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Journal ArticleDOI

High prevalence of headaches in patients with epilepsy

04 Nov 2014-Journal of Headache and Pain (Springer Milan)-Vol. 15, Iss: 1, pp 70-70

TL;DR: The high prevalence of postictal headaches confirms the frequent triggering of a headache by a seizure, a condition in which the real triggering effect of the headache on the seizure might be difficult to prove.

AbstractTo examine the association between headaches and epilepsy. Consecutive adult epileptic patients who went to the outpatient clinic of the Epilepsy Center of PLA General Hospital between February 01, 2012, and May 10, 2013, were recruited into this study. A total of 1109 patients with epilepsy completed a questionnaire regarding headaches. Overall, 60.1% of the patients (male: 57.2%; female: 63.8%) reported headaches within the last year. The age-weighted prevalence of interictal migraine was 11.7% (male 8.9%, female 15.3%), which is higher than that reported in a large population-based study (8.5%, male 5.4%, female 11.6%) using the same screening questions. The prevalence of postictal headaches was 34.1% (males 32.7%, females 35.2%), and the presence of preictal headaches was 4.5% (males 4.3%, females 5.2%). The prevalence of headache yesterday in the general population was 4.8% (male 3.0%, female 6.6%). Thus, the prevalence of headaches, including migraine, is higher in epileptic patients in China. The high prevalence of postictal headaches confirms the frequent triggering of a headache by a seizure. A much lower frequency of preictal headaches, a condition in which the real triggering effect of the headache on the seizure might be difficult to prove.

Topics: Headaches (68%), Migraine (58%), Outpatient clinic (53%), Population (52%), Epilepsy (51%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study examined which 5-HT receptor subtypes can be targeted to trigger antiseizure effects in homozygous scn1Lab(-/-) mutant zebrafish larvae that recapitulate DS well and confirmed the efficacy of fenfluramine as an antiepileptiform compound in zebra fish models of DS.
Abstract: Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe epilepsy syndrome that starts within the first year of life. In a clinical study, add-on treatment with fenfluramine, a potent 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) releaser activating multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes, made 70% of DS children seizure free. Others and we recently confirmed the efficacy of fenfluramine as an antiepileptiform compound in zebrafish models of DS. By using a large set of subtype selective agonists, in this study we examined which 5-HT receptor subtypes can be targeted to trigger antiseizure effects in homozygous scn1Lab–/– mutant zebrafish larvae that recapitulate DS well. We also provide evidence that zebrafish larvae express the orthologues of all human 5-HT receptor subtypes. Using an automated larval locomotor behavior assay, we were able to show that selective 5-HT1D-, 5-HT1E-, 5-HT2A-, 5-HT2C-, and 5-HT7-agonists significantly decreased epileptiform activity in the mutant zebrafish at 7 days post fertilization (dpf). By measuring local field potential...

74 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Migraine was the most represented type of headache in patients with epilepsy, while patients with any inter-IH (migraine or TTH) are predisposed to manifest a post- IH after seizures.
Abstract: Headache and epilepsy are two relatively common neurological disorders and their relationship is still a matter of debate. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and clinical features of inter-ictal (inter-IH) and peri-ictal headache (peri-IH) in patients with epilepsy. All patients aged ≥ 17 years referring to our tertiary Epilepsy Centre were consecutively recruited from March to May 2011 and from March to July 2012. They underwent a semi-structured interview including the International Classification Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) criteria to diagnose the lifetime occurrence of headache.χ2-test, t-test and Mann–Whitney test were used to compare clinical variables in patients with and without inter-IH and peri-IH. Out of 388 enrolled patients 48.5 % had inter-IH: migraine in 26.3 %, tension-type headache (TTH) in 19.1 %, other primary headaches in 3.1 %. Peri-IH was observed in 23.7 %: pre-ictally in 6.7 %, ictally in 0.8 % and post-ictally in 19.1 %. Comparing patients with inter-ictal migraine (102), inter-ictal TTH (74) and without inter-IH (200), we found that pre-ictal headache (pre-IH) was significantly represented only in migraineurs (OR 3.54, 95 % CI 1.88-6.66, P < 0.001). Post-ictal headache (post-IH) was significantly associated with both migraineurs (OR 2.60, 95 % CI 1.85-3.64, P < 0.001) and TTH patients (OR 2.05, 95 % CI 1.41-2.98, P < 0.001). Moreover, post-IH was significantly associated with antiepileptic polytherapy (P < 0.001), high seizure frequency (P = 0.002) and tonic-clonic seizures (P = 0.043). Migraine was the most represented type of headache in patients with epilepsy. Migraineurs are more prone to develop pre-IH, while patients with any inter-IH (migraine or TTH) are predisposed to manifest a post-IH after seizures.

38 citations


Cites background or result from "High prevalence of headaches in pat..."

  • ...Pre-IH, usually with migrainous features, was reported in 6 % of our population and only in patients with interictal migraine, in line with previous studies [14, 16, 18, 21, 25]....

