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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AJOC.2021.101046

Hemi-retinal vein occlusion in a young patient with COVID-19

05 Mar 2021-American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports (Elsevier)-Vol. 22, pp 101046
Abstract: Purpose To report a case of a hemi-retinal vein occlusion (HRVO) in the setting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Observations A 32-year-old healthy male presented with a paracentral scotoma, retinal hemorrhages, and dilated and tortuous retinal vessels inferiorly in the right eye. He was diagnosed with HRVO in the setting of recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions and importance Venous thromboembolic complications and coagulation abnormalities have been widely reported in association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We highlight this case to raise awareness that a retinal vein occlusion in an otherwise healthy, young patient may be a potential manifestation of the thromboinflammatory state associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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Topics: Vein occlusion (68%), Retinal Vein (62%), Occlusion (51%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000801
Abstract: Purpose of review The novel coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) has a wide range of systemic manifestations. Ocular manifestations are now well recognized, with conjunctivitis being the most common. Posterior segment involvement is uncommon and has mainly been described in case reports. This review provides an overview of the posterior segment involvement of COVID-19. Recent findings Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 affects the retina and the choroid through either direct entry or triggering an indirect inflammatory response. Majority of the retinal findings is a result of microvascular derangement leading to cotton wool spots, intraretinal hemorrhages, paracentral acute middle maculopathy, acute macular neuroretinopathy, or retinal vein occlusions. Rarely, inflammation involving the retina or the choroid, or reactivation of previously quiescent uveitis, can be seen. Summary It is important to recognize the possible correlation between ophthalmic conditions and COVID-19 as it can aid in diagnosis, management, and mitigation of the disease.

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Topics: Cotton wool spots (57%), Choroid (56%), Posterior segment of eyeball (56%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AMSU.2021.102898
Abstract: This systematic review summarizes the evidence on patients diagnosed with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) secondary to COVID-19. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar from its inception till June 2021. From an initial 55 publications, 10 studies provided specific information on COVID-19 patients with CRVO. Studies described 10 patients, 60% were male and the mean age was 39.3 ± 11.6 years. Blurred vision (40%) and decreased vision (50%) were the most common presenting complain. Symptom onset ranged from 5 days to 6 weeks after initial complaint of fever. Laboratory results showed elevated inflammatory markers and D-dimers in 60% of patients included in our review. Common treatment options were intravitreal anti-VEGF injections, steroids, and anticoagulants. Traditional co-morbidities like diabetes mellites, hypertension, and morbid obesity (hyperlipidemia) were observed in only 3/10 patients. The prognosis was excellent as all patients saw improvement in their condition. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying CRVO as an important complication of COVID-19 infection. Thus, physicians should not overlook the likelihood of CRVO in patients with COVID-19 infection and offer prompt treatment.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-98873-1
29 Sep 2021-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 primarily affecting the respiratory system which can damage vessels walls virtually in any body district. Changes affecting retinal vessels are a good marker for systemic vascular alterations. This study investigated retinal vessels during the acute phase of COVID-19 and after patients recovery. Fifty-nine eyes from 32 COVID-19 patients and 80 eyes from 53 unexposed subjects were included. Mean arteries diameter (MAD) and mean veins diameter (MVD) were assessed through semi-automatic analysis on fundus color photos at baseline and 6 months later in patients and subjects unexposed to the virus. At baseline MAD and MVD were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients compared to unexposed subjects (p < 0.0001). Both MAD and MVD significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients at follow-up (from 97.5 ± 10.9 to 92.2 ± 11.4 µm, p < 0.0001 and from 133.1 ± 19.3 to 124.6 ± 16.1 µm, p < 0.0001, respectively). Despite this reduction vessels diameter remained significantly higher in severe COVID-19 patients compared to unexposed subjects. Transient retinal vessels dilation could serve a biomarker for systemic inflammation while long-lasting alterations seen in severe COVID-19 likely reflect irreversible structural damage to the vessels walls and should be further investigated for their possible effects on tissues perfusion and function.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/JTH.14768
Ning Tang1, Dengju Li1, Xiong Wang1, Ziyong Sun1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Background: In the recent outbreak of novel coronavirus infection in Wuhan, China, significantly abnormal coagulation parameters in severe novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) cases were a concern. Objectives: To describe the coagulation feature of patients with NCP. Methods: Conventional coagulation results and outcomes of 183 consecutive patients with confirmed NCP in Tongji hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The overall mortality was 11.5%, the non-survivors revealed significantly higher D-dimer and fibrin degradation product (FDP) levels, longer prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time compared to survivors on admission (P < .05); 71.4% of non-survivors and 0.6% survivors met the criteria of disseminated intravascular coagulation during their hospital stay. Conclusions: The present study shows that abnormal coagulation results, especially markedly elevated D-dimer and FDP are common in deaths with NCP.

