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Journal ArticleDOI

Heat Transfer Characteristics of High Heat Generating Integrated Circuit Chips Cooled Using Liquid Cold Plate—A Combined Numerical and Experimental Study

01 Feb 2021-Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications (American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection)-Vol. 13, Iss: 1
Abstract: This paper deals with the experimental and numerical investigations of seven integrated circuit (IC) chips cooled using the water flowing inside the cold plate at different flowrates. The study includes the supply of three different heat input cases under four different flowrates (0.063 kg/s, 0.125 kg/s, 0.25 kg/s, and 0.5 kg/s) to cool the high heat-generating IC chips mounted on the SMPS board at various positions. The optimal configuration (71-11-74-76-65-24-15) for the arrangement of the 7 IC chips is considered for the analysis. The numerical simulations are carried out using the commercial software ansys fluent (R-16) to support the experiments. Both the results (IC chips temperature) agree with each other in the error band of 8–14%. The smallest chip U6 attains the maximum temperature, as its heat attenuation rate is very high. The water flowing inside the cold plate absorbs the heat from the IC chips; by increasing the flowrate (Reynolds number increases), there is an increase in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the chips (Nusselt number increases) and ultimately cools these faster. A correlation is proposed for the Nusselt number of the chips with the Reynolds number of the flow. The results suggest that the liquid cold plate plays a vital role in the cooling of the IC chips and leads to better thermal management.

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Topics: Heat transfer (61%), Integrated circuit (54%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The current study deals with the numerical investigation of the substrate board characteristics using different materials (FR4, silicon cladding and copper cladding) on which nine nonidentical elec...

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David Copeland1Institutions (1)
01 Jan 2000-
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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
M. Saini1, R.L. WebbInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Current desktop computers typically use fan-heat sinks for cooling the CPU, referred to as active heat sinks. This work seeks to determine the heat rejection limits for such fan-heat sinks, within specific fan and heat sink space limits. A fixed volume, 80 /spl times/ 60 /spl times/ 50 mm is chosen as the limiting dimensions, which includes the fan volume. The present work addresses plane fin heat sinks, on which a typical 60 mm fan is mounted. Both duct flow and impinging flow are considered. Analytically based models are used to predict the optimum geometry (minimum convection resistance) for plane fins with duct and impinging flow configurations. Also assessed are the effects of increased fan speed (up to 25%) and heat sink base size (33% increase) on air-cooling limits in duct and impinging flow. Tests on fan-heat sinks are done to validate the predictions. Optimization is also done for an enhanced (offset-strip) fin geometry in duct flow. The plane fin is found to outperform the enhanced geometry.

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109 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Recent trends including rapid increases in the power ratings and continued miniaturization of semiconductor devices have pushed the heat dissipation of power electronics well beyond the range of conventional thermal management solutions, making control of device temperature a critical issue in the thermal packaging of power electronics. Although evaporative cooling is capable of removing very high heat fluxes, two-phase cold plates have received little attention for cooling power electronics modules. In this work, device-level analytical modeling and system-level thermal simulation are used to examine and compare single-phase and two-phase cold plates for a specified inverter module, consisting of 12 pairs of silicon insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) devices and diodes. For the conditions studied, an R134a-cooled, two-phase cold plate is found to substantially reduce the maximum IGBT temperature and spatial temperature variation, as well as reduce the pumping power and flow rate, in comparison to a conventional single-phase water-cooled cold plate. These results suggest that two-phase cold plates can be used to substantially improve the performance, reliability, and conversion efficiency of power electronics systems.

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59 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Richard C. Chu1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper represents my personal recapitualation of my 4 decades of continuous involvement in all phases of electronic cooling, from conceptual design, through engineering development to product implementation. The cooling designs that we applied successfully in the past are reviewed chronologically. The challenges we are currently facing are also discussed and an attempt is made to forecast the challenges that will confront the electronics cooling community in the near and distant future. The paper includes a summary of IBM sponsored research spanning a period of 25 years at 12 universities on a wide range of topics related to electronic cooling technology.Copyright © 2003 by ASME

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42 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Composite materials are novel inventions of material science which are often used as viable solutions in many technologically challenging situations like aero-space and satellite applications, because of their well known superior mechanical properties. The challenge which these materials always pose to the thermal designers, is knowledge of their thermal properties, effective directional thermal conductivity being one of them as this is critical in the design of systems employing these materials. The present work aims at developing a novel experimental technique for the simultaneous estimation of principal thermal conductivities of a layered honeycomb composite widely used in aerospace structures. A new standard test material exhibiting structural anisotropy with respect to thermal transport is first conceptualised, designed and fabricated. A full scale direct numerical simulation is performed on the standard test material to understand the thermal transport process in it and determine its principal thermal conductivities. Following this, carefully designed experiments are performed on the standard test material in simulated space environment (inside a vacuum chamber) and its principal thermal conductivities are estimated using the developed inverse methodology based on a synergistic combination of artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA). Experimentally obtained thermal conductivities are compared with those obtained from full scale numerical simulations. A close agreement between the experimentally and numerically estimated thermal conductivities is observed, validating the technique and establishing the possibility of use of a full scale numerical model as an alternate and standalone approach for estimation of thermal conductivities of structured integral composites. Finally, a layered honeycomb composite having carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) facesheet and aluminium core actually used in satellite applications is tested and its principal thermal conductivities are estimated. Problems related to interface thermal contact conductance in case of honeycomb composites are also brought out and addressed.

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26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Cold plates, devices used for the thermal management of electronic equipment, consist of a fluid flow space that is bounded by metallic walls. The fluid passages are designed to optimize the heat extraction from the electronics. This paper deals with the fluid flow and heat transfer in cold plates in which both the fluid flow and heat transfer experience periodic variations in the streamwise direction. The motivation for the work was to devise a methodology for dealing with problems that are highly complex and also computationally demanding. The first goal of the work was to transform the combined problems of fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer into one in which the wall heat transfer can be solved separately. The decoupling was achieved by first focusing on the solution of the full conjugate heat transfer problem for a portion of the periodic array. From this solution, heat transfer coefficients were extracted and subsequently employed for the solution of the wall heat conduction problem for the entir...

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23 citations


Performance
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No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20211
20001