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  • ...2014 [21] 1109 607/502 ≥18 Self-administered questionnaire + standardized semi-structured telephone interview 12....

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  • ...As a mild condition in spite of seizure disorder, TTH could be underestimated in patients with epilepsy [11, 12, 14, 17, 18, 20, 21]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that headaches, particularly migraine-type headaches, were frequently experienced by patients with epilepsy, postictal headaches were more common, and the frequency of migraine attacks could be linked with seizure frequency and the type of treatment.
Abstract: Objective Epilepsy and primary headaches are two of the most common neurologic conditions that share some common clinical characteristics, and can affect individuals of all age groups around the world. In recent years, the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms potentially common to both headaches and epileptic seizures have been the subject of scrutiny. The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies and types of headaches in patients with epilepsy, and evaluate any temporal relationship with epileptic seizures. Method Demographic data, epilepsy durations, seizure frequencies, seizure types and antiepileptic medications used were captured of 349 patients who were followed up at our epilepsy outpatient clinic. Patients who experienced headaches were grouped based on the type of headaches and on whether their headaches occurred in the preictal, postictal or interictal period. Result Three hundred forty-nine patients (190 females, 159 males) were enrolled in the study. The patients’ average age was 30.9±13.1 years, and average epilepsy duration was 13.5±10.9 years. The types of epileptic seizures were partial in 19.8% of patients, generalized in 57.9%, and secondary generalized in 20.3% of patients. Some 43.6% of the patients did not experience headaches, and 26.9% had migraine and 17.2% tension-type headaches. Headaches could not be classified in 12.3% of patients. The headaches occurred preictally in 9.6%, postictally in 41.6% and interictally in 8.6% of patients. The ratio of headaches was lower in male patients compared with females, and females experienced migraine-type headaches more frequently compared with males (p=0.006). Migraine-type headaches were less frequent a mong patients who experienced less than one seizure per year, but more frequent (p=0.017) among those who experienced more than one seizure per month, but less than one seizure per week. Migraine-type headaches were significantly more frequent (p=0.015) among patients receiving polytherapy compared with patients receiving monotherapy. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that headaches, particularly migraine-type headaches, were frequently experienced by patients with epilepsy, postictal headaches were more common, and the frequency of migraine attacks could be linked with seizure frequency and the type of treatment.

20 citations


Cites background from "High prevalence of headaches in pat..."

  • ...6–96% for postictal headaches following generalized tonic-clonic seizures [21,22, 25,33]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Comparisons with results of a previous meta-analysis on all RCTs in patients with drug-resistant epilepsies showed that ataxia, diplopia and fatigue were significantly more frequent, and patients withdrawing were significantly less frequent, in placebo-treated epileptic patients.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the nocebo effect in all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) exploring the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the clinical conditions in which these compounds have been studied with the exception of epilepsy. We searched for all double-blind, placebo-controlled trials performed in adult patients, testing AEDs in any clinical condition except epilepsy. The following data were extracted from the placebo arms: the number of randomized patients, the number of patients withdrawing because of adverse effects (AEs), and the number of patients with 11 predefined AEs (dizziness, ataxia/coordination abnormal, diplopia, somnolence, fatigue, headache, memory impairment, tremor, abnormal thinking, anxiety and depression). Outcome measures were the percentages of patients whithdrawing due to AEs and reporting the selected AEs. RCTs included in the analysis were grouped in six main categories of clinical conditions (pain, movement disorders, psychiatric disorders, substance abuse, obesity and binge eating disorders, and miscellanea). Proportions of patients with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) have been calculated for all reported outcome measures. Thirteen AEDs were studied and the total number of selected RCTs was 157. Significant percentages of placebo-treated patients withdrawing due to AEs and with specific AEs were observed in several cases. Significant differences emerged across different conditions. Comparisons with results of a previous meta-analysis on all RCTs in patients with drug-resistant epilepsies showed that ataxia, diplopia and fatigue were significantly more frequent, and patients withdrawing were significantly less frequent, in placebo-treated epileptic patients. Significant differences have been identified in the AEDs-induced nocebo effect across different conditions. Placebo-treated epilepsy patients have significantly more frequent neurological AEs.

17 citations


Cites background from "High prevalence of headaches in pat..."

