Handbook of adolescent psychology
30 Oct 2009-
TL;DR: The study of and interest in adolescence in the field of psychology and related fields continues to grow, necessitating an expanded revision of this seminal work as discussed by the authors, with contributions from the leading researchers.
Abstract: The study of and interest in adolescence in the field of psychology and related fields continues to grow, necessitating an expanded revision of this seminal work. This multidisciplinary handbook, edited by the premier scholars in the field, Richard Lerner and Laurence Steinberg, and with contributions from the leading researchers, reflects the latest empirical work and growth in the field.
TL;DR: This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience, and finds that changes in the brain's cognitive control system - changes which improve individuals' capacity for self-regulation - occur across adolescence and young adulthood.
Abstract: This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience. Two fundamental questions motivate this review. First, why does risk-taking increase between childhood and adolescence? Second, why does risk-taking decline between adolescence and adulthood? Risk-taking increases between childhood and adolescence as a result of changes around the time of puberty in the brain’s socio-emotional system leading to increased reward-seeking, especially in the presence of peers, fueled mainly by a dramatic remodeling of the brain’s dopaminergic system. Risk-taking declines between adolescence and adulthood because of changes in the brain’s cognitive control system—changes which improve individuals’ capacity for self-regulation. These changes occur across adolescence and young adulthood and are seen in structural and functional changes within the prefrontal cortex and its connections to other brain regions. The differing timetables of these changes make mid-adolescence a time of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior.
TL;DR: Taken together, these developments reinforce the emerging understanding of adolescence as a critical or sensitive period for a reorganization of regulatory systems, a reorganizations that is fraught with both risks and opportunities.
Abstract: Questions about the nature of normative and atypical development in adolescence have taken on special significance in the last few years, as scientists have begun to recast old portraits of adolescent behavior in the light of new knowledge about brain development. Adolescence is often a period of especially heightened vulnerability as a consequence of potential disjunctions between developing brain, behavioral and cognitive systems that mature along different timetables and under the control of both common and independent biological processes. Taken together, these developments reinforce the emerging understanding of adolescence as a critical or sensitive period for a reorganization of regulatory systems, a reorganization that is fraught with both risks and opportunities.
TL;DR: The idea that adolescents are more inclined toward risky behavior and risky decision making than are adults and that peer influence plays an important role in explaining risky behavior during adolescence is supported.
Abstract: In this study, 306 individuals in 3 age groups--adolescents (13-16), youths (18-22), and adults (24 and older)--completed 2 questionnaire measures assessing risk preference and risky decision making, and 1 behavioral task measuring risk taking. Participants in each age group were randomly assigned to complete the measures either alone or with 2 same-aged peers. Analyses indicated that (a) risk taking and risky decision making decreased with age; (b) participants took more risks, focused more on the benefits than the costs of risky behavior, and made riskier decisions when in peer groups than alone; and (c) peer effects on risk taking and risky decision making were stronger among adolescents and youths than adults. These findings support the idea that adolescents are more inclined toward risky behavior and risky decision making than are adults and that peer influence plays an important role in explaining risky behavior during adolescence.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity as a multidimensional, dynamic construct that develops over time through a process of exploration and commitment, and discuss the theoretical and empirical basis for understand- ing ethnic identity in a developmental process.
