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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Heat pulse optimization by SPICE simulation for transient thermography in silicon

15 Mar 2002-Vol. 4710, pp 618-625
TL;DR: In this paper, a silicon diaphragm fabricated on one surface of a silicon wafer has been electro-thermally modeled as a 3-D Resistance Capacitance (RC) network.
Abstract: Silicon, apart from conventional integrated circuits, is also the basis for fabricating miniaturized 3-dimensional (3-D) mechanical structures. This paper presents a technique for the optimization of time duration of heat pulse required for transient thermography in silicon wafers. In the present work, a silicon diaphragm fabricated on one surface of a silicon wafer has been electro-thermally modeled as a 3-D Resistance Capacitance (RC) network. The region below the diaphragm was treated as a defect. Heat transfer by all three modes: conduction, convection and radiation has been taken into account. A C++ program generates the equivalent electrical circuit of the given sample, which was then directly simulated by SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis), a popular electrical circuit simulator. Experimental verification was performed on the silicon diaphragm sample. Prediction of a time duration in which temperature contrast of the sample reaches its maximum (saturation) value with minimum rise of sample temperature, is experimentally verified. This could be very useful in thermography situations where temperature rise should be no more than necessary to avoid potentially dangerous thermal stresses. Another possible use of the technique is for finding the heat flux of very short-pulsed heat sources.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a simple correction formula based on the measurement of the temperature drift image was proposed to compensate for the errors caused by the initial temperature drift, and the effect of this correction has been studied on the in-phase, quadrature, amplitude and phase signals of LIT.
Abstract: This paper presents the fast implementation of Lock-in Thermography (LIT) before reaching steady-state conditions. The errors caused by the initial temperature drift are compensated by a simple correction formula based on the measurement of the temperature drift image. The effect of this correction has been studied on the in-phase, quadrature, amplitude and the phase signals of lock-in thermography. Simulations and experiments have been performed for this study while considering a specific application of LIT for the investigation of solar cells. This study shows that in our case the error caused by the temperature drift is basically a baseline shift in the in-phase and the quadrature signal, and does not significantly affect the relative shape and spatial resolution of these signals. However, for the amplitude and phase signal this correction is more significant and affects also the relative shape of the signals. Experimental results validate the correction method and its effectiveness in eliminating errors from LIT data measured before thermal equilibrium has been established.

23 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a distributed resistance-capacitance (RC) model of transient heat conduction is used to estimate defect depth and area from single point surface temperature evolutions over the defect and non-defect regions of material subjected to step heating.
Abstract: This paper exploits a resistance–capacitance ( RC ) model of transient heat conduction for estimation of defect depth, and more significantly of the defect area, from single point surface temperature evolutions over the defect and non-defect regions of material subjected to step heating. For the initial time behaviour of the surface temperature, a distributed RC model has been presented and analysed for estimation of defect depth and area. In contrast, a lumped RC model forms the basis for obtaining an analytical expression for defect area from the later part of the surface temperature evolution. The derived analytical expression estimates the defect area from the defect depth, the saturation value of the absolute thermal contrast and the slopes of the initial and final surface temperature evolution. The presented method does not require knowledge of material thermal properties or the value of the incident heat flux for estimation of defect parameters. The method has been validated by estimating the parameters of defects of various sizes and at different depths from experimental and simulated surface temperature evolutions.

17 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
15 Mar 2002
TL;DR: In this article, a novel current source based electro-thermal modeling of radiative heat sources is introduced, where the current source value was derived from pyranometer-based measurements of the heat flux from the source, and a mild steel sample with a blind hole below the front surface, irradiated by a heat pulse, has been modeled by the proposed technique.
Abstract: This paper presents modeling of transient thermography in terms of equivalent electrical parameters, its simulation using a popular circuit simulator SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis), followed by experimental verification. A novel current source based electro-thermal modeling of radiative heat sources is introduced. Analytic comparison of thermal and electrical circuits forms the basis for modeling and simulation of transient thermography experiments, in which the current source (modeling rate of incident radiative energy) drives a 3-dimensional (3-D) Resistance-Capacitance (RC) network (modeling heat conduction in the material). The current source value was derived from pyranometer-based measurements of the heat flux from the source. A mild-steel sample with a blind hole below the front surface, irradiated by a heat pulse, has been modeled by the proposed technique. SPICE then simulates the absolute thermal contrast of the surface as a function of time, in moderate computing time (seconds). The simulations compare well with experimental observations and similar to generally reported results. Current source approach, allows estimation of radiative heat flux necessary, to view sub-surface defects in a given material, at different depths, in general, and to predict time and magnitude of surface temperature over the defect and non-defect region in particular.

2 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2020
TL;DR: In this article, an approach to obtain solutions by channelling the electro-thermal analogy and using an electrical circuit simulator to model active infrared thermography in non-destructive testing of electronic structures is presented.
Abstract: The article presents an approach to obtain solutions by channelling the electro-thermal (ET) analogy and using an electrical circuit simulator to model active infrared thermography in non-destructive testing of electronic structures. The analogy can be used to determinate an optimal thermographic procedure parameters to effectively detect hidden defects and malfunctions in electronic devices and structures. To evaluate the effectiveness of the approach, the results of the FEM, FDM, and ET modelling of different regimes of active thermography for non-destructive testing of electronic structures have been compared and verified by experimental measurements.