  • ...As regards headache, differences in the proportion of patients with episodes of migraine may reflect comorbidities with the condition which is intended to treat [15]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The interrelations between headache/migraine and epileptic seizures are an interesting topic, still lacking a systematization, which is the objective of the present revision and a classification is suggested which is shown in Appendix.
Abstract: The interrelations between headache/migraine and epileptic seizures are an interesting topic, still lacking a systematization, which is the objective of the present revision. We organize the general setting on: (a) a distinction between pre-ictal, ictal, post-ictal and inter-ictal headaches, assuming "ictal" as epileptic seizure, and (b) the kind of headache, if it is of migraine type or not. Concerning pre-ictal migraine/headache, the necessity of its differentiation from an epileptic headache presenting as an aura of a seizure is stressed; this is connected with the indefiniteness of the term "migralepsy". The term "migraine aura-triggered seizure" should be used only in front of a proven triggering effect of migraine. Epileptic headache (called also "ictal epileptic headache") is a well-characterized entity, in which different types of head pain may occur and an ictal EEG is necessary for the diagnosis. It may present as an isolated event ("isolated epileptic headache"), requiring a differential diagnosis from other kinds of headache, or it may be uninterruptedly followed by other epileptic manifestations being in this case easily identifiable as an epileptic aura. Hemicrania epileptica is a very rare variant of epileptic headache, characterized by the ipsilaterality of head pain and EEG paroxysms. Ictal non-epileptic headache needs to be differentiated from epileptic headache. Post-ictal headaches are a frequent association of headache with seizures, particularly in patients suffering also from inter-ictal headache-migraine. The reported systematization of the topic led us to suggest a classification which is shown in Appendix.

14 citations


Cites background from "High prevalence of headaches in pat..."

  • ...ache, and particularly migraine, in patients with epilepsy, compared to the general population, appears to be more frequent until the fourth decade, but not in older ages, according to [32]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The calculations indicate that the disability attributable to tension-type headache is larger worldwide than that due to migraine, which would bring headache disorders into the 10 most disabling conditions for the two genders, and into the five most disabling for women.
Abstract: This study, which is a part of the initiative 'Lifting The Burden: The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache Worldwide', assesses and presents all existing evidence of the world prevalence and burden of headache disorders. Population-based studies applying International Headache Society criteria for migraine and tension-type headache, and also studies on headache in general and 'chronic daily headache', have been included. Globally, the percentages of the adult population with an active headache disorder are 46% for headache in general, 11% for migraine, 42% for tension-type headache and 3% for chronic daily headache. Our calculations indicate that the disability attributable to tension-type headache is larger worldwide than that due to migraine. On the World Health Organization's ranking of causes of disability, this would bring headache disorders into the 10 most disabling conditions for the two genders, and into the five most disabling for women.

1,855 citations


"High prevalence of headaches in pat..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Primary headache disorders, particularly migraine and tension-type headache (TTH), are globally prevalent [1-5]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1992-JAMA
TL;DR: The magnitude and distribution of the public health problem posed by migraine in the United States is described by examining migraine prevalence, attack frequency, and attack-related disability by gender, age, race, household income, geographic region, and urban vs rural residence.
Abstract: Objective. —To describe the magnitude and distribution of the public health problem posed by migraine in the United States by examining migraine prevalence, attack frequency, and attack-related disability by gender, age, race, household income, geographic region, and urban vs rural residence. Design. —In 1989, a self-administered questionnaire was sent to a sample of 15000 households. A designated member of each household initially responded to the questionnaire. Each household member with severe headache was asked to respond to detailed questions about symptoms, frequency, and severity of headaches. Setting. —A sample of households selected from a panel to be representative of the US population in terms of age, gender, household size, and geographic area. Participants. —After a single mailing, 20468 subjects (63.4% response rate) between 12 and 80 years of age responded to the survey. Respondents and non-respondents did not differ by gender, household income, region of the country, or urban vs rural status. Whites and the elderly were more likely to respond. Migraine headache cases were identified on the basis of reported symptoms using established diagnostic criteria. Results. —17.6% of females and 5.7% of males were found to have one or more migraine headaches per year. The prevalence of migraine varied considerably by age and was highest in both men and women between the ages of 35 to 45 years. Migraine prevalence was strongly associated with household income; prevalence in the lowest income group ( Conclusions. —A projection to the US population suggests that 8.7 million females and 2.6 million males suffer from migraine headache with moderate to severe disability. Of these, 3.4 million females and 1.1 million males experience one or more attacks per month. Females between ages 30 to 49 years from lower-income households are at especially high risk of having migraines and are more likely than other groups to use emergency care services for their acute condition. (JAMA. 1992;267:64-69)

1,533 citations


"High prevalence of headaches in pat..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Primary headache disorders, particularly migraine and tension-type headache (TTH), are globally prevalent [1-5]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study supports the notion that migraine and tension-type headache are separate clinical entities and that migraine without aura and migraine with aura are distinct subforms of migraine.
Abstract: Headache disorders constitute a public-health problem of enormous proportions, with an impact on both the individual sufferer and society. Epidemiological knowledge is required to quantitate the significance of these disorders. The effects on individuals can be assessed by examining prevalence, distribution, attack frequency and duration, and headache-related disability. The socio-economic burden includes both direct costs associated with health care utilization and costs associated with missed work due to sickness absence or reduced efficiency. The individual and socio-economic burden of headaches is substantial. Headache disorders deserve more attention, especially concerning strategies leading to adequate primary prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

689 citations