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Journal ArticleDOI

Health Beliefs of the Female Academicians About Breast Cancer and Screening Tests and the Affecting Factors

01 Dec 2013-International Journal of Hematology and Oncology-Vol. 23, Iss: 4, pp 233-241

TL;DR: It was established that female academicians were susceptible to breast cancer, cared about it, had higher health motivation, believed in the benefits of breast self examination (BSE) and mammography and in the efficacy of the BSE.

AbstractThis was a descriptive research conducted in order to determine health beliefs of the female academicians about breast cancer and screening tests and the Affecting factors that determined these beliefs. 200 female academicians made up the sample of the research. The data were gathered by the researcher using a Descriptive Data Collection Form that aimed at the characteristics of the women and Champion’s Health Belief Model Scale (HBMS) for breast cancer and were evaluated using percentages, arithmetical means, standard deviations and Mann Whitney U test in computer environment. It was found out in the study that the female academicians who had family cancer history, acquired knowledge about breast cancer and whose academic specialty was on health presented higher mean scores in “susceptibility” and “seriousness” and “breast-self-examination self-efficacy” of HBMS but their mean scores of “barriers to breast-self-examination” and “barriers to mammography” were lower as compared with other women. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). As a result; it was established that female academicians were susceptible to breast cancer, cared about it, had higher health motivation, believed in the benefits of breast self examination (BSE) and mammography and in the efficacy of the BSE. However, female academicians’ perceptions about “barriers to BSE” and “barriers to mammography” were high.

Topics: Breast self-examination (61%), Health belief model (55%), Breast cancer (54%), Mammography (50%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study revealed that the HBM constructs are able to predict BSE behavior and its predictive factors among female university students, and self-efficacy was the most important predictor of the behavior.
Abstract: Breast cancer is a life-threatening condition affecting women around the world. The early detection of breast lumps using a breast self-examination (BSE) is important for the prevention and control of this disease. The aim of this study was to examine BSE behavior and its predictive factors among female university students using the Health Belief Model (HBM). This investigation was a cross-sectional survey carried out with 334 female students at Urmia University of Medical Sciences in the northwest of Iran. To collect the necessary data, researchers applied a valid and reliable three-part questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a chi-square test, in addition to multivariate logistic regression statistics in SPSS software version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The results indicated that 82 of the 334 participants (24.6%) reported practicing BSEs. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that high perceived severity [OR = 2.38, 95% CI = (1.02–5.54)], high perceived benefits [OR = 1.94, 95% CI = (1.09–3.46)], and high perceived self-efficacy [OR = 13.15, 95% CI = (3.64–47.51)] were better predictors of BSE behavior (P < 0.05) than low perceived severity, benefits, and self-efficacy. The findings also showed that a high level of knowledge compared to a low level of knowledge [OR = 5.51, 95% CI = (1.79–16.86)] and academic undergraduate and graduate degrees compared to doctoral degrees [OR = 2.90, 95% CI = (1.42–5.92)] of the participants were predictors of BSE performance (P < 0.05). The study revealed that the HBM constructs are able to predict BSE behavior. Among these constructs, self-efficacy was the most important predictor of the behavior. Interventions based on the constructs of perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and severity are recommended for increasing women’s regular screening for breast cancer.

38 citations


Cites background from "Health Beliefs of the Female Academ..."