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Topics: D-dimer (59%), Partial thromboplastin time (56%), Prothrombin time (56%) ... read more

3,232 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.THROMRES.2020.04.013
Abstract: Introduction COVID-19 may predispose to both venous and arterial thromboembolism due to excessive inflammation, hypoxia, immobilisation and diffuse intravascular coagulation. Reports on the incidence of thrombotic complications are however not available. Methods We evaluated the incidence of the composite outcome of symptomatic acute pulmonary embolism (PE), deep-vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction or systemic arterial embolism in all COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU of 2 Dutch university hospitals and 1 Dutch teaching hospital. Results We studied 184 ICU patients with proven COVID-19 pneumonia of whom 23 died (13%), 22 were discharged alive (12%) and 139 (76%) were still on the ICU on April 5th 2020. All patients received at least standard doses thromboprophylaxis. The cumulative incidence of the composite outcome was 31% (95%CI 20-41), of which CTPA and/or ultrasonography confirmed VTE in 27% (95%CI 17-37%) and arterial thrombotic events in 3.7% (95%CI 0-8.2%). PE was the most frequent thrombotic complication (n = 25, 81%). Age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.05/per year, 95%CI 1.004-1.01) and coagulopathy, defined as spontaneous prolongation of the prothrombin time > 3 s or activated partial thromboplastin time > 5 s (aHR 4.1, 95%CI 1.9-9.1), were independent predictors of thrombotic complications. Conclusion The 31% incidence of thrombotic complications in ICU patients with COVID-19 infections is remarkably high. Our findings reinforce the recommendation to strictly apply pharmacological thrombosis prophylaxis in all COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU, and are strongly suggestive of increasing the prophylaxis towards high-prophylactic doses, even in the absence of randomized evidence.

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Topics: Cumulative incidence (56%), Arterial embolism (54%), Embolism (53%) ... read more

2,835 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1182/BLOOD.2020006000
Jean M. Connors1, Jerrold H. Levy2Institutions (2)
04 Jun 2020-Blood
Abstract: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced infection can be associated with a coagulopathy, findings consistent with infection-induced inflammatory changes as observed in patients with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC). The lack of prior immunity to COVID-19 has resulted in large numbers of infected patients across the globe and uncertainty regarding management of the complications that arise in the course of this viral illness. The lungs are the target organ for COVID-19; patients develop acute lung injury that can progress to respiratory failure, although multiorgan failure can also occur. The initial coagulopathy of COVID-19 presents with prominent elevation of D-dimer and fibrin/fibrinogen-degradation products, whereas abnormalities in prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet counts are relatively uncommon in initial presentations. Coagulation test screening, including the measurement of D-dimer and fibrinogen levels, is suggested. COVID-19-associated coagulopathy should be managed as it would be for any critically ill patient, following the established practice of using thromboembolic prophylaxis for critically ill hospitalized patients, and standard supportive care measures for those with sepsis-induced coagulopathy or DIC. Although D-dimer, sepsis physiology, and consumptive coagulopathy are indicators of mortality, current data do not suggest the use of full-intensity anticoagulation doses unless otherwise clinically indicated. Even though there is an associated coagulopathy with COVID-19, bleeding manifestations, even in those with DIC, have not been reported. If bleeding does occur, standard guidelines for the management of DIC and bleeding should be followed.

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Topics: Consumptive Coagulopathy (66%), Coagulopathy (65%), Lung injury (53%) ... read more

1,280 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1136/BMJ.326.7403.1358
Raymond S.M. Wong1, Alan Wu, Ka Fai To, Nelson Lee  +9 moreInstitutions (1)
19 Jun 2003-BMJ
Abstract: Objectives To evaluate the haematological findings of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Design Analysis of the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of patients with SARS. Setting Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong. Subjects All patients with a diagnosis of SARS between 11 March and 29 March 2003 who had no pre-existing haematological disorders. Main outcome measures Clinical end points included the need for intensive care and death. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to examine factors associated with adverse outcome. Results 64 male and 93 female patients were included in this study. The most common findings included lymphopenia in 153 (98%) of the 157 patients, neutrophilia in 129 (82%), thrombocytopenia in 87 patients (55%), followed by thrombocytosis in 77 (49%), and isolated prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time in 96 patients (63%). The haemoglobin count dropped by more than 20 g/l from baseline in 95 (61%) patients. Four patients (2.5%) developed disseminated intravascular coagulation. Lymphopenia was shown in haemato-lymphoid organs at postmortem examination. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age and a high concentration of lactate dehydrogenase at presentation were independent predictors of an adverse outcome. Subsets of peripheral blood lymphocytes were analysed in 31 patients. The counts of CD4 positive and CD8 positive T cells fell early in the course of illness. Low counts of CD4 and CD8 cells at presentation were associated with adverse outcomes. Conclusions Abnormal haematological variables were common among patients with SARS. Lymphopenia and the depletion of T lymphocyte subsets may be associated with disease activity.

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Topics: Intensive care (54%), Thrombocytosis (53%), Lymphocytopenia (50%)

472 Citations


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