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Open accessPosted Content

HI constraints from the cross-correlation of eBOSS galaxies and Green Bank Telescope intensity maps

Abstract: We present the joint analysis of Neutral Hydrogen (HI) Intensity Mapping observations with three galaxy samples: the Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) and Emission Line Galaxy (ELG) samples from the eBOSS survey, and the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey sample The HI intensity maps are Green Bank Telescope observations of the redshifted 21cm emission on 100deg2 covering the redshift range $06

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Topics: Content (measure theory) (65%)
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14 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MNRAS/STAB1365
Jingying Wang1, Mario G. Santos1, Philip Bull2, Philip Bull1  +13 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: While most purpose-built 21cm intensity mapping experiments are close-packed interferometer arrays, general-purpose dish arrays should also be capable of measuring the cosmological 21cm signal. This can be achieved most efficiently if the array is used as a collection of scanning autocorrelation dishes rather than as an interferometer. As a first step towards demonstrating the feasibility of this observing strategy, we show that we are able to successfully calibrate dual-polarisation autocorrelation data from 64 MeerKAT dishes in the L-band (856-1712 MHz, 4096 channels), with 10.5 hours of data retained from six nights of observing. We describe our calibration pipeline, which is based on multi-level RFI flagging, periodic noise diode injection to stabilise gain drifts and an absolute calibration based on a multi-component sky model. We show that it is sufficiently accurate to recover maps of diffuse celestial emission and point sources over a 10 deg x 30 deg patch of the sky overlapping with the WiggleZ 11hr field. The reconstructed maps have a good level of consistency between per-dish maps and external datasets, with the estimated thermal noise limited to 1.4 x the theoretical noise level (~ 2 mK). The residual maps have rms amplitudes below 0.1 K, corresponding to <1% of the model temperature. The reconstructed Galactic HI intensity map shows excellent agreement with the Effelsberg-Bonn HI Survey, and the flux of the radio galaxy 4C+03.18 is recovered to within 3.6%, which demonstrates that the autocorrelation can be successfully calibrated to give the zero-spacing flux and potentially help in the imaging of MeerKAT interferometric data. Our results provide a positive indication towards the feasibility of using MeerKAT and the future SKA to measure the HI intensity mapping signal and probe cosmology on degree scales and above.

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Topics: Intensity mapping (52%)

17 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MNRAS/STAB856
Abstract: The success of HI intensity mapping is largely dependent on how well 21cm foreground contamination can be controlled. In order to progress our understanding further, we present a range of simulated foreground data from four different $\sim3000$\,deg$^2$ sky regions, with and without effects from polarization leakage. Combining these with underlying cosmological HI simulations creates a range of single-dish intensity mapping test cases that require different foreground treatments. This allows us to conduct the most generalized study to date into 21cm foregrounds and their cleaning techniques for the post-reionization era. We first provide a pedagogical review of the most commonly used blind foreground removal techniques (PCA/SVD, FASTICA, GMCA). We also trial a non-blind parametric fitting technique and discuss potential hybridization of methods. We highlight the similarities and differences in these techniques finding that the blind methods produce near equivalent results, and we explain the fundamental reasons for this. The simulations allow an exact decomposition of the resulting cleaned data and we analyse the contribution from foreground residuals. Our results demonstrate that polarized foreground residuals should be generally subdominant to HI on small scales ($k\gtrsim0.1\,h\,\text{Mpc}^{-1}$). However, on larger scales, results are more region dependent. In some cases, aggressive cleans severely damp HI power but still leave dominant foreground residuals. We also demonstrate the gain from cross-correlations with optical galaxy surveys, where extreme levels of residual foregrounds can be circumvented. However, these residuals still contribute to errors and we discuss the optimal balance between over- and under-cleaning.

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13 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MNRAS/STAB1688
Abstract: Upcoming and future neutral hydrogen Intensity Mapping surveys offer a great opportunity to constrain cosmology in the post-reionization Universe, provided a good accuracy is achieved in the separation between the strong foregrounds and the cosmological signal. Cleaning methods rely on the frequency smoothness of the foregrounds and are often applied under the assumption of a simplistic Gaussian primary beam. In this work, we test the cleaning in the presence of a realistic primary beam model with a non trivial frequency dependence. We focus on the Square Kilometre Array precursor MeerKAT telescope and simulate a single-dish wide area survey. We consider the main foreground components, including an accurate full sky point source catalogue. We find that the coupling between beam sidelobes and the foreground structure can complicate the cleaning. However, when the beam frequency dependence is smooth, we show that the cleaning is only problematic if the far sidelobes are unexpectedly large. Even in that case, a proper reconstruction is possible if the strongest point sources are removed and the cleaning is more aggressive. We then consider a non-trivial frequency dependence: a sinusoidal type feature in the beam width that is present in the MeerKAT beam and is expected in most dishes, including SKA1-MID. Such a feature, coupling with the foreground emission, biases the reconstruction of the signal across frequency, potentially impacting the cosmological analysis. Interestingly, such contamination is present at a lower level even when no point sources are included and the beam is Gaussian, showing that this frequency ripple can be problematic even within the main lobe. We show that this effect is constrained to a narrow region in $k_\parallel$ space and can be reduced if the maps are carefully re-smoothed to a common lower resolution.