  • ...Despite the potential benefits of screening in detecting breast cancer, many women still do not undergo the recommended screening tests [8]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Female academicians in Turkey exhibit positive attitudes towards breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography as they have higher perceived sensitivity against breast cancer, self-efficacy and fewer barriers.
Abstract: Breast cancer is an important cancer type and the most common malignancy among women in both developed and developing countries and the second leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. This study aimed to examine the projected risk of breast cancer in Turkish women academician, determine the levels of their breast cancer screening behaviors and uncover the relationship between their health beliefs and screening behaviors. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from March to July 2018 in the province of Aydin, Turkey with a total of 200 female academicians. The data were collected using questionnaires filled out by the participants and the Turkish version of the Champion Health Belief Model Scale. Data were analyzed using t test, ANOVA, Chi-square and logistic regression performed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. The mean age of the female academics was 36.1 ± 0.53 years. The female performing breast self-examination had higher perceived sensitivity (OR = 2.88, 95% Cl 1.32, 2.66) benefits to breast self-examination (OR = 0.90, 95% Cl 0.82, 0.99), self-efficacy (OR = 0.87, 95% Cl 0.81, 0.93) health motivation (OR = 1.74, 95% Cl 0.50, 0.90), benefit to mammography (OR = 0.97, 95% Cl 0.88, 1.08), lower barrier to mammography (OR = 1.05, 95% Cl 1.0, 1.09) than women who did not. Female academics with clinical breast examination had higher self-efficacy (OR = 0.91, 95% Cl 0.86, 0.97) and lower barrier to mammography (OR = 1.06, 95% Cl 1.02, 1.10) than women who did not. The female with take mammography had higher sensitivity (OR = 0.84, 95% Cl 0.72, 0.98), lower barrier to breast self-examination (OR = 1.08, 95% Cl 1.02, 1.15) and lower barrier to mammography (OR = 1.09, 95% Cl 1.04, 1.14) than female who did not. Female academicians in Turkey exhibit positive attitudes towards breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography as they have higher perceived sensitivity against breast cancer, self-efficacy and fewer barriers. Long-term community-based programs should be extended to different groups of women from a variety of socio-demographic environments.

10 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
28 Nov 2017-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: It has been determined that Turkish women do not have adequate knowledge about cancer diagnosis, early cancer diagnosed, and screening.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to gather information about the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of women regarding breast and cervical cancer, to increase the knowledge level of the relevant age group and to begin including the relevant age group in screening programs. This cross-sectional study is composed of 6910 women aged 30-69 years in Malatya, Turkey. The study aimed to reach 1782 women with a survey, and all of them were reached. The questionnaire form was completed with face-to-face interview. For statistical analysis, data were evaluated as number and percentage distributions. The average age of the women was 45.6±11.4. Nearly half of the women (46.4%) did not know that scans for early detection of breast and cervical cancers were free. Only 22.2% of women knew that breast cancer could be diagnosed early by mammography. 72.7% had never received a mammogram. One third (31.6%) of women did not know it was possible to recognize cervical cancer early, and two thirds (64.5%) of women had not received a Pap smear test. It has been determined that Turkish women do not have adequate knowledge about cancer diagnosis, early cancer diagnosis, and screening.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was determined that awareness of breast cancer of the women was affected by breast cancer fatalism, and in providing breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors, it is recommended to evaluate fatalism perceptions and health beliefs of theWomen and to arrange educational programs for this purpose.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of breast cancer fatalism and other factors on breast cancer awareness among Turkish women. This cross-sectional and comparative descriptive study was conducted with 894 women. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Powe Fatalism Inventory and Champion’s Health Belief Model Scale. Seriousness, health motivation, BSE benefits and BSE self-efficacy perceptions of the women were moderate, and susceptibility and BSE barriers perceptions were low. It was determined that awareness of breast cancer of the women was affected by breast cancer fatalism, age, education level, employment status, marital status, family type, economic status, social assurance, menopause status, family history of cancer, family history of breast cancer, knowledge on BSE, source of information on BSE, performing of BSE, frequency of BSE performing, having a problem with breast, having a breast examination in hospital, feeling during breast examination by healthcare professional, sex of healthcare professional for breast examination and their health beliefs (p < .05). The results suggested that awareness of breast cancer of the women was affected by breast cancer fatalism. In providing breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors, it is recommended to evaluate fatalism perceptions and health beliefs of the women and to arrange educational programs for this purpose.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was found that as women’s breast cancer risk level went up so did their mean HBMS scores for susceptibility and health motivation (p<0.05), and those who were susceptible to breast cancer and whose health motivation was high showed higher risk for breast cancer.
Abstract: This study was conducted in order to determine risk level of breast cancer and breast cancer awareness among the women aged ≥ 65 years. The sample of the study was composed of 445 women aged over ≥ 65 years. The data were gathered with Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool and Champion’s Health Belief Model Scale for breast cancer (HBMS) and were evaluated with percentages and Kruskal Wallis test. It was found out that 1.6% of the women were under high risk while 2.7% of them were under very high risk for breast cancer. Breast cancer risk for those with personal breast cancer history was very high (mean risk score (MRS): 549.58 ± 48.26) and breast cancer risk level of the women whose mothers and sisters had breast cancer history was high (MRS: 328.46 ± 107.02). It was noted in the study that as women’s breast cancer risk level went up so did their mean HBMS scores for susceptibility and health motivation (p<0.05). Women who had personal breast cancer history, whose family members had breast cancer history, whose menarche ages were ≤ 11 years, who gave the first birth after the age of 30 had higher MRS as compared with the other women. Those who were susceptible to breast cancer and whose health motivation was high showed higher risk for breast cancer.

