# Harmonic generation using the non-linearity in the hot carrier characteristics of GaAs

01 Nov 1969-International Journal of Electronics (Taylor & Francis Group)-Vol. 27, Iss: 5, pp 443-447

TL;DR: In this paper, an approximate theory for the third harmonic generation in GaAs under the application of a large high frequency sinusoidal electric field was developed, and it was shown that the ratio of third harmonic to the fundamental frequency currents is 0-22 and 015 at fundamental frequencies of 100 GHZ and 450 GHZ respectively, for a field amplitude of 6-7 kv/cm.

Abstract: An approximate theory has been developed for third harmonic generation in GaAs under the application of a large high frequency sinusoidal electric field. The ratio of the third harmonic to the fundamental frequency currents is found to be 0-22 and 015 at fundamental frequencies of 100 GHZ and 450 GHZ respectively, for a field amplitude of 6-7 kv/ cm.

##### Citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an analysis by transport theory has been performed for microwave 2nd-harmonic generation using the nonlinearity of negative resistance in n-type GaAs under a small-signal excitation.

Abstract: An analysis by transport theory has been performed for microwave 2nd-harmonic generation using the non-linearity of negative resistance in n-type GaAs under a small-signal excitation. As a result of this analysis, the detailed frequency responses which are affected by the various scattering relaxation times of carriers become clear. Moreover, it is suggested that this multiplying method would be able to operate with very high conversion efficiency, in contrast to the customary large-3ignal operation.

2 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the third harmonic components in the reflected and transmitted waves produced by nonlinear interaction of a plane-polarized electromagnetic wave with a semiconducting sample of finite thickness have been studied.

Abstract: Third harmonic components in the reflected and transmitted waves produced by non-linear interaction of a plane-polarized electromagnetic wave with a semiconducting sample of finite thickness have been studied. It is found that the sample thickness should be a little less than half the skin depth at the fundamental frequency for optimum harmonic output.

##### References

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01 Dec 1965

TL;DR: In this article, a theoretical study of hot-electron transfer from the light-mass central valley to the surrounding heavy-mass satellite valleys in n-type GaAs, InP and CdTe was made.

Abstract: A theoretical study is made of hot-electron transfer from the light-mass central valley to the surrounding heavy-mass satellite valleys in n-type GaAs, InP and CdTe. The treatment is based on Boltzmann's equation, taking account of electron-electron and polar mode intravalley scattering and deformation potential scattering between the central valley and the satellite valleys. Using isotropic effective masses, the electron distribution function in each valley is approximated by a displaced Maxwellian and the number of electrons, the displacement and the electron temperature are determined by exact numerical solution of the conservation equations of electron number, wave vector and energy for every valley. The current-density-field characteristic is calculated and is found to exhibit a negative differential resistance between threshold and valley fields of 3200 and 5800 v cm-1 in GaAs, 6650 and 9750 v cm-1 in InP and between 14 250 and 26 000 v cm-1 in CdTe. The following more detailed results are obtained for GaAs. The central valley temperature increases with field from an assumed lattice temperature of 300 °K to 680 °K at threshold and 2400 °K at the valley. The satellite valley temperature increases very slowly, reaching only 360 °K at the valley. The ratio of satellite to central valley populations increases to 10% at threshold and 90% at the valley. Approximation to the distribution functions by two-term spherical harmonic expansions produces negligible error in the population ratio and current density but raises the central valley temperature by up to 20% at the valley field. The threshold field initially decreases with hydrostatic pressure and then increases rapidly; the negative resistance disappears at 25.5 kb. With the exception of the valley fields, which may be too low, all the theoretical results which were obtained without attempting to adjust any of the uncertain material parameter values are in good or fair agreement with data derived from experiments on the Gunn effect in GaAs, InP and CdTe.

94 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, an experimental study was made of microwave frequency multiplication observed in germanium at power levels of several kW using a fundamental frequency of 9.4 Gc/sec, a third harmonic yield of about 1% was found.

Abstract: An experimental study is made of microwave frequency multiplication observed in germanium at power levels of several kW. Using a fundamental frequency of 9.4 Gc/sec, a third harmonic yield of about 1% was found. The data agree with calculations based on the observed deviations from Ohm's law. The anisotropy and the high frequency limit of the multiplication are calculated.

22 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the relative importance of various lattice scattering processes to energy and momentum relaxation is investigated theoretically for $n$-type GaAs as a function of electric field, taking into account the nonparabolic structure of the (0, 0,0) valley.

Abstract: In the approximation of displaced Maxwell electron distribution functions, the relative importance of the various lattice scattering processes to energy and momentum relaxation is investigated theoretically for $n$-type GaAs as a function of electric field, taking into account the nonparabolic structure of the (0,0,0) valley. In this valley, at room temperature, energy and momentum relaxation is found to be governed by polar optical scattering below \ensuremath{\sim}7 kV/cm and by nonequivalent intervalley scattering between the (0,0,0) and (1,0,0) valleys above (for a deformation potential of 5\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}${10}^{8}$ eV/cm). In the (1,0,0) valleys, polar intravalley and equivalent and nonequivalent intervalley scattering are significant for the energy relaxation in like manner, whereas equivalent intervalley scattering is predominant for the momentum relaxation (for an equivalent intervalley scattering constant of ${10}^{9}$ eV/cm). The conservation equations for energy, momentum, and particle number are used to calculate the field-dependent relative population of the (1,0,0) valleys, the mobilities, the electron temperatures, the diffusion coefficients, and the field dependence of the average drift velocity; the effect of nonparabolicity on these results is discussed. Evidence is found against a nonequivalent intervalley-scattering deformation potential as low as 1\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}${10}^{8}$ eV/cm.

17 citations

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Philips

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the change of attenuation and generation of harmonics in n-type gallium arsenide, subjected to a strong microwave electric field, was investigated. But the results were limited.

Abstract: Results are presented concerning the change of attenuation and generation of harmonics in n-type gallium arsenide, subjected to a strong microwave electric field.

10 citations

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