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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/14397595.2020.1719595

Haploinsufficiency of A20 with a novel mutation of deletion of exons 2-3 of TNFAIP3.

04 Mar 2021-Modern Rheumatology (Mod Rheumatol)-Vol. 31, Iss: 2, pp 493-497
Abstract: Objectives: Haploinsufficiency of A20 (HA20) due to loss-of-function mutations of TNFAIP3 leads to an autoinflammatory disease. These mutations produce a premature termination codon in most cases o...

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Topics: Haploinsufficiency (62%)
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5 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JLB.2MR0520-166R
Abstract: NF-κB is a master transcription factor that activates the expression of target genes in response to various stimulatory signals. Activated NF-κB mediates a plethora of diverse functions including innate and adaptive immune responses, inflammation, cell proliferation, and NF-κB is regulated through interactions with IκB inhibitory proteins, which are in turn regulated by the inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) complex. Together, these 3 components form the core of the NF-κB signalosomes that have cell-specific functions which are dependent on the interactions with other signaling molecules and pathways. The activity of NF-κB pathway is also regulated by a variety of post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and ubiquitination by Lys63, Met1, and Lys48 ubiquitin chains. The physiologic role of NF-κB is best studied in the immune system due to discovery of many human diseases caused by pathogenic variants in various proteins that constitute the NF-κB pathway. These disease-causing variants can act either as gain-of-function (GoF) or loss-of-function (LoF) and depending on the function of mutated protein, can cause either immunodeficiency or systemic inflammation. Typically, pathogenic missense variants act as GoF and they lead to increased activity in the pathway. LoF variants can be inherited as recessive or dominant alleles and can cause either a decrease or an increase in pathway activity. Dominantly inherited LoF variants often result in haploinsufficiency of inhibitory proteins. Here, we review human Mendelian immunologic diseases, which results from mutations in different molecules in the canonical NF-κB pathway and surprisingly present with a continuum of clinical features including immunodeficiency, atopy, autoimmunity, and autoinflammation.

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Topics: IκB kinase (53%), Cell signaling (52%), NF-κB (51%) ... read more

7 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2020.574992
Yu Chen1, Zhenghao Ye1, Liping Chen1, Tingting Qin1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Background: Haploinsufficiency A20 (HA20) is a newly described monogenic disease characterized by a wide spectrum of manifestations and caused by heterozygous mutations in TNFAIP3 which encodes A20 protein. TNFAIP3 mutation leads to disruption of the A20 ovarian tumor (OTU) domain and/or the zinc finger (ZnF) domain. This study aims at exploring the association between the various manifestations of HA20 and different domains disruption of A20. Methods: We reviewed the HA20 cases in previous literature and summarized the clinical features, TNFAIP3 mutation loci and the disrupted domains caused by different sites and patterns of mutations. Patients were classified into three groups according to the A20 domains disruption. Results: A total of 89 patients from 39 families with a genetic diagnosis of HA20 were included. Overall, the age at onset of HA20 was early (median:5.92, IQR:1-10). Patients in the ZnF group showed the earliest onset (median:2.5, IQR:0.6-5), followed by patients in the OTU+ZnF group (median:6, IQR:1-10) and patients in the OTU group (median:10, IQR:8-14). The main manifestations of HA20 patients were recurrent oral ulcers (70%), recurrent fever (42%), gastrointestinal ulcers (40%), skin lesion (38%), genital ulcers (36%), and musculoskeletal disorders (34%). The percentage of patients with musculoskeletal disorders was significantly different among the three groups (p = 0.005). Patients in the OTU+ZnF group and ZnF group were more likely to develop musculoskeletal disorders than patients in the OTU group (p = 0.002 and p = 0.035, respectively). Besides, forty-three percent of HA20 patients were initially diagnosed as Behcet's disease (BD). Compared to the ZnF group, the OTU+ZnF group and OTU group had a higher percentage of patients initially diagnosed as BD (p = 0.006 and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: HA20 is characterized by early-onset and the most common symptoms of HA20 are recurrent oral ulcers, fever and gastrointestinal ulcers. The onset of HA20 in patients with the ZnF domain disruption is earlier than patients with the OTU domain disruption. Compared to the OTU domain, the ZnF domain may be more closely related to musculoskeletal disorders.