5 citations


References
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Book
18 Feb 2009

963 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Research was conducted to develop valid and reliable scales to test the Health Belief Model, and the dependent variable chosen for scale development was frequency of breast self-examination.
Abstract: Research was conducted to develop valid and reliable scales to test the Health Belief Model (HBM). The dependent variable chosen for scale development was frequency of breast self-examination. Independent variables were constructs related to the HBM: susceptibility, seriousness, benefits, barriers, and health motivation. Analyses for construct validity and theory testing included factor analysis and multiple regression. Chronbach Alpha and Pearson r were used to compute reliabilities. Scales that were judged valid and reliable were susceptibility, seriousness, benefits, barriers, and health motivation.

585 citations


"Health Beliefs of the Female Academ..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...HBMS was introduced by Champion and was based on health belief model scale for early diagnosis of breast cancer.(18) Turkish version, validity and reliability tests were performed by Karayurt and Dramalı(10) and Gozum and Aydın(19)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: By using the CHBMS constructs for assessment, primary health care providers can more easily understand the beliefs that influence women's BSE and mammography practice.
Abstract: Breast cancer appears to be a disease of both the developing and developed worlds. Among Turkish women, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine levels of knowledge about breast cancer and to evaluate health beliefs concerning the model that promotes breast self- examination (BSE) and mammography in a group of women aged 20–64 in a rural area of western Turkey. 244 women were recruited by means of cluster sampling in this study. The questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic variables, a risk factors and signs of breast cancer form and the adapted version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). Bivariate correlation analysis, Chi square test, Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression analysis were performed throughout the data analysis. The mean age of the women was 37.7 ± 13.7. 49.2% of women were primary school graduates, 67.6% were married. Although 76.6% of the women in this study reported that they had heard or read about breast cancer, our study revealed that only 56.1% of them had sufficient knowledge of breast cancer, half of whom had acquired the information from health professionals. Level of breast cancer knowledge was the only variable significantly associated with the BSE and mammography practice (p = 0.011, p = 0.007). BSE performers among the study group were more likely to be women who exhibited higher confidence and perceived greater benefits from BSE practice, and those who perceived fewer barriers to BSE performance and possessed knowledge of breast cancer. By using the CHBMS constructs for assessment, primary health care providers can more easily understand the beliefs that influence women's BSE and mammography practice.

294 citations


"Health Beliefs of the Female Academ..." refers background or result in this paper

  • ...According to WHO, 90% of the women in whom breast cancer is diagnosed go to the clinics after they have detected mass/masses in their breasts using BSE.1 Therefore, it is very significant that women should know their own breasts and should develop awareness towards 238 UHOD Number: 4 Volume: 23 Year: 2013 the changes in their breasts....

    [...]

  • ...The study of Dündar et al., which was in agreement with our results, indicated that age, marital status and educational level did not affect the status of performing BSE.12 As for the studies of Nahçıvan and Seçginli, it reported no correlation between marital status and BSE.14 Likewise, the study of Altunkan et al. suggested that age, educational status and having a child/children did not affect women’s susceptibility towards breast cancer.16 On the other hand, unlike our study, the same study reported that women who were aged below 39, had primary school degree or below and did not have children had higher “barriers to BSE”....

    [...]

  • ..., which was in agreement with our results, indicated that age, marital status and educational level did not affect the status of performing BSE.(12) As for the studies of Nahçıvan and Seçginli, it reported no correlation between marital status and BSE....

    [...]

  • ...But according to our study findings, none of the participants performed BSE regularly and only 10% of the women occasionally performed BSE....

    [...]

  • ...None of the participants performed BSE regularly and only one of the ten women occasionally performed BSE....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Higher seriousness of breast cancer, higher benefits of having mammography, having heard/read about Mammography, and having a gynaecologist as a regular physician were significantly associated withHaving mammography.
Abstract: The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to identify breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography rates and to examine variables related to the breast cancer screening behaviours in a sample of Turkish women. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 656 women, attending three health centres and two maternal and health centres, using an adapted version of Champion's revised Health Belief Model Scale. Results showed that 17% of the women reported performing BSE on a regular basis. Women, over the age of 40, 25% reported at least one mammography. Higher susceptibility to breast cancer, higher confidence for BSE, lower barriers to BSE, and having heard/read about breast cancer and BSE were significantly associated with performing BSE. Higher seriousness of breast cancer, higher benefits of having mammography, having heard/read about mammography, and having a gynaecologist as a regular physician were significantly associated with having mammography.

