of mammals is an evolution-driven process that modulate host physiology, many of which are associated with immunity and nutrient intake. Here, we report that colonization by gut microbiota impacts mammalian brain development and subsequent adult behavior. Using measures of motor activity and anxiety-like behavior, we demonstrate that germ free (GF) mice display increased motor activity and reduced anxiety, compared with specific pathogen free (SPF) mice with a normal gut microbiota. This behavioral phenotype is associated with altered expression of genes known to be involved in second messenger pathways and synaptic long-term potentiation in brain regions implicated in motor control and anxiety-like behavior. GF mice exposed to gut microbiota early in life display similar characteristics as SPF mice, including reduced expression of PSD-95 and synaptophysin in the striatum. Hence, our results suggest that the microbial colonization process initiates signaling mechanisms that affect neuronal circuits involved in motor control and anxiety behavior.

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Topics: Gut–brain axis (54%), Gut flora (53%)

2,018 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.0812874106
Abstract: Although it has long been recognized that the enteric community of bacteria that inhabit the human distal intestinal track broadly impacts human health, the biochemical details that underlie these effects remain largely undefined. Here, we report a broad MS-based metabolomics study that demonstrates a surprisingly large effect of the gut “microbiome” on mammalian blood metabolites. Plasma extracts from germ-free mice were compared with samples from conventional (conv) animals by using various MS-based methods. Hundreds of features were detected in only 1 sample set, with the majority of these being unique to the conv animals, whereas ≈10% of all features observed in both sample sets showed significant changes in their relative signal intensity. Amino acid metabolites were particularly affected. For example, the bacterial-mediated production of bioactive indole-containing metabolites derived from tryptophan such as indoxyl sulfate and the antioxidant indole-3-propionic acid (IPA) was impacted. Production of IPA was shown to be completely dependent on the presence of gut microflora and could be established by colonization with the bacterium Clostridium sporogenes. Multiple organic acids containing phenyl groups were also greatly increased in the presence of gut microbes. A broad, drug-like phase II metabolic response of the host to metabolites generated by the microbiome was observed, suggesting that the gut microflora has a direct impact on the drug metabolism capacity of the host. Together, these results suggest a significant interplay between bacterial and mammalian metabolism.

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Topics: Microbiome (53%), Metabolomics (52%)

1,769 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NN.4030
Abstract: As the tissue macrophages of the CNS, microglia are critically involved in diseases of the CNS. However, it remains unknown what controls their maturation and activation under homeostatic conditions. We observed substantial contributions of the host microbiota to microglia homeostasis, as germ-free (GF) mice displayed global defects in microglia with altered cell proportions and an immature phenotype, leading to impaired innate immune responses. Temporal eradication of host microbiota severely changed microglia properties. Limited microbiota complexity also resulted in defective microglia. In contrast, recolonization with a complex microbiota partially restored microglia features. We determined that short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), microbiota-derived bacterial fermentation products, regulated microglia homeostasis. Accordingly, mice deficient for the SCFA receptor FFAR2 mirrored microglia defects found under GF conditions. These findings suggest that host bacteria vitally regulate microglia maturation and function, whereas microglia impairment can be rectified to some extent by complex microbiota.

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Topics: Microglia (52%)

1,424 Citations


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