# High frequency techniques for antenna analysis

01 Jan 1992-Vol. 80, Iss: 1, pp 44-65

TL;DR: A summary of various high-frequency techniques for analyzing the electromagnetic radiation from antennas in the presence of their host environment is presented in this paper, where numerical results are compared with those based on other independent methods or with measurements.

Abstract: A summary of various high-frequency techniques is presented for analyzing the electromagnetic radiation from antennas in the presence of their host environment. These techniques provide physical insight into antenna radiation mechanisms and are found to be highly efficient and accurate for treating a variety of practical antenna configurations. Examples to which these techniques have been applied include open-ended waveguide antennas, horn and reflector antennas, and antennas on aircraft and spacecraft. The accuracy of these techniques is established via numerical results which are compared with those based on other independent methods or with measurements. These high frequency methods can be combined with other techniques, through a hybrid scheme, to solve an even greater class of problems than those which can be solved in an efficient and tractable manner by any one technique alone. >

##### Citations

More filters

•

11 Apr 2005TL;DR: In this paper, the three most popular full-wave methods, the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTM), the Method of Moments (MOM) and the Fine Element Method (FEEM), are introduced by way of one or two-dimensional problems.

Abstract: The numerical approximation of Maxwell's equations, Computational Electromagnetics (CEM), has emerged as a crucial enabling technology for radio-frequency, microwave and wireless engineering. The three most popular 'full-wave' methods - the Finite Difference Time Domain Method, the Method of Moments and the Finite Element Method - are introduced in this book by way of one or two-dimensional problems. Commercial or public domain codes implementing these methods are then applied to complex, real-world engineering problems, and a careful analysis of the reliability of the results obtained is performed, along with a discussion of the many pitfalls which can result in inaccurate and misleading solutions. The book will empower readers to become discerning users of CEM software, with an understanding of the underlying methods, and confidence in the results obtained. It also introduces readers to the art of code development. Aimed at senior undergraduate/graduate students taking CEM courses and practising engineers in the industry.

325 citations

••

Virginia Tech

^{1}TL;DR: The planar inverted cone antenna (PICA) as mentioned in this paper provides ultrawideband (UWB) performance with a radiation pattern similar to monopole disk antennas, but is smaller in size.

Abstract: A new antenna, the planar inverted cone antenna (PICA), provides ultrawideband (UWB) performance with a radiation pattern similar to monopole disk antennas , but is smaller in size. Extensive simulations and experiments demonstrate that the PICA antenna provides more than a 10:1 impedance bandwidth (for VSWR<2) and supports a monopole type omnidirectional pattern over 4:1 bandwidth. A second version of the PICA with two circular holes changes the current flow on the metal disk and extends the high end of the operating frequency range, improving the pattern bandwidth to 7:1.

319 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, a current-based hybrid method combining the method of moments (MM) with the physical optics (PO) approximation for 3D perfectly conducting bodies is proposed, which allows a substantial reduction of computation time and memory requirement.

Abstract: The method of moments (MM) represents a suitable procedure for dealing with electromagnetic scattering problems of arbitrary geometrical shape in the lower frequency range. However, with increasing frequency both computation time and memory requirement often exceed available computer capacities. Therefore a current based hybrid method combining the MM with the physical optics (PO) approximation suitable for three-dimensional perfectly conducting bodies is proposed in this paper. The hybrid formulation allows a substantial reduction of computation time and memory requirement, while the results are in reasonable agreement with those based on an application of the MM alone. Further improvement can be achieved for flat polygonal parts of the scattering body by a heuristic modification of the PO current density taking into account the effects of edges. As opposed to the physical theory of diffraction (PTD), no additional electric and magnetic line currents along the edges are necessary. >

254 citations

••

TL;DR: In this paper, a time-domain version of the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (TD-UTD) is developed to describe the transient electromagnetic scattering from a perfectly conducting, arbitrarily curved wedge excited by a general time impulsive astigmatic wavefront.