205 citations


"Health Beliefs of the Female Academ..." refers background or result in this paper

  • ...According to WHO, 90% of the women in whom breast cancer is diagnosed go to the clinics after they have detected mass/masses in their breasts using BSE.1 Therefore, it is very significant that women should know their own breasts and should develop awareness towards 238 UHOD Number: 4 Volume: 23 Year: 2013 the changes in their breasts....

    [...]

  • ...The study of Dündar et al., which was in agreement with our results, indicated that age, marital status and educational level did not affect the status of performing BSE.12 As for the studies of Nahçıvan and Seçginli, it reported no correlation between marital status and BSE.14 Likewise, the study of Altunkan et al. suggested that age, educational status and having a child/children did not affect women’s susceptibility towards breast cancer.16 On the other hand, unlike our study, the same study reported that women who were aged below 39, had primary school degree or below and did not have children had higher “barriers to BSE”....

    [...]

  • ...But according to our study findings, none of the participants performed BSE regularly and only 10% of the women occasionally performed BSE....

    [...]

  • ...None of the participants performed BSE regularly and only one of the ten women occasionally performed BSE....

    [...]

  • ...As for the studies of Nahçıvan and Seçginli, it reported no correlation between marital status and BSE.(14) Likewise, the study of Altunkan et al....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Investigating factors and beliefs that may be related to the practice of breast self-examination among a group of Jordanian women found confidence, motivation, susceptibility, and fewer barriers were variables that showed a positive association with BSE practice in the previous year, while benefits, susceptible, and motivation influenced the intention to perform BSE in the future.
Abstract: The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational, descriptive study was to investigate factors and beliefs that may be related to the practice of breast self-examination (BSE) among a group of Jordanian women. The sample consisted of 519 women from two major universities in Jordan. About 36% of the sample were university employees and 64% were graduate and undergraduate students. Stratified random sampling was used to enroll the undergraduate students while graduate students and employees were selected by convenience sampling. The study instrument was an adapted version of Champion's Revised Health Belief Model Scale (CRHBMS). The results were analyzed using a chi-square test and a stepwise multiple regression. The main findings indicate that although the majority of the sample population (67%) had heard/read about BSE, only a quarter of them reported that they had ever practiced BSE in the previous 12 months, and only 7% had performed it on a regular monthly basis. Confidence, motivation, susceptibility, and fewer barriers were variables that showed a positive association with BSE practice in the previous year, while benefits, susceptibility, and motivation influenced the intention to perform BSE in the future. Women's age, level of education, having heard or read about breast tumors, and personal history of breast tumors were also found to be significant predictors of BSE practice.

169 citations


"Health Beliefs of the Female Academ..." refers background or result in this paper

  • ...When the literature is analyzed, it is seen that rate of women who perform BSE is much bigger in European and American countries than African and Asian countries.(3-8) In the studies on relevant issue made in Turkey with women with different characteristics, it was emphasized that rate of BSE was low....

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  • ...The studies made on this issue showed that main reasons for women’s negative thoughts and attitudes about breast cancer early diagnosis methods were the fear to find lump and the opinion that breast cancer was an incurable disease although it was early diagnosed.(3-8,17) These findings concurred with our findings....

    [...]

  • ...Yet, it is reported in the studies on the issue that women’s breast cancer screening rate is low.(3-8) Besides, women’s health beliefs on screening methods generally affect utilization-rate of BSE, mammography and other methods....

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  • ...But the studies of Petro- Nustus and Mikhail presented a positive correlation between rate of BSE and advanced age and increased educational level, too.(4) Similarly, the studies of Jarvandi et al....

    [...]

  • ...The studies conducted point out that breast cancer awareness and health behaviors of women were poor and not sufficient.(3-11) Therefore; it is vital to enhance women’s breast cancer awareness, to develop positive health beliefs and attitudes among them and to increase the number of screening methods in order to diagnose breast cancer at primary care and to decrease mortality rate....

    [...]