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Topics: Beam diameter (58%)

12 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MNRAS/STAB2594
Abstract: We apply for the first time Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) as a foreground removal technique in the context of single-dish, low redshift HI intensity mapping, and present an open-source python toolkit for doing so. We use MeerKAT and SKA1-MID-like simulations of 21cm foregrounds (including polarisation leakage), HI cosmological signal and instrumental noise. We find that it is possible to use GPR as a foreground removal technique in this context, and that it is better suited in some cases to recover the HI power spectrum than Principal Component Analysis (PCA), especially on small scales. GPR is especially good at recovering the radial power spectrum, outperforming PCA when considering the full bandwidth of our data. Both methods are worse at recovering the transverse power spectrum, since they rely on frequency-only covariance information. When halving our data along frequency, we find that GPR performs better in the low frequency range, where foregrounds are brighter. It performs worse than PCA when frequency channels are missing, to emulate RFI flagging. We conclude that GPR is an excellent foreground removal option for the case of single-dish, low redshift HI intensity mapping. Our python toolkit gpr4im and the data used in this analysis are publicly available on GitHub. The GitHub symbol in the caption of each figure links to a jupyter notebook showing how the figure was produced.

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Topics: Intensity mapping (52%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MNRAS/STAB2200
Abstract: The bispectrum is a 3-point statistic with the potential to provide additional information beyond power spectra analyses of survey datasets. Radio telescopes which broadly survey the 21cm emission from neutral hydrogen (HI) are a promising way to probe LSS and in this work we present an investigation into the HI intensity mapping (IM) bispectrum using simulations. We present a model of the redshift space HI IM bispectrum including observational effects from the radio telescope beam and 21cm foreground contamination. We validate our modelling prescriptions with measurements from robust IM simulations, inclusive of these observational effects. Our foreground simulations include polarisation leakage, on which we use a Principal Component Analysis cleaning method. We also investigate the effects from a non-Gaussian beam including side-lobes. For a MeerKAT-like single-dish IM survey at $z=0.39$, we find that foreground removal causes a 8% reduction in the equilateral bispectrum's signal-to-noise ratio $S/N$, whereas the beam reduces it by 62%. We find our models perform well, generally providing $\chi^2_\text{dof}\sim 1$, indicating a good fit to the data. Whilst our focus is on post-reionisation, single-dish IM, our modelling of observational effects, especially foreground removal, can also be relevant to interferometers and reionisation studies.

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Topics: Bispectrum (64%), Intensity mapping (51%)

5 Citations


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6 results found


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: We discuss the ground-breaking science that will be possible with a wide area survey, using the MeerKAT telescope, known as MeerKLASS (MeerKAT Large Area Synoptic Survey). The current specifications of MeerKAT make it a great fit for science applications that require large survey speeds but not necessarily high angular resolutions. In particular, for cosmology, a large survey over $\sim 4,000 \, {\rm deg}^2$ for $\sim 4,000$ hours will potentially provide the first ever measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillations using the 21cm intensity mapping technique, with enough accuracy to impose constraints on the nature of dark energy. The combination with multi-wavelength data will give unique additional information, such as exquisite constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity using the multi-tracer technique, as well as a better handle on foregrounds and systematics. Such a wide survey with MeerKAT is also a great match for HI galaxy studies, providing unrivalled statistics in the pre-SKA era for galaxies resolved in the HI emission line beyond local structures at z > 0.01. It will also produce a large continuum galaxy sample down to a depth of about 5\,$\mu$Jy in L-band, which is quite unique over such large areas and will allow studies of the large-scale structure of the Universe out to high redshifts, complementing the galaxy HI survey to form a transformational multi-wavelength approach to study galaxy dynamics and evolution. Finally, the same survey will supply unique information for a range of other science applications, including a large statistical investigation of galaxy clusters as well as produce a rotation measure map across a huge swathe of the sky. The MeerKLASS survey will be a crucial step on the road to using SKA1-MID for cosmological applications and other commensal surveys, as described in the top priority SKA key science projects (abridged).

