scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Gypsies as victims of the Holocaust.

01 Dec 1995-Holocaust and Genocide Studies (Holocaust Genocide Stud)-Vol. 9, Iss: 3, pp 346-359
TL;DR: Geographic location was one major factor that explains the greater survival rate of the Gypsies compared to that of the Jews as mentioned in this paper, as a consequence, survival rates were higher.
Abstract: While most of the research on the Holocaust has appropriately focused on the suffering of the Jewish population of Axis-occupied Europe, the Gypsies also were targeted for extinction by the Nazis. The Gypsies as a people survived the campaigns directed against them in large measure because they were located in areas under the control of governments allied with Germany. These governments generally refused to participate in the extermination of the Gypsies (just as some did not participate in the destruction of the European Jews). The majority of the Gypsy population in Axis Europe was beyond the direct control of the Nazi extermination machinery and, as a consequence, survival rates were higher. In contrast the European Jews were concentrated in areas under direct German control, and therefore the proportion of fatalities was much higher. Geographic location thus was one major factor that explains the greater survival rate of the Gypsies compared to that of the Jews.
Citations
More filters
Book
01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: In this paper, Guenter Lewy draws upon thousands of documents from German and Austrian archives to provide the most comprehensive and accurate study available of the fate of the Gypsies under the Nazi regime.
Abstract: Roaming the countryside in caravans, earning their living as musicians, peddlars and fortune-tellers, the Gypsies and their elusive way of life represented an affront to Nazi ideas of social order, hard work, and racial purity. They were branded as "asocials", harassed, and eventually herded into concentration camps where many thousands were killed. But until now the story of their persecution has been overlooked or distorted. In "The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies", Guenter Lewy draws upon thousands of documents - many never before used - from German and Austrian archives to provide the most comprehensive and accurate study available of the fate of the Gypsies under the Nazi regime. Lewy traces the escalating vilification of the Gypsies as the Nazis insigated a widespread crackdown on the "work-shy" and "itinerants". But he shows that Nazi policy towards Gypsies was confused and changeable. At first, local officials persecuted Gypsies, and those who behaved in Gypsy-like fashion, for allegedly anti-social tendencies. Later, with the rise of race obsession, Gypsies were seen as a threat to racial purity, though Himmler himself wavered, trying to save those he considered "pure Gypsies" descended from Aryan roots in India. Indeed, Lewy contradicts much existing scolarship in showing that, however much the Gypsies were persecuted, there was no general programme of extermination analogous to the "final solution" for the Jews. Exploring in heart-rending detail the fates of individual Gypsies and their families, "The Nazi Persecution of the Gypsies" makes an important addition to our understanding both of the history of this mysterious people and of all facets of Nazi terror.

108 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Outreach has been utilised as a key strategy to engage Traveller Communities in health improvement interventions.
Abstract: The term ‘Traveller Communities’ refers to a complex population group encompassing Romani Gypsies, Irish Travellers, Welsh Travellers, Scottish Travellers, Roma, New Travellers, Travelling Showpeople, Circus People and Boat Dwellers. A lack of reliable demographic data combined with nomadic lifestyles leads to potential invisibility in health service planning and results in unmet needs.Outreach has been utilised as a key strategy to engage Traveller Communities in health improvement interventions.

27 citations


Cites background from "Gypsies as victims of the Holocaust..."

  • ...Although the inclusion of Travellers in the Holocaust is disputed (with regards to whether or not Nazi efforts to eradicate them were as systematic as they were for Jewish people), it remains that they suffered considerable losses.(172) Since then, the contrast between compensatory policies and organisation after the war between those accorded to Jewish and Traveller victims has also been highlighted....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article compares the fate of the Gypsies under the Third Reich to that of the Jews, arguing that, despite parallels, the treatment each group underwent differed fundamentally.
Abstract: This article compares the fate of the Gypsies under the Third Reich to that of the Jews, arguing that, despite parallels, the treatment each group underwent differed fundamentally. The Nazis never formulated a plan for a "Final Solution" to the Gypsy problem analogous to that for the Jews. Compulsory sterilization affected only a relatively small portion of the Gypsy population, and killings that did take place were carried out to achieve Nazi solutions to specific local situations. Numerous sources, especially recently discovered local police files, show that large numbers of "racially pure" and "socially adjusted" Gypsies were exempted from deportation to the Gypsy family camp in Auschwitz and were allowed to survive the war.

14 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compare and contrast the Nazis' treatment of the Crimea's Jews to their treatment of Roma, providing an answer to the question: "were the Chingene also victims of genocide?"
Abstract: Much has been written about the persecution of the Roma in Nazi-dominated central Europe, but less attention has been devoted to anti-Roma policy in the occupied territories of the Soviet Union. Using a variety of sources, including testimonies, this study sheds new light on how specific features of the culture of the Chingene—the Roma in the Crimea—as well as German political and military considerations affected German practice on the peninsula. The author compares and contrasts the Nazis’ treatment of the Crimea’s Jews to their treatment of the Roma, providing an answer to the question: “Were the Chingene also victims of genocide?”