Abstract: In this article, the authors examine the conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity as a multidimensional, dynamic construct that develops over time through a process of exploration and commitment. The authors discuss the components of ethnic identity that have been studied and the theoretical background for a developmental model of ethnic identity. The authors review research on the measurement of ethnic identity using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (J. Phinney, 1992) and present a revised version of the measure. The authors conclude with a consideration of the measurement issues raised by J. E. Helms (2007) and K. Cokley (2007) and suggestions for future research on ethnic identity. Ethnic identity is many faceted. This is made clear in the special issue of which this article is a part. But recognizing that ethnic identity has many facets is merely a start to understanding it. Ethnic identity derives from a sense of peoplehood within a group, a culture, and a particular setting. Yet ethnic identity is not merely knowledge and understanding of one's ingroup affiliations, even as such insights and comprehension are part of it. The achievement of a secure ethnic identity derives from experience, but experience is not sufficient to produce it. Because one's ethnic identity is con- structed over time, the actions and choices of individuals are essential to the process. Ethnic identity is distinct in some ways from other group identities, such as racial identity, but it also shares aspects of both personal and group identities. Our purpose in this article was to examine the conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity from social psychological and developmental perspectives. We first review the various dimen- sions of ethnic identity that have been proposed in the literature. We then discuss the theoretical and empirical basis for understand- ing ethnic identity as a developmental process. We review research on the measurement of ethnic identity based on the widely used Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM, Phinney, 1992; Rob- erts et al., 1999), discuss recent measurement research that has led to a revision of the MEIM, and present a revised version of the MEIM. We conclude with a discussion of issues that might be profitably considered in future ethnic identity research, with a consideration of the ideas and recommendations offered by Helms (2007) and Cokley (2007). In keeping with the focus of the special issue, we discuss ethnic identity with reference to ethnic minorities in the United States.
TL;DR: Improving adolescent health worldwide requires improving young people's daily life with families and peers and in schools, addressing risk and protective factors in the social environment at a population level, and focusing on factors that are protective across various health outcomes.
Abstract: Summary The health of adolescents is strongly affected by social factors at personal, family, community, and national levels. Nations present young people with structures of opportunity as they grow up. Since health and health behaviours correspond strongly from adolescence into adult life, the way that these social determinants affect adolescent health are crucial to the health of the whole population and the economic development of nations. During adolescence, developmental effects related to puberty and brain development lead to new sets of behaviours and capacities that enable transitions in family, peer, and educational domains, and in health behaviours. These transitions modify childhood trajectories towards health and wellbeing and are modified by economic and social factors within countries, leading to inequalities. We review existing data on the effects of social determinants on health in adolescence, and present findings from country-level ecological analyses on the health of young people aged 10–24 years. The strongest determinants of adolescent health worldwide are structural factors such as national wealth, income inequality, and access to education. Furthermore, safe and supportive families, safe and supportive schools, together with positive and supportive peers are crucial to helping young people develop to their full potential and attain the best health in the transition to adulthood. Improving adolescent health worldwide requires improving young people's daily life with families and peers and in schools, addressing risk and protective factors in the social environment at a population level, and focusing on factors that are protective across various health outcomes. The most effective interventions are probably structural changes to improve access to education and employment for young people and to reduce the risk of transport-related injury.
••30 Oct 2009
TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the epidemiology of anxiety and depression in adolescents and developed mental models for changes in internalizing symptoms and disorders during adolescence, including vulnerability, risk factors associated with internalizing problems, and treatment of internalizing disorders.
Abstract: Trends in Studying Adolescence and Internalizing Pathways for Continuity and Change Epidemiology of Anxiety and Depression in Adolescence Developmental Models for Changes in Internalizing Symptoms and Disorders During Adolescence Vulnerability And Risk Factors Associated With Internalizing Problems “Biological Markers” of Disorder and Neuroendocrine Processes of Stress Treatment Of Internalizing Disorders Implications and Conclusions Keywords: diathesis-stress models; puberty; gender differences; anxiety; depression; stress and coping
••30 Oct 2009
TL;DR: Conduct Disorder======¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯Aggression======Aggression¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯Delinquency======Comorbidity and Versatility======Risk factors======Successful Interventions============
Abstract: Conduct Disorder Aggression Delinquency Comorbidity and Versatility Risk Factors Successful Interventions Conclusions Keywords: conduct disorder; aggression; delinquency; risk factors; interventions
••30 Oct 2009
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors draw the line between legal childhood and adulthood, and recognize adolescents in Juvenile Justice Policy, by recognizing adolescents' maturity in the criminal justice system and criminal law.
Abstract: Legal Assumptions About Childhood Drawing the Line Between Legal Childhood and Adulthood Recognizing Adolescence in Juvenile Justice Policy Conclusion Keywords: law/legal system; juvenile justice; abortion; policy; decision making
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