1 citations


Cites methods from "Heat pulse optimization by SPICE si..."

  • ...The analysis based on electrical modelling of heat transfer is popular and widely used to study the thermal behaviour of electronic devices [2] and infrared thermography modelling [3, 4]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an electro-thermal modeling using resistance-capacitance (RC) for transient heat conduction to inspect temperature variation over the surface of a material (AISI 316 steel) with defective and non-defective zones is presented.
Abstract: This paper presents electro-thermal modeling using Resistance-Capacitance (RC) for transient heat conduction to inspect temperature variation over the surface of a material (AISI 316 steel) with defective and non-defective zones. An electrical based analytic approach for stepped infrared thermography is presented based on the correspondence between the fundamental laws of heat transfer and electricity. The construction of approximate analogous electrical models of thermal problem has been used in the mathematical analysis of heat transfer. A rigorous discussion of the heat dissipation mechanism over the material is performed, to show that the temperature over the defect region is always greater than the reference area and to prove the analogy of thermal to electrical parameter from the surface temperature evolution.

1 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...This saturates absolute thermal contrast [3]....

    [...]

References
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Book
30 Apr 2001
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an active and passive approach to active thermography for nondestructive testing of infrared sensors and Optic Fundamentals using Matlab M-Scripts.
Abstract: Preface. Getting Started with Thermography for Nondestructive Testing. FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS. Introduction to Thermal Emission. Introduction to Heat Transfer. Infrared Sensors and Optic Fundamentals. Images. Automated Image Analysis. Materials. Experimental Concepts. ACTIVE THERMOGRAPHY. Active Thermography. Quantitative Data Analysis in Active Thermography. ACTIVE AND PASSIVE THERMOGRAPHY: CASE STUDIES. Applications. References and Bibliography. Appendix A: Computer Model. Appendix B: Smoothing Routing. Appendix C: Parabola Computations. Appendix D: Higher-Order Gradient Computations Based on the Roberts Gradient. Appendix E: Properties of Metals and Nonmetals. Appendix F: Matlab M-Scripts Available. Index.

1,556 citations


"Heat pulse optimization by SPICE si..." refers background in this paper

  • ...C = ρ A ∆l s (2) Heat transfer through convection can be modeled as an equivalent resistance Rconv of value: Rconv = 1/ h S (3)...

    [...]

Book
23 Nov 1998
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the basic interactions between flat surfaces, including the influence of Particles, Surface Steps, and Cavities, and thermal treatment of Bonded Wafer Pairs.
Abstract: Basics of Interactions Between Flat Surfaces. Influence of Particles, Surface Steps, and Cavities. Surface Preparation and Room-Temperature Wafer Bonding. Thermal Treatment of Bonded Wafer Pairs. Thinning Procedures. Electrical Properties of Bonding Interfaces. Stresses in Bonded Wafers. Bonding of Dissimilar Materials. Bonding of Structured Wafers. Mainstream Applications. Emerging and Future Applications. Index.

602 citations


"Heat pulse optimization by SPICE si..." refers background in this paper

  • ...C = ρ A ∆l s (2) Heat transfer through convection can be modeled as an equivalent resistance Rconv of value: Rconv = 1/ h S (3)...

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an electrical macromodel of Mason's equivalent circuit for an interdigital transducer (IDT) is proposed which is compatible to a widely used general purpose circuit simulator SPICE endowed with the capability to handle negative capacitances and inductances.
Abstract: Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices, are not normally amenable to simulation through circuit simulators. In this letter, an electrical macromodel of Mason's Equivalent Circuit for an interdigital transducer (IDT) is proposed which is compatible to a widely used general purpose circuit simulator SPICE endowed with the capability to handle negative capacitances and inductances. Illustrations have been given to demonstrate the simplicity of ascertaining the frequency and time domain characteristics of IDT and amenability to simulate the IDT along with other external circuit elements. >

23 citations

Book
01 Jan 1982

11 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
08 Mar 1998
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors use PSpice to derive non-analytic solutions to thermal heat flow problems which would otherwise be difficult or impossible to derive in the electronic circuit simulator.
Abstract: The electronic circuit simulator PSpice can provide the means of obtaining numerical non-analytic solutions to thermal heat flow problems which would otherwise be difficult or impossible to derive. Rules for relating physical heat flow parameters to equivalent distributed lossy transmission line parameters are derived. This method for numerical evaluation of the heat dissipating performance of complicated fin structures forming cold-stacks is validated by comparison with previously published analytic solutions for double stack cold plates. Although the focus of the presentation is on the static, i.e. DC performance, the extension of this numerical simulation technique to transient problems in heat transfer of interconnected fin structures is clarified.

5 citations