7 citations


Cites result from "Gypsies as victims of the Holocaust..."

  • ...The defining questions in the debate are these: Was the annihilation of the Roma intended to be total? Was it perpetrated on the grounds of racial ideology? Was it carried out everywhere according to a well-thought-out plan? Was it realized through the employment of technical resources and administrative links at all levels, leading toward a single goal? And, finally, are the Roma victims of the Holocaust? In their works, Sybil Milton,(9) Ian Hancock,(10) and Brenda and James Lutz answer in the positive.(11) We find opposing views in works by Yehuda Bauer,(12) Michael Zimmermann,(13) Guenter Lewy,(14) and Gilad Margalit....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Apr 2021
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a method to improve the quality of the data collected by the data collection system by using the information gathered from the data gathered by the system itself.
Abstract: Упродовж низки проєктів, що їх останніми роками виконував Український центр вивчення історії Голокосту, було виявлено різноманітні історичні джерела, які загалом містять відомості про понад 140 місць загибелі ромів у зонах німецької окупації України. У цій статті подано п’ять карт, які є результатом пошукової роботи й заповнюють наявні на сьогодні у картографії та історіографії пробіли, дають змогу дати відповіді на такі запитання, що є нагальними при описі долі ромського населення України: 1) кількість і розташування місць страт ромів (що важливо для усвідомлення масштабу, регіональних особливостей і статистичних аспектів геноциду ромів на теренах України); 2) розподіл між кочовими та осілими ромськими жертвами за наявними джерелами (що важливо з огляду на концептуальні дискусії в історіографії щодо засад нацистської «циганської» політики, адже переважання жертв, які були осілими, переконливо демонструє, що у мотивації виконавців злочинів расово-ідеологічні чинники превалювали над уявленнями про «асоціальність» окремих ромів); 3) розподіл між німецькими виконавцями та місцевими співучасниками у злочинах щодо ромів (що важливо у контексті питання про ставлення місцевого населення до переслідуваних ромів та ступінь ініціативи місцевих органів врядування і допоміжної поліції у геноцидних акціях); 4) установа, яка задокументувала злочин (що важливо з погляду політики держави щодо документування злочинів проти ромів – зокрема, їхньої повноти та репрезентативності, – та особливостей формування суспільних уявлень про це); 5) наявність меморіальних об’єктів на місцях загибелі ромських жертв або зазначення наявності ромів серед жертв (що важливо у контексті формування соціальної пам’яті про геноцид ромів та наявності/відсутності механізмів «культурної пам’яті», що покликані увічнити пам’ять жертв). До кожної карти наведено опис методики її складання та аналіз наукової ваги поданих на ній відомостей. Узяті разом або окремо, карти мають потенціал для використання у науковій, освітній та музейній діяльності.

3 citations

References
More filters
Book
01 Jan 1975
TL;DR: In this paper, Dawidowicz lays out the facts in a concise, coherent overview of the war against the Jews and examines how it was possible for a modern state to carry out the systematic murder of a whole people, detailing Hitler's ideology, the rise of anti-Semitism in Germany, anti-Jewish legislation and the annihilation camps.
Abstract: The systematic destruction of six million Jews, carried out by the German state under Adolf Hitler during the Second World War, is still almost impossible to comprehend. In this extraordinary book Lucy S. Dawidowicz lays out the facts in a concise, coherent overview of the war against the Jews. She examines how it was possible for a modern state to carry out the systematic murder of a whole people, detailing Hitler's ideology, the rise of anti-Semitism in Germany, anti-Jewish legislation and the annihilation camps. She also discusses how Jews in Germany and Eastern Europe responded to the assault against their rights, their livelihoods and finally their lives. Stark, sober and yet overwhelming, this is an authoritative and essential work of history.

228 citations

Book
01 Jan 1987
TL;DR: A wide-ranging synthesis of historical writing on the Jewish Holocaust, covering the contributions of Israeli, American and European scholars on all aspects of the subject is presented in this article, where the authors argue strongly in favour of an understanding of Hitler, Nazism and the Holocaust, as well as of the Jews themselves.
Abstract: A wide-ranging synthesis of historical writing on the Jewish Holocaust, covering the contributions of Israeli, American and European scholars on all aspects of the subject. Individual chapters deal with Jewish resistance, the collaboration or otherwise of non-Jewish populations in countries occupied by the Nazis, the progress of the final solution and the role of the Catholic Church. Steering a course between widely divergent interpretations, Marrus argues strongly in favour of an understanding of Hitler, Nazism and the Holocaust, as well as of the Jews themselves. He sees them operating in response to events and opportunities, and attacks views of the period that rely on the spurious wisdom of hindsight.

157 citations

Book
01 Aug 1982

32 citations