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Journal ArticleDOI

HIV Treatment as Prevention: Optimising the Impact of Expanded HIV Treatment Programmes

10 Jul 2012-PLOS Medicine (Public Library of Science)-Vol. 9, Iss: 7

TL;DR: In re-evaluating the allocation of ART in light of the new data about ART preventing transmission, the goal should be to create policies that maximise epidemiological and clinical benefit while still being feasible, affordable, acceptable, and equitable.

AbstractUntil now, decisions about how to allocate ART have largely been based on maximising the therapeutic benefit of ART for patients. Since the results of the HPTN 052 study showed efficacy of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in preventing HIV transmission, there has been increased interest in the benefits of ART not only as treatment, but also in prevention. Resources for expanding ART in the short term may be limited, so the question is how to generate the most prevention benefit from realistic potential increases in the availability of ART. Although not a formal systematic review, here we review different ways in which access to ART could be expanded by prioritising access to particular groups based on clinical or behavioural factors. For each group we consider (i) the clinical and epidemiological benefits, (ii) the potential feasibility, acceptability, and equity, and (iii) the affordability and cost-effectiveness of prioritising ART access for that group. In re-evaluating the allocation of ART in light of the new data about ART preventing transmission, the goal should be to create policies that maximise epidemiological and clinical benefit while still being feasible, affordable, acceptable, and equitable.

Topics: HPTN 052 (58%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
29 Sep 2014-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: It is suggested that FSWs can achieve levels of ART uptake, retention, adherence, and treatment response comparable to that seen among women in the general population, but these data are from only a few research settings.
Abstract: Purpose We aimed to characterize the antiretroviral therapy (ART) cascade among female sex workers (FSWs) globally.

108 citations


Cites background from "HIV Treatment as Prevention: Optimi..."

  • ...To date, this is the first study to systematically review and quantify the ART cascade among FSWs globally, which builds on a limited review already undertaken by the authors [15]....

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  • ...transmitting HIV [15,17], it is crucial to understand the extent to which FSWs currently access ART, and continue ART with good adherence....

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  • ...Ensuring high levels of ART uptake, adherence and retention among FSWs, would provide not only individual benefits to HIV-infected FSWs, but could also help reduce HIV transmission at the population level [15,16]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Sensitising health workers through specialised training, refining referral systems from sex-worker friendly clinics into the national system, and providing opportunities for SW to collectively organise for improved treatment and rights might help alleviate the barriers to treatment initiation and attention currently faced by SW.
Abstract: Although disproportionately affected by HIV, sex workers (SWs) remain neglected by efforts to expand access to antiretroviral treatment (ART). In Zimbabwe, despite the existence of well-attended services targeted to female SWs, fewer than half of women diagnosed with HIV took up referrals for assessment and ART initiation; just 14% attended more than one appointment. We conducted a qualitative study to explore the reasons for non-attendance and the high rate of attrition. Three focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted in Harare with HIV-positive SWs referred from the ‘Sisters with a Voice’ programme to a public HIV clinic for ART eligibility screening and enrolment. Focus groups explored SWs’ experiences and perceptions of seeking care, with a focus on how managing HIV interacted with challenges specific to being a sex worker. FGD transcripts were analyzed by identifying emerging and recurring themes that were specifically related to interactions with health services and how these affected decision-making around HIV treatment uptake and retention in care. SWs emphasised supply-side barriers, such as being demeaned and humiliated by health workers, reflecting broader social stigma surrounding their work. Sex workers were particularly sensitive to being identified and belittled within the health care environment. Demand-side barriers also featured, including competing time commitments and costs of transport and some treatment, reflecting SWs’ marginalised socio-economic position. Improving treatment access for SWs is critical for their own health, programme equity, and public health benefit. Programmes working to reduce SW attrition from HIV care need to proactively address the quality and environment of public services. Sensitising health workers through specialised training, refining referral systems from sex-worker friendly clinics into the national system, and providing opportunities for SW to collectively organise for improved treatment and rights might help alleviate the barriers to treatment initiation and attention currently faced by SW.

92 citations


Cites background from "HIV Treatment as Prevention: Optimi..."