Abstract: A time-domain version of the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (TD-UTD) is developed to describe, in closed form, the transient electromagnetic scattering from a perfectly conducting, arbitrarily curved wedge excited by a general time impulsive astigmatic wavefront. This TD-UTD impulse response is obtained by a Fourier inversion of the corresponding frequency domain UTD solution. An analytic signal representation of the transient fields is used because it provides a very simple procedure to avoid the difficulties that result when inverting frequency domain UTD fields associated with rays that traverse line or smooth caustics. The TD-UTD response to a more general transient wave excitation of the wedge may be found via convolution. A very useful representation for modeling a general pulsed astigmatic wave excitation is also developed which, in particular, allows its convolution with the TD-UTD impulse response to be done in closed form. Some numerical examples illustrating the utility of these developments are presented.

155 citations

### Cites background from "High frequency techniques for anten..."

...It is noted that the frequency domain results in [9,10] for the straight wedge are generalized to the curved wedge with curved faces using the principle of locality of high frequency fields [14-16] to arrive at the result in (3)....

[...]

••

TL;DR: In this article, a relatively fast and simple method utilizing Gaussian beams (GBs) is developed which requires only a few seconds on a workstation to compute the near/far fields of electrically large reflector antennas when they are illuminated by a feed with a known radiation pattern.

Abstract: A relatively fast and simple method utilizing Gaussian beams (GBs) is developed which requires only a few seconds on a workstation to compute the near/far fields of electrically large reflector antennas when they are illuminated by a feed with a known radiation pattern. This GB technique is fast, because it completely avoids any numerical integration on the large reflector surface which is required in the conventional physical optics (PO) analysis of such antennas and which could take several hours on a workstation. Specifically, the known feed radiation field is represented by a set of relatively few, rotationally symmetric GBs that are launched radially out from the feed plane and with almost identical interbeam angular spacing. These GBs strike the reflector surface from where they are reflected, and also diffracted by the reflector edge; the expressions for the fields reflected and diffracted by the reflector illuminated with a general astigmatic incident GB from an arbitrary direction (but not close to grazing on the reflector) have been developed in Chou and Pathak (1997) and utilized in this work. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the versatility, accuracy, and efficiency of this GB method when it is used for analyzing general offset parabolic reflectors with a single feed or an array feed, as well as for analyzing nonparabolic reflectors such as those described by ellipsoidal and even general shaped surfaces.

113 citations

### Cites background from "High frequency techniques for anten..."

...line integral contribution around the reflector edge [4]–[10], [27]....

[...]

##### References

More filters

•

01 Jun 1961

TL;DR: In this paper, a revised version of the Revised edition of the book has been published, with a new introduction to the concept of plane wave functions and spherical wave functions, as well as a detailed discussion of the properties of these functions.

Abstract: Foreword to the Revised Edition. Preface. Fundamental Concepts. Introduction to Waves. Some Theorems and Concepts. Plane Wave Functions. Cylindrical Wave Functions. Spherical Wave Functions. Perturbational and Variational Techniques. Microwave Networks. Appendix A: Vector Analysis. Appendix B: Complex Permittivities. Appendix C: Fourier Series and Integrals. Appendix D: Bessel Functions. Appendix E: Legendre Functions. Bibliography. Index.

5,655 citations

••

TL;DR: The mathematical justification of the theory on the basis of electromagnetic theory is described, and the applicability of this theory, or a modification of it, to other branches of physics is explained.