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3 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CLIM.2020.108441
Tomonori Kadowaki1, Hidenori Ohnishi2, Norio Kawamoto2, Saori Kadowaki2  +15 moreInstitutions (10)
Abstract: Haploinsufficiency of A20 (HA20) causes inflammatory disease resembling Behcet's disease; many cases have been reported, including some that are complicated with autoimmune diseases. This study aims to clarify the immunophenotype of patients with HA20 by analyzing lymphocyte subsets using multicolor flow cytometry. The patients with HA20 previously diagnosed in a nationwide survey were compared by their cell subpopulations. In total, 27 parameters including regulatory T cells (Tregs), double-negative T cells (DNTs), and follicular helper T cells (TFHs) were analyzed and compared with the reference values in four age groups: 0–1, 2–6, 7–19, and ≥20 years. The Tregs of patients with HA20 tended to increase in tandem with age-matched controls at all ages. In addition, patients ≥20 years had increased DNTs compared with controls, whereas TFHs significantly increased in younger patients. In HA20 patients, the increase in DNTs and TFHs may contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases.

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Topics: Regulatory T cell (57%), Immunophenotyping (53%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41439-020-00128-4
Abstract: A20 haploinsufficiency (HA20), a disease caused by loss-of-function TNFAIP3 mutations, manifests various autoinflammatory and/or autoimmune symptoms. Some cases of HA20 were initially diagnosed as very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD). We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) for a Japanese girl with infantile-onset IBD and a severe perianal lesion and detected a novel de novo 119 kb microdeletion containing only TNFAIP3 (arr[GRCh37] 6q23.3(138125829_138244816) × 1).

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11739-021-02751-7
Raffaele Manna1, Donato Rigante1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The innate immunity works as a defence bullwark that safeguards healthy tissues with the power of detecting infectious agents in the human body: errors in the context of innate immunity identify autoinflammatory disorders (AIDs), which arise as bouts of aberrant inflammation with little or no involvement of T and B cells and neither recognized infections, nor associated autoimmune phenomena. Hereditary AIDs tend to have a pediatric-onset heralded by stereotyped inflammatory symptoms and fever, while AIDs without an ascertained cause, such as systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, derive from the interaction of genetic factors with environmental noxae and are unevenly defined. A dysregulated inflammasome activation promotes the best-known family of AIDs, as well as several degenerative and metabolic disorders, but also nuclear factor κB- and interferon-mediated conditions have been framed as AIDs: the zenith of inflammatory flares marks different phenotypes, but diagnosis may go unnoticed until adulthood due to downplayed symptoms and complex kaleidoscopic presentations. This review summarizes the main AIDs encountered in childhood with special emphasis on the clinical stigmata that may help establish a correct framework and blueprints to empower young scientists in the recognition of AIDs. The description focuses inflammasomopathies as paradigms of interleukinopathies, nuclear factor-κB -related disorders and interferonopathies. The challenges in the management of AIDs during childhood have been recently boosted by numerous therapeutic options derived from genomically-based approaches, which have led to identify targeted biologic agents as rationalized treatments and achieve more tangible perspectives of disease control.

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References
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14 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1542-3565(04)00238-1
Stephen B. Hanauer1, Carrie L Wagner, Mohan Bala, Lloyd Mayer2  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Background & Aims: The effect of different treatment regimens on antibody responses to infliximab and their clinical significance was examined by using data from ACCENT I. Methods: Patients with Crohn's disease (n = 573) received 5 mg/kg infliximab (week 0) and then were randomly assigned to blinded infusions at weeks 2 and 6 and every 8 weeks until week 46 of placebo (group I), 5 mg/kg infliximab (group II), or 5 mg/kg infliximab at weeks 2 and 6, followed by 10 mg/kg thereafter (group III). At week 14 or later, patients losing response could cross over to episodic infliximab treatment increased by 5 mg/kg. Samples for antibody determination were collected before the first infusion and at weeks 14, 22, 54, 62, 72, and, if applicable, before and after crossover. Results: Through week 72, antibodies to infliximab were detected in 30%, 10%, and 7% of groups I, II, and III, respectively ( P P = 0.02). Antibodies were associated with a 12% absolute increase in infusion reactions but no increase in serious infusion reactions or serum sickness—like reactions. In the overall population, similar proportions of antibody-positive and antibody-negative patients achieved clinical response (64% and 62%, respectively; P = NS) or clinical remission (41% and 39%, respectively; P = NS) at week 54. Notably, 86% of patients responded to retreatment, and 63% were in clinical response at week 54; however, fewer antibody-positive group I patients attained clinical remission (31%) compared with those who were antibody negative (37%) or antibody inconclusive (54%) ( P = NS). Conclusions: Reduced antibody formation and greater clinical benefit were observed with an induction regimen followed by maintenance treatment compared with a single dose followed by episodic retreatment in Crohn's disease patients treated with infliximab.

