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Journal ArticleDOI

History, memory and lessons learned for humanitarians

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conclude the special issue on the history of humanitarian aid by reflecting on the role of memory and history in relation to humanitarian aid, arguing that the humanitarian sector has grown and aged and professionalized and institutionalized.
Abstract: This article concludes the special issue on the history of humanitarian aid by reflecting on the role of memory and history in relation to humanitarian aid. To address a special issue as a conclusion is to embrace the opportunity to reflect on its papers, aims and ambitions. It is also for us an opportunity to reflect on the role history has for a community of practice often forging ahead in response to the latest demands and emergencies. Historical thinking is now coming into greater salience for the world of humanitarian aid because, we argue, the ‘humanitarian sector’ has grown and aged – and professionalized and institutionalized.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Mark Duffield Cambridge, Polity Press, 2007, 278 pp, including references and index, ISBN 978-0-7456-3580-4 (pbk), £18.99, €25.70 as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Mark Duffield Cambridge, Polity Press, 2007, 278 pp., including references and index, ISBN 978-0-7456-3580-4 (pbk), £18.99, €25.70 It has become commonplace in academic debate to chart the changing...

260 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Greg Burgess1
TL;DR: Refugee histories tend towards the study of particular refugee groups, or refugees in particular places as discussed by the authors, and this past century of war, shifting borders and population displacement has uprooted many ten...
Abstract: Refugee histories tend towards the study of particular refugee groups, or refugees in particular places. This past century of war, shifting borders and population displacement has uprooted many ten...

109 citations

01 Nov 2011
TL;DR: Dark tourism as discussed by the authors : dark tourism is a type of tourism that uses tourism as a source of revenue for dark tourism, e.g. dark tourism tourism, and dark tourism can be classified as:
Abstract: Dark tourism은 역사적으로 죽음, 재난, 고통, 참상이 일어났던 지역을 여행하며 반성과 교훈을 얻는 인간 행위이다. 제주의 경우는 특별한 지정학적 위치로 인해 dark tourism의 많은 대상지를 지닌 지역으로 손꼽힐 수 있다. 역사적 사실정확성을 조사하고 연구한 작업들이 확대되면서 4·3비극의 장소와 평화공원 그리고 모슬포지역 일본 군사시설에 관한 dark tourism에 대한 논의가 시작되고 있다. 두 장소는 제주 dark tourism의 새로운 관광 패턴을 창출하는데 주요한 대상지임에 틀림없다. 특히 두 장소는 방문객에게 제주사회의 아픈 기억을 전달하며 이해시키고 세계인으로 성장할 수 있는 성찰적 역사교육의 장소이다. 모슬포지역 일본군 전적지는 장소로는 원초적(primary)이며 규모로는 집단적 고통을 경험한 역사교육의 장소이다. 일제강점기 모슬포지역은 전쟁을 통해 희생자가 발생하지는 않았지만 일본군 군사시설이 세계 수준으로 원형 보존된 상태이고, 군사시설 구축 과정에서 제주도민들이 강제 동원되어 많은 고난을 경험했고, 이런 역사적 사실은 현장을 방문한 한국, 동남아, 세계 방문객들에게 역사교육을 통해 뜨거운 존재 혹은 상징 사실정확성을 지니게 한다. 더 나아가 일본군 군사유적은 제주특별자치도가 진행하는 거대 프로젝트인 평화의 섬 그리고 국제자유도시와 연계해 성찰적 사고를 지니게 하는 장소가 될 수 있다. 이는 역사교육을 통해 역사적 사실정확성을 미래지향적으로 승화시켜 인권과 평화가 살아 숨 쉬는 제주특별자치도의 근본을 창출할 수 있다.

84 citations

MonographDOI
31 Jul 2020
TL;DR: The authors apply a moral economy approach to shed new light on the forces and ideas that motivated and shaped humanitarian aid during the Great Irish Famine, the famine of 1921-1922 in Soviet Russia and the Ukraine, and the 1980s Ethiopian famine.
Abstract: This is an innovative new history of famine relief and humanitarianism. The authors apply a moral economy approach to shed new light on the forces and ideas that motivated and shaped humanitarian aid during the Great Irish Famine, the famine of 1921-1922 in Soviet Russia and the Ukraine, and the 1980s Ethiopian famine. They place these episodes within a distinctive periodisation of humanitarianism which emphasises the correlations with politico-economic regimes: the time of elitist laissez-faire liberalism in the nineteenth century as one of ad hoc humanitarianism; that of Taylorism and mass society from c.1900-1970 as one of organised humanitarianism; and the blend of individualised post-material lifestyles and neoliberal public management since 1970 as one of expressive humanitarianism. The book as a whole shifts the focus of the history of humanitarianism from the imperatives of crisis management to the pragmatic mechanisms of fundraising, relief efforts on the ground, and finance. This book is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.

38 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines the political footprint of a new wave of grassroots humanitarian organizations in the informal refugee camp, popularly dubbed "The Jungle" in Calais, northern France. Set aga...
Abstract: This article examines the political footprint of a new wave of grassroots humanitarian organisations in the informal refugee camp, popularly dubbed ‘The Jungle’, in Calais, northern France. Set aga...

26 citations


Cites background from "History, memory and lessons learned..."

  • ...…the temporal and spatial insecurity that marks so-called ‘states of emergency’ (Fassin & Pandolfi, 2010), those histories that do exist have largely been inscribed through a retrospective political prism or through grand media narratives of crisis, risk and state conflict (Taithe & Borton, 2016)....

    [...]

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors show that epistemic communities play meaningful roles as sources of policy innovation, channels by which these innovations diffuse internationally, and catalysts in the political and institutional processes leading to the selection of their shared goals.
Abstract: Studies in this issue show that the epistemic communities approach amounts to a progressive research program with which students of world politics can empirically study the role of reason and ideas in international relations. By focusing on epistemic communities, analysts may better understand how states come to recognize interests under conditions of uncertainty. According to this research program, international relations can be seen as an evolutionary process in which epistemic communities play meaningful roles as sources of policy innovation, channels by which these innovations diffuse internationally, and catalysts in the political and institutional processes leading to the selection of their shared goals. The influence of epistemic communities persists mainly through the institutions that they help create and inform with their preferred world vision. By elucidating the cause-and-effect understandings in the particular issue-area and familiarizing policymakers with the reasoning processes by which decisions are made elsewhere, epistemic communities contribute to the transparency of action and the development of common inferences and expectations and thereby contribute to policy coordination. International cooperation and, indeed, the development of new world orders based on common meanings and understandings may thus depend on the extent to which nation-states apply their power on behalf of practices that epistemic communities may have helped create, diffuse, and perpetuate.

870 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Texture of Memory as discussed by the authors ) is a collection of essays about the texture of memory in Germany, Israel, and America, with a focus on the history of Yom Hashoah.
Abstract: The Texture of Memory PART I Germany: The Ambiguity Memory - The Counter-monument: Memory Against Itself in Germany Today The Sites of Destruction The Gestapo-Gelande Austria's Ambivalent Memory. PART 2 Poland: The Ruins of Memory - The Rhetoric of Ruins - Majdanek and Auschwitz The Biography of a Memorial Icon - The Warsaw Ghetto Monument Broken Tablets and Jewish Memory in Poland Today. PART 3 Israel: Holocaust, Heroism and National Redemption: Israel's Memorial Landscape: Forests, Monuments, Kibbutzim Yad Vashem - Israel's Memorial Authority When a Day Remembers - A Performative History of Yom Hashoah. PART 4 America: Memory and the Politics of Identity - The Plural Faces of Memory in America Memory and the Politics of Identity - Boston and Washington, DC.

817 citations

Book
27 Oct 1995
TL;DR: In this article, the return of the dead is considered in the context of war poetry, romanticism, and war memorials, from anticipation to allegory, and the apocalyptic imagination in war literature.
Abstract: Introduction Part I. Catastrophe and Consolation: 1. Homecomings: the return of the dead 2. Communities in mourning 3. Spiritualism and the 'Lost Generation' 4. War memorials and the mourning process Part II. Cultural Codes and Languages of Mourning: 5. Mythologies of war: films, popular religion, and the business of the sacred 6. The apocalyptic imagination in art: from anticipation to allegory 7. The apocalyptic imagination in war literature 8. War poetry, romanticism, and the return of the sacred 9. Conclusion Notes Bibliography Index.

632 citations

Book
03 Mar 2011
TL;DR: The Crooked Timber of Humanitarianism as discussed by the authors is a metaphor for the history of humanitarianism and co-dependent co-dependence in the world, and it describes the evolution of humanitarians during war.
Abstract: Introduction: The Crooked Timber of Humanitarianism 1. Co-Dependence: Humanitarianism and the World PART I: The Age of Imperial Humanitarianism 2. The Humanitarian Big Bang 3. Saving Slaves, Sinners, Savages, and Societies 4. Saving Soldiers and Civilians during War PART II: The Age of Neo-Humanitarianism 5. The New International 6. Neo-Humanitarianism 7. Humanitarianism during Wartime PART III: The Age of Liberal Humanitarianism 8. It's a Humanitarian's World 9. Armed for Humanity 10. Politics and Anti-Politics, or the New Paternalism Conclusion: The Empire of Humanity Notes References Index

630 citations