scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Hospital care and repetition following self-harm: multicentre comparison of self-poisoning and self-injury

01 Jun 2008-British Journal of Psychiatry (Br J Psychiatry)-Vol. 192, Iss: 6, pp 440-445

TL;DR: Hospital services offer less to people who have cut themselves, although they are far more likely to repeat, than to those who have self-poisoned, and attendance at hospital should result in psychosocial assessment of needs regardless of method of self-harm.

AbstractBackground Quantitative research about self-harm largely deals with self-poisoning, despite the high incidence of self-injury. Aims We compared patterns of hospital care and repetition associated with self-poisoning and self-injury. Method Demographic and clinical data were collected in a multicentre, prospective cohort study, involving 10 498 consecutive episodes of self-harm at six English teaching hospitals. Results Compared with those who self-poisoned, people who cut themselves were more likely to have self-harmed previously and to have received support from mental health services, but they were far less likely to be admitted to the general hospital or receive a psychosocial assessment. Although only 17% of people repeated self-harm during the 18 months of study, survival analysis that takes account of all episodes revealed a repetition rate of 33% in the year following an episode: 47% after episodes of self-cutting and 31% after self-poisoning ( P <0.001). Of those who repeated, a third switched method of self-harm. Conclusions Hospital services offer less to people who have cut themselves, although they are far more likely to repeat, than to those who have self-poisoned. Attendance at hospital should result in psychosocial assessment of needs regardless of method of self-harm.

Topics: Psychosocial (53%), Poison control (51%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: What self-harm research can tell us about the concept of NSSI is considered and the potential pitfalls of introducing N SSI into clinical practice are examined.
Abstract: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a term that is becoming popular especially in North America and it has been proposed as a new diagnosis in DSM-5. In this paper we consider what self-harm research can tell us about the concept of NSSI and examine the potential pitfalls of introducing NSSI into clinical practice.

282 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There was a significant treatment effect for CBT-based psychotherapy compared to TAU at final follow-up in terms of fewer participants repeating SH, but for interventions typically delivered to individuals with a history of multiple episodes of SH/probable personality disorder, group-based emotion-regulation psychotherapy and mentalisation were associated with significantly reduced repetition.
Abstract: Background: Self-harm (SH; intentional self-poisoning or self-injury) is common, often repeated, and associated with suicide. This is an update of a broader Cochrane review first published in 1998, previously updated in 1999, and now split into three separate reviews. This review focuses on psychosocial interventions in adults who engage in self-harm. Objectives: To assess the effects of specific psychosocial treatments versus treatment as usual, enhanced usual care or other forms of psychological therapy, in adults following SH. Search methods: The Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group (CCDAN) trials coordinator searched the CCDAN Clinical Trials Register (to 29 April 2015). This register includes relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from: the Cochrane Library (all years), MEDLINE (1950 to date), EMBASE (1974 to date), and PsycINFO (1967 to date). Selection criteria: We included RCTs comparing psychosocial treatments with treatment as usual (TAU), enhanced usual care (EUC) or alternative treatments in adults with a recent (within six months) episode of SH resulting in presentation to clinical services. Data collection and analysis: We used Cochrane's standard methodological procedures.

198 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This is an update of a broader Cochrane review on psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for deliberate SH and finds that mentalisation therapy was associated with fewer adolescents scoring above the cut-off for repetition of SH based on the Risk-Taking and Self-Harm Inventory 12 months post-intervention.
Abstract: Self-harm (SH; intentional self-poisoning or self-injury) is common in children and adolescents, often repeated, and strongly associated with suicide. This is an update of a broader Cochrane review on psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for SH published in 1998 and updated in 1999. We have

174 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2016-BMJ Open
TL;DR: A substantial increase in self-injury occurred in the latter part of the study period, especially marked for self-cutting/stabbing and hanging/asphyxiation.
Abstract: Objectives Self-harm is a major health problem in many countries, with potential adverse outcomes including suicide and other causes of premature death. It is important to monitor national trends in this behaviour. We examined trends in non-fatal self-harm and its management in England during the 13-year period, 2000–2012. Design and setting This observational study was undertaken in the three centres of the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England. Information on all episodes of self-harm by individuals aged 15 years and over presenting to five general hospitals in three cities (Oxford, Manchester and Derby) was collected through face-to-face assessment or scrutiny of emergency department electronic databases. We used negative binomial regression models to assess trends in rates of self-harm and logistic regression models for binary outcomes (eg, assessed vs non-assessed patients). Participants During 2000–2012, there were 84 378 self-harm episodes (58.6% by females), involving 47 048 persons. Results Rates of self-harm declined in females (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.98; 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99, p Conclusions Trends in rates of self-harm and suicide may be closely related; therefore, self-harm can be a useful mental health indicator. Despite national guidance, many patients still do not receive psychosocial assessment, especially those who self-injure.

