Hall coefficient in vacuum-deposited copper films
TL;DR: In this article, the dependence of the Hall coefficient of vacuum-deposited copper films of thickness, temperature and time was investigated by in situ observation, and it was found that a thickness dependence could hardly be observed down to 100 A. The temperature dependence was appreciably larger than for bulk material, indicating the existence of the size effect predicted by Sondheimer.
About: This article is published in Thin Solid Films.The article was published on 1972-09-01. It has received 19 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Hall effect & Copper.
TL;DR: In this paper, a critical analysis of the observed size effects in all cases depart markedly from the predictions of the Fuchs-Sondheimer theory (and also that of the Mayadas-Shatzkes theory which takes into account the grain boundary surface scattering).
Abstract: The thickness dependence at 300 and 80 K of the electrical resistivity and its temperature coefficient, Hall coefficient, mobility, and thermoelectric power of as‐deposited and annealed thin (< 1000 A) evaporated polycrystalline copper films and films deposited at elevated temperatures have been studied. All transport parameters in carefully prepared and well‐characterized films exhibit monotonically increasing size effects with decreasing film thickness. Both annealing and deposition at elevated temperatures cause considerable reduction of the ’’apparent’’ size effects in all the transport parameters of the room‐temperature deposited films. A critical analysis of the observed size effects shows that the data in all cases depart markedly from the predictions of the Fuchs‐Sondheimer theory (and also that of the Mayadas‐Shatzkes theory which takes into account the grain boundary surface scattering). The departure from theory is different for each transport parameter. The annealing studies show that the enhanced size effects are due to the presence of a large concentration of structural defects in the films. The observed behavior may be understood by assuming the large concentration of point and/or line defects to decrease with film thickness and with annealing as well as deposition of films at elevated temperatures. The thermopower data suggest strongly that the large concentration of defects causes distortion of the Fermi surface and thereby a strong energy dependence of the mfp or relaxation time at the Fermi surface.
01 Jan 1975
TL;DR: In this article, the Hall constant RH, drift mobility, and Hall mobility were measured at 4 K in thin gold films deposited on mica substrates, where the dominant electron scattering mechanism is electron surface scattering.
Abstract: We report the Hall constant RH, drift mobility μD, and Hall mobility μH measured at 4 K in thin gold films deposited on mica substrates, where the dominant electron scattering mechanism is electron-surface scattering. RH increases with increasing film thickness and decreases with increasing magnetic field. For high magnetic fields B≥6 T, RH turns out to be approximately independent of magnetic field, and its value is close to that of the free electron model. We use the high magnetic field values of RH to determine film thickness. This nondestructive method leads to a determination of film thickness that agrees to within 10% with the thickness measured by other techniques. The theoretical predictions, based upon the theory of Fuchs–Sondheimer and the theory of Calecki, are at variance with experimental observations.
TL;DR: In this paper, the Boltzmann transport equation was used to define an effective relaxation time for thin metallic films subjected to a transverse magnetic field, and analytical expressions were derived for the Hall coefficient and conductivity in the case of nearly specular scattering on external surfaces.
Abstract: Defining an effective relaxation time and then using the Boltzmann transport equation, analytical expressions have been derived, in the case of nearly specular scattering on external surfaces (p>or=0.5), for the Hall coefficient and conductivity in thin metallic films subjected to a transverse magnetic field. The results for moderately high magnetic field agree well with previous theoretical works; at low magnetic field the Hall coefficient in thin films is greater than the bulk value RH0 and becomes identical with RH0 in strong magnetic field. The theoretical predictions agree well with experimental data on copper and potassium thin films.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors derived analytical expressions for the Hall coefficient and conductivity in thin polycrystalline metallic films subjected to a transverse magnetic field by using the Boltzmann transport equation.
Abstract: In polycrystalline films where three types of scattering processes (background, grainboundaries and external surfaces scatterings) are taking place at the same time an effective relaxation time is defined in the light of a three-dimensional model of grain-boundaries. Analytical expressions for the Hall coefficient and conductivity in thin polycrystalline metallic films subjected to a transverse magnetic field are then derived by using the Boltzmann transport equation. Previously published data can be theoretically interpreted in terms of the proposed model.
TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of a transverse magnetic field on the conduction properties of thin metallic films, of thickness comparable with the free path of conduction electrons, is investigated.
Abstract: The influence of a transverse magnetic field on the conduction properties of thin metallic films, of thickness comparable with the free path of the conduction electrons, is investigated. It is shown that, owing to scattering of electrons at the boundaries of the film, the Hall coefficient is increased, and the electrical resistance oscillates with the strength of the applied magnetic field.
TL;DR: Hall coefficient RH and Hall mobility μ have been measured for annealed polycrystalline and epitaxially grown gold, silver, and copper films at 296° and 77°K as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Hall coefficient RH and Hall mobility μ have been measured for annealed polycrystalline and epitaxially grown gold, silver, and copper films at 296° and 77°K. At thicknesses above about 600 A, nearly bulk values are obtained for RH and μ. Below 600 A, a film‐thickness dependence (size effect) was observed. This dependence is weak for epitaxially grown films, indicating a predominantly specular reflection of conduction electrons. On the other hand, the dependence is marked for polycrystalline films. Results on polycrystalline gold and silver films fit a predominantly diffuse scattering behavior. Data on carefully prepared polycrystalline films of copper agree well with Sondheimer's theory for perfect diffuse scattering so that best fit mean free path values can be calculated. In general, however, contrary to the theoretical predictions, RH was found to show a slight size effect even for film thicknesses greater than the electron mean free path (t>l). This departure may be the result of an oversimplified th...
TL;DR: In this article, an apparatus for the accurate determination of the Hall coefficient R of metal samples which can be rolled and cut to a desired shape was described, with an accuracy of ± 0.3%.
Abstract: An apparatus is described for the accurate determination of the Hall coefficient R of metal samples which can be rolled and cut to a desired shape. R for polycrystalline copper has been determined in the range 77-320° K with an accuracy to ±0.3%. Improvements are suggested to enable single crystal samples to be measured.