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Topics: Infliximab (56%), Crohn's Disease Activity Index (53%), Population (51%)

591 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NG.3459
Qing Zhou1, Hongying Wang1, Daniella M. Schwartz1, Monique Stoffels1  +37 moreInstitutions (8)
01 Jan 2016-Nature Genetics
Abstract: Systemic autoinflammatory diseases are driven by abnormal activation of innate immunity. Herein we describe a new disease caused by high-penetrance heterozygous germline mutations in TNFAIP3, which encodes the NF-κB regulatory protein A20, in six unrelated families with early-onset systemic inflammation. The disorder resembles Behcet's disease, which is typically considered a polygenic disorder with onset in early adulthood. A20 is a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Mutant, truncated A20 proteins are likely to act through haploinsufficiency because they do not exert a dominant-negative effect in overexpression experiments. Patient-derived cells show increased degradation of IκBα and nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit together with increased expression of NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory cytokines. A20 restricts NF-κB signals via its deubiquitinase activity. In cells expressing mutant A20 protein, there is defective removal of Lys63-linked ubiquitin from TRAF6, NEMO and RIP1 after stimulation with tumor necrosis factor (TNF). NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory cytokines are potential therapeutic targets for the patients with this disease.

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336 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.4049/JIMMUNOL.174.3.1507
Abstract: IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) is a critical transcription factor that regulates an establishment of innate immune status following detection of viral pathogens. Recent studies have revealed that two IkappaB kinase (IKK)-like kinases, NF-kappaB-activating kinase/Traf family member-associated NF-kappaB activator-binding kinase 1 and IKK-i/IKKepsilon, are responsible for activation of IRF-3, but the regulatory mechanism of the IRF-3 signaling pathway has not been fully understood. In this study, we report that IRF-3 activation is suppressed by A20, which was initially identified as an inhibitor of apoptosis and inducibly expressed by dsRNA. A20 physically interacts with NF-kappaB-activating kinase/Traf family member-associated NF-kappaB activator-binding kinase 1 and IKK-i/IKKepsilon, and inhibits dimerization of IRF-3 following engagement of TLR3 by dsRNA or Newcastle disease virus infection, leading to suppression of the IFN stimulation response element- and IFN-beta promoter-dependent transcription. Importantly, knocking down of A20 expression by RNA interference results in enhanced IRF-3-dependent transcription triggered by the stimulation of TLR3 or virus infection. Our study thus demonstrates that A20 is a candidate negative regulator of the signaling cascade to IRF-3 activation in the innate antiviral response.

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Topics: Protein kinase R (65%), ASK1 (63%), CHUK (59%) ... read more

180 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/ANNRHEUMDIS-2017-212403
Florence A. Aeschlimann1, Ezgi Deniz Batu2, Scott W. Canna3, Ellen Go4  +10 moreInstitutions (7)
Abstract: Objectives The association between mutations in TNFAIP3 , encoding the NF-kB regulatory protein A20, and a new autoinflammatory disease has recently been recognised. This study aims at describing the clinical phenotypes and disease course of patients with A20 haploinsufficiency (HA20). Methods Data for all cases from the initial publication, and additional cases identified through collaborations since, were collected using standardised data collection forms. Results A total of 16 patients (13 female) from seven families with a genetic diagnosis of HA20 were included. The disease commonly manifested in early childhood (range: first week of life to 29 years of age). The main clinical symptoms were recurrent oral, genital and/or gastrointestinal ulcers (16/16), musculoskeletal (9/16) and gastrointestinal complaints (9/16), cutaneous lesions (8/16), episodic fever (7/16), and recurrent infections (7/16). Clinical phenotypes varied considerably, even within families. Relapsing-remitting disease course was most common, and one patient died. Laboratory abnormalities included elevated acute-phase reactants and fluctuating presence of various autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (4/10 patients tested) and anti-dsDNA (2/5). Tissue biopsy of different sites revealed non-specific chronic inflammation (6/12 patients tested), findings consistent with class V lupus nephritis in one patient, and pustules and normal results in two patients each. All patients were treated: 4/16 received colchicine and 12/16 various immunosuppressive agents. Cytokine inhibitors effectively suppressed systemic inflammation in 7/9 patients. Conclusions Early-onset recurrent oral, genital and/or gastrointestinal ulcers are the hallmark feature of HA20. Frequency and intensity of other clinical manifestations varied highly. Treatment regimens should be based on disease severity, and cytokine inhibitors are often required to control relapses.

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Topics: Anti-nuclear antibody (51%), Lupus nephritis (50%), Disease (50%)

99 Citations