Abstract: The geometrical theory of diffraction is an extension of geometrical optics which accounts for diffraction. It introduces diffracted rays in addition to the usual rays of geometrical optics. These rays are produced by incident rays which hit edges, corners, or vertices of boundary surfaces, or which graze such surfaces. Various laws of diffraction, analogous to the laws of reflection and refraction, are employed to characterize the diffracted rays. A modified form of Fermat’s principle, equivalent to these laws, can also be used. Diffracted wave fronts are defined, which can be found by a Huygens wavelet construction. There is an associated phase or eikonal function which satisfies the eikonal equation. In addition complex or imaginary rays are introduced. A field is associated with each ray and the total field at a point is the sum of the fields on all rays through the point. The phase of the field on a ray is proportional to the optical length of the ray from some reference point. The amplitude varies in accordance with the principle of conservation of energy in a narrow tube of rays. The initial value of the field on a diffracted ray is determined from the incident field with the aid of an appropriate diffraction coefficient. These diffraction coefficients are determined from certain canonical problems. They all vanish as the wavelength tends to zero. The theory is applied to diffraction by an aperture in a thin screen diffraction by a disk, etc., to illustrate it. Agreement is shown between the predictions of the theory and various other theoretical analyses of some of these problems. Experimental confirmation of the theory is also presented. The mathematical justification of the theory on the basis of electromagnetic theory is described. Finally, the applicability of this theory, or a modification of it, to other branches of physics is explained.

3,032 citations

••

01 Nov 1974TL;DR: In this article, a compact dyadic diffraction coefficient for electromagnetic waves obliquely incident on a curved edse formed by perfectly conducting curved plane surfaces is obtained, which is based on Keller's method of the canonical problem, which in this case is the perfectly conducting wedge illuminated by cylindrical, conical, and spherical waves.

Abstract: A compact dyadic diffraction coefficient for electromagnetic waves obliquely incident on a curved edse formed by perfectly conducting curved ot plane surfaces is obtained. This diffraction coefficient remains valid in the transition regions adjacent to shadow and reflection boundaries, where the diffraction coefficients of Keller's original theory fail. Our method is based on Keller's method of the canonical problem, which in this case is the perfectly conducting wedge illuminated by plane, cylindrical, conical, and spherical waves. When the proper ray-fixed coordinate system is introduced, the dyadic diffraction coefficient for the wedge is found to be the sum of only two dyads, and it is shown that this is also true for the dyadic diffraction coefficients of higher order edges. One dyad contains the acoustic soft diffraction coefficient; the other dyad contains the acoustic hard diffraction coefficient. The expressions for the acoustic wedge diffraction coefficients contain Fresenel integrals, which ensure that the total field is continuous at shadow and reflection boundaries. The diffraction coefficients have the same form for the different types of edge illumination; only the arguments of the Fresnel integrals are different. Since diffraction is a local phenomenon, and locally the curved edge structure is wedge shaped, this result is readily extended to the curved wedge. It is interesting that even though the polarizations and the wavefront curvatures of the incident, reflected, and diffracted waves are markedly different, the total field calculated from this high-frequency solution for the curved wedge is continuous at shadow and reflection boundaries.

2,582 citations

•

01 Jan 1972

TL;DR: The Asympotic Evaluation of Integrals (AEEI) as mentioned in this paper is a classic in the field of electromagnetics and acoustics that provides complete coverage of radiation and scattering of waves.

Abstract: As relevant today as it was when it was first published 20 years ago, this book is a classic in the field. Nowhere else can you find more complete coverage of radiation and scattering of waves. The chapter: Asympotic Evaluation of Integrals is considered the definitive source for asympotic techniques. This book is essential reading for engineers, physicists and others involved in the fields of electromagnetics and acoustics. It is also an indispensable reference for advanced engineering courses.

2,581 citations

•

01 Dec 1990

TL;DR: In this article, the fundamental field equations of wave propagation in homogeneous and layered media waveguides and cavities have been studied, including the effects of a dipole on the conducting earth, inverse scattering radiometry, and interferometry numerical techniques.

Abstract: Fundamental field equations waves in homogeneous and layered media waveguides and cavities Green's functions radiation from apertures and beam waves periodic structures and coupled mode theory dispersion and anisotropic media antennas, apertures and arrays scattering of waves by conducting and di-electric objects waves in cylindrical structures, spheres and wedges scattering of complex objects geometric theory of diffraction and low fequency techniques planar layers, strip lines, patches and apertures radiation from a dipole on the conducting earth, inverse scattering radiometry, noise temperature and interferometry numerical techniques.

1,050 citations