  • ...At the same time, the “Universal Access” agenda has made equity a guiding principle for national programmes, leading to greater prioritisation of key populations, including sex workers [10,11]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is hoped that the principles described here will become a shared resource that facilitates constructive discussions about the policy implications that emerge from HIV epidemiology modelling results, and that promotes joint understanding about when modelling is useful as a tool in quantifying HIV epidemiological outcomes and improving prevention programming.
Abstract: Public health responses to HIV epidemics have long relied on epidemiological modelling analyses to help prospectively project and retrospectively estimate the impact, cost-effectiveness, affordability, and investment returns of interventions, and to help plan the design of evaluations. But translating model output into policy decisions and implementation on the ground is chal- lenged by the differences in background and expectations of modellers and decision-makers. As part of the PLoS Medicine Collection ''Investigating the Impact of Treat- ment on New HIV Infections''—which focuses on the contribution of modelling to current issues in HIV prevention—we present here principles of ''best practice'' for the construction, reporting, and interpretation of HIV epidemiological models for public health decision-making on all aspects of HIV. Aimed at both those who conduct modelling research and those who use modelling results, we hope that the principles described here will become a shared resource that facilitates constructive discussions about the policy implications that emerge from HIV epidemiology modelling results, and that promotes joint understanding between modellers and decision-makers about when modelling is useful as a tool in quantifying HIV epidemiological outcomes and improving prevention programming.

78 citations


Cites background from "HIV Treatment as Prevention: Optimi..."

  • ...[19], or prioritised for treatment as prevention [20])....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: “treatment as prevention” for adult-to-adult transmission reduction includes expanded HIV testing, linkage to care, antiretroviral coverage, retention in care, adherence to therapy, and management of key co-morbidities such as depression and substance use.
Abstract: HIV research has identified approaches that can be combined to be more effective in transmission reduction than any 1 modality alone: delayed adolescent sexual debut, mutual monogamy or sexual partner reduction, correct and consistent condom use, pre-exposure prophylaxis with oral antiretroviral drugs or vaginal microbicides, voluntary medical male circumcision, antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention (including prevention of mother to child HIV transmission [PMTCT]), treatment of sexually transmitted infections, use of clean needles for all injections, blood screening prior to donation, a future HIV prime/boost vaccine, and the female condom. The extent to which evidence-based modalities can be combined to prevent substantial HIV transmission is largely unknown, but combination approaches that are truly implementable in field conditions are likely to be far more effective than single interventions alone. Analogous to PMTCT, “treatment as prevention” for adult-to-adult transmission reduction includes expanded HIV testing, linkage to care, antiretroviral coverage, retention in care, adherence to therapy, and management of key co-morbidities such as depression and substance use. With successful viral suppression, persons with HIV are far less infectious to others, as we see in the fields of sexually transmitted infection control and mycobacterial disease control (tuberculosis and leprosy). Combination approaches are complex, may involve high program costs, and require substantial global commitments. We present a rationale for such investments and cite an ongoing research agenda that seeks to determine how feasible and cost-effective a combination prevention approach would be in a variety of epidemic contexts, notably that in a sub-Saharan Africa.

77 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
24 Apr 2013-AIDS
TL;DR: Migration and globalization has contributed to the spread of non-B subtypes contributing to 20–60% of new infections in Europe, Asia and America.
Abstract: In 30 years, the HIV-1/AIDS pandemic has evolved into an increasingly complex disease composed of multiple epidemics, each influenced by a complex array of biological, behavioural and cultural factors [1–4]. The concentrated subtype B epidemics in Western world settings have been largely restricted to MSM and IDU populations [3]. The generalized heterosexual (HET) epidemics in Africa and Asia have expanded and diversified to include nine major HIV-1 subtypes (A–D, F–H, J and K) and mosaic circulating recombinant forms (e.g. CRF01_AE and CRF02_AG) [1,5,6]. Migration and globalization has contributed to the spread of non-B subtypes contributing to 20–60% of new infections in Europe, Asia and America [1,2,7].

74 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Background Antiretroviral therapy that reduces viral replication could limit the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. Methods In nine countries, we...

5,521 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These Guidelines were developed by the Panel* on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV Infection convened by the Department of Health and Human Services and the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.
Abstract: SUMMARY The availability of an increasing number of antiretroviral agents and the rapid evolution of new information has introduced extraordinary complexity into the treatment of HIV-infected persons. In 1996, the Department of Health and Human Services and the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation convened the Panel on Clinical Practices for the Treatment of HIV to develop guidelines for the clinical management of HIV-infected adults and adolescents. This report recommends that care should be supervised by an expert, and makes recommendations for laboratory monitoring including plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell counts and HIV drug resistance testing. The report also provides guidelines for antiretroviral therapy, including when to start treatment, what drugs to initiate, when to change therapy, and therapeutic options when changing therapy. Special considerations are provided for adolescents and pregnant women. As with treatment of other chronic conditions, therapeutic decisions require a mutual understanding between the patient and the health care provider regarding the benefits and risks of treatment. Antiretroviral regimens are complex, have major side effects, pose difficulty with adherence, and carry serious potential consequences from the development of viral resistance due to non-adherence to the drug regimen or suboptimal levels of antiretroviral agents. Patient education and involvement in therapeutic