160 citations


Cites result from "Hospital care and repetition follow..."

  • ...The increase in self-cutting is also concerning given our earlier finding that the proportion of patients who receive psychosocial assessment is especially low for individuals who self-cut.(28) The increase in other methods of self-injury, especially hanging/asphyxiation, is also worrying....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A postcard intervention halved self-poisoning events and reduced psychiatric admissions by a third after 5 years and substantial savings occurred in general hospital and psychiatric hospital bed days.
Abstract: Background Repetition of hospital-treated self-poisoning and admission to psychiatric hospital are both common in individuals who self-poison. Aims To evaluate efficacy of postcard intervention after 5 years. Method A randomised controlled trial of individuals who have self-poisoned: postcard intervention (eight in 12 months) plus treatment as usual v. treatment as usual. Our primary outcomes were self-poisoning admissions and psychiatric admissions (proportions and event rates). Results There was no difference between groups for any repeat-episode self-poisoning admission (intervention group: 24.9%, 95% CI 20.6-29.5; control group: 27.2%, 95% CI 22.8-31.8) but there was a significant reduction in event rates (incidence risk ratio (IRR) = 0.54, 95% CI 0.37-0.81), saving 306 bed days. There was no difference for any psychiatric admission (intervention group: 38.1%, 95% CI 33.1-43.2; control group: 35.5%, 95% CI 30.8-40.5) but there was a significant reduction in event rates (IRR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.47-0.91), saving 2565 bed days. Conclusions A postcard intervention halved self-poisoning events and reduced psychiatric admissions by a third after 5 years. Substantial savings occurred in general hospital and psychiatric hospital bed days.

157 citations


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Subjects who received dialectical behavior therapy had fewer incidences of parasuicide and less medically severe parasuicides, were more likely to stay in individual therapy, and had fewer inpatient psychiatric days.
Abstract: A randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy, ie, dialectical behavior therapy, for the treatment of chronically parasuicidal women who met criteria for borderline personality disorder. The treatment lasted 1 year, with assessment every 4 months. The control condition was "treatment as usual" in the community. At most assessment points and during the entire year, the subjects who received dialectical behavior therapy had fewer incidences of parasuicide and less medically severe parasuicides, were more likely to stay in individual therapy, and had fewer inpatient psychiatric days. There were no between-group differences on measures of depression, hopelessness, suicide ideation, or reasons for living although scores on all four measures decreased throughout the year.

1,900 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Context Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a treatment for suicidal behavior and borderline personality disorder with well-documented efficacy. Objective To evaluate the hypothesis that unique aspects of DBT are more efficacious compared with treatment offered by non–behavioral psychotherapy experts. Design One-year randomized controlled trial, plus 1 year of posttreatment follow-up. Setting University outpatient clinic and community practice. Participants One hundred one clinically referred women with recent suicidal and self-injurious behaviors meeting DSM-IV criteria, matched to condition on age, suicide attempt history, negative prognostic indication, and number of lifetime intentional self-injuries and psychiatric hospitalizations. Intervention One year of DBT or 1 year of community treatment by experts (developed to maximize internal validity by controlling for therapist sex, availability, expertise, allegiance, training and experience, consultation availability, and institutional prestige). Main Outcome Measures Trimester assessments of suicidal behaviors, emergency services use, and general psychological functioning. Measures were selected based on previous outcome studies of DBT. Outcome variables were evaluated by blinded assessors. Results Dialectical behavior therapy was associated with better outcomes in the intent-to-treat analysis than community treatment by experts in most target areas during the 2-year treatment and follow-up period. Subjects receiving DBT were half as likely to make a suicide attempt (hazard ratio, 2.66; P = .005), required less hospitalization for suicide ideation (F 1,92 =7.3; P = .004), and had lower medical risk (F 1,50 =3.2; P = .04) across all suicide attempts and self-injurious acts combined. Subjects receiving DBT were less likely to drop out of treatment (hazard ratio, 3.2; P 1,92 =6.0; P = .007) and psychiatric emergency department visits (F 1,92 =2.9; P = .04). Conclusions Our findings replicate those of previous studies of DBT and suggest that the effectiveness of DBT cannot reasonably be attributed to general factors associated with expert psychotherapy. Dialectical behavior therapy appears to be uniquely effective in reducing suicide attempts.

1,646 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Background Non-fatal self-harm frequently leads to non-fatal repetition and sometimes to suicide. We need to quantify these two outcomes of self-harm to help us to develop and test effective interventions. Aims To estimate rates of fatal and non-fatal repetition of self-harm. Method A systematic review of published follow-up data, from observational and experimental studies. Four electronic