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Topics: Intensity mapping (52%), Galaxy (52%)

59 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: The Arecibo Ultra Deep Survey (AUDS) combines the unique sensitivity of the telescope with the wide field of the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) to directly detect 21cm HI emission from galaxies at distances beyond the local Universe bounded by the lower frequency limit of ALFA (z=0.16). AUDS has collected 700 hours of integration time in two fields with a combined area of 1.35 square degrees. In this paper we present data from 60% of the total survey, corresponding to a sensitivity level of 80 micro-Jy. We discuss the data reduction, the search for galaxies, parametrisation, optical identification and completeness. We detect 102 galaxies in the mass range of log M_HI/M_sun-2log h=5.6-10.3. We compute the HI mass function (HIMF) at the highest redshifts so far measured. A fit of a Schechter function results in alpha=-1.37+-0.03, Phi=(7.72+-1.4)*10^3 h^3/Mpc^3 and log M_HI/M_sun=9.75+-0.041+2log h. Using the measured HIMF, we find a cosmic HI density of Omega_HI=(2.33+-0.07)*10^-4/h for the sample z=0.065. We discuss further uncertainties arising from cosmic variance. Because of its depth, AUDS is the first survey that can determine parameters for the HI mass function in independent redshift bins from a single homogeneous data set. The results indicate little evolution of the co-moving mass function and Omega_HI within this redshift range. We calculate a weighted average for Omega_HI in the range $0

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40 Citations


Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Using the 21 cm line, observed all-sky and across the redshift range from 0 to 5, the large scale structure of the Universe can be mapped in three dimensions. This can be accomplished by studying specific intensity with resolution ~ 10 Mpc, rather than via the usual galaxy redshift survey. The data set can be analyzed to determine Baryon Acoustic Oscillation wavelengths, in order to address the question: 'What is the nature of Dark Energy?' In addition, the study of Large Scale Structure across this range addresses the questions: 'How does Gravity effect very large objects?' and 'What is the composition our Universe?' The same data set can be used to search for and catalog time variable and transient radio sources.

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Topics: Redshift survey (60%), Intensity mapping (60%), Redshift (55%) ... show more

24 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MNRAS/STAA3856
Yichao Li1, Mario G. Santos, Keith Grainge, Stuart Harper  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The nature of the time correlated noise component (the 1/f noise) of single dish radio telescopes is critical to the detectability of the HI signal in intensity mapping experiments. In this paper, we present the 1/f noise properties of the MeerKAT receiver system using South Celestial Pole (SCP) tracking data. We estimate both the temporal power spectrum density and the 2D power spectrum density for each of the antennas and polarizations. We apply Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to the dataset and show that, by removing the strongest components, the 1/f noise can be drastically reduced, indicating that it is highly correlated in frequency. Without SVD mode subtraction, the knee frequency over a $20\,$MHz integration is higher than $0.1\,\rm Hz$; with just $2$~mode subtraction, the knee frequency is reduced to $\sim 3\times 10^{-3}\,{\rm Hz}$, indicating that the system induced 1/f-type variations are well under the thermal noise fluctuations over a few hundred seconds time scales. The 2D power spectrum shows that the 1/f-type variations are restricted to a small region in the time-frequency space, either with long wavelength correlations in frequency or in time. This gives a wide range of cosmological scales where the 21cm signal can be measured without further need to calibrate the gain time fluctuations. Finally, we demonstrate that a simple power spectrum parameterization is sufficient to describe the data and provide fitting parameters for both the 1D and 2D power spectrum.

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Topics: Noise (electronics) (60%), Spectral density (59%)

19 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MNRAS/STAB1365
Jingying Wang1, Mario G. Santos1, Philip Bull1, Philip Bull2  +13 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: While most purpose-built 21cm intensity mapping experiments are close-packed interferometer arrays, general-purpose dish arrays should also be capable of measuring the cosmological 21cm signal. This can be achieved most efficiently if the array is used as a collection of scanning autocorrelation dishes rather than as an interferometer. As a first step towards demonstrating the feasibility of this observing strategy, we show that we are able to successfully calibrate dual-polarisation autocorrelation data from 64 MeerKAT dishes in the L-band (856-1712 MHz, 4096 channels), with 10.5 hours of data retained from six nights of observing. We describe our calibration pipeline, which is based on multi-level RFI flagging, periodic noise diode injection to stabilise gain drifts and an absolute calibration based on a multi-component sky model. We show that it is sufficiently accurate to recover maps of diffuse celestial emission and point sources over a 10 deg x 30 deg patch of the sky overlapping with the WiggleZ 11hr field. The reconstructed maps have a good level of consistency between per-dish maps and external datasets, with the estimated thermal noise limited to 1.4 x the theoretical noise level (~ 2 mK). The residual maps have rms amplitudes below 0.1 K, corresponding to <1% of the model temperature. The reconstructed Galactic HI intensity map shows excellent agreement with the Effelsberg-Bonn HI Survey, and the flux of the radio galaxy 4C+03.18 is recovered to within 3.6%, which demonstrates that the autocorrelation can be successfully calibrated to give the zero-spacing flux and potentially help in the imaging of MeerKAT interferometric data. Our results provide a positive indication towards the feasibility of using MeerKAT and the future SKA to measure the HI intensity mapping signal and probe cosmology on degree scales and above.

... read more

Topics: Intensity mapping (52%)

17 Citations


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202114