4,315 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The exciting evidence generated by this paper – that antiretroviral treatment of HIV-1 infection definitively reduces the risk of onward transmission of the virus by 96% – was rightly dubbed Science magazine's ‘Breakthrough of the Year’ in 2011.
Abstract: MS Cohen, YQ Chen, M McCauley N Engl J Med 2011 365:493–505. The exciting evidence generated by this paper – that antiretroviral treatment of HIV-1 infection definitively reduces the risk of onward transmission of the virus by 96% – was rightly dubbed Science magazine's ‘Breakthrough of the Year’ in 2011.1 ,2 It has long been known that the probability of sexual transmission of HIV is strongly correlated with concentrations of HIV in blood and genital fluids.3 ,4 Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) produces prolonged and sustained suppression of HIV replication in these compartments, reducing the amount of free virus.5 ,6 Thus, there has long been a …

4,082 citations


"HIV Treatment as Prevention: Optimi..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...The HPTN 052 study [4] demonstrated that earlier ART initiation can reduce heterosexual HIV transmission [5]....

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  • ...Observational and clinical trial data that link transmission events confirm that heterosexual transmissions occur from asymptomatically infected individuals with CD4 counts between 350 and 500 cells/ml [5,11], and the HPTN 052 study demonstrated a 96% reduction in transmission associated with treatment initiation at a CD4 cell count between 350 and 550 cells/ml compared to delaying treatment until CD4 count was below 250 cells/ml [5]....

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  • ...was associated with a 41% increased hazard of adverse clinical outcome [5]....

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  • ...Trial and observational data have demonstrated the efficacy of ART in preventing HIV transmission in stable serodiscordant heterosexual partnerships [5,11], and recent WHO guidelines for stable serodiscordant couples already include offering ART to the HIV-infected partner irrespective of CD4 cell count, in addition to behaviour change counselling [69]....

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  • ...7 per 100 person-years at risk ([5]; among those with CD4 counts of 350–500 cells/ml: [11])....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The viral load is the chief predictor of the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, and transmission is rare among persons with levels of less than 1500 copies of HIV -1 RNA per milliliter.
Abstract: Background and Methods We examined the influence of viral load in relation to other risk factors for the heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In a community-based study of 15,127 persons in a rural district of Uganda, we identified 415 couples in which one partner was HIV-1–positive and one was initially HIV-1–negative and followed them prospectively for up to 30 months. The incidence of HIV-1 infection per 100 person-years among the initially seronegative partners was examined in relation to behavioral and biologic variables. Results The male partner was HIV-1–positive in 228 couples, and the female partner was HIV-1–positive in 187 couples. Ninety of the 415 initially HIV-1–negative partners seroconverted (incidence, 11.8 per 100 person-years). The rate of male-to-female transmission was not significantly different from the rate of female-to-male transmission (12.0 per 100 person-years vs. 11.6 per 100 person-years). The incidence of seroconversion was highest among ...

2,814 citations


01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: These guidelines are primarily intended for use by national and regional HIV programme managers managers of nongovernmental organizations delivering HIV care services and other policy-makers who are involved in the scaling up of comprehensive HIV care and ART in resource-limited countries.
Abstract: This publication is intended to serve as a reference tool for countries with limited resources as they develop or revise national guidelines for the use of ART in adults and postpubertal adolescents (see Annex 9 for pubertal Tanner staging; prepubertal adolescents should follow the WHO paediatric guidelines). The material presented takes updated evidence into account including new ART treatment options and draws on the experience of established ART scale-up programmes. The simplified approach with evidence-based standards continues to be the basis of WHO recommendations for the initiation and monitoring of ART. The guidelines are primarily intended for use by national and regional HIV programme managers managers of nongovernmental organizations delivering HIV care services and other policy-makers who are involved in the scaling up of comprehensive HIV care and ART in resource-limited countries. The comprehensive up-to-date technical and clinical information on the use of ART however also makes these guidelines useful for clinicians in resource-limited settings. The recommendations contained in these guidelines are made on the basis of different levels of evidence from randomized clinical trials high-quality scientific studies observational cohort data and where insufficient evidence is available expert opinion. The strengths of the recommendations in Table 1 are intended to indicate the degrees to which the recommendations should be considered by regional and country programmes. Cost-effectiveness is not explicitly considered as part of the recommendations although the realities of human resources health system infrastructures and socioeconomic issues should be taken into account when the recommendations are being adapted to regional and country programmes. (excerpt)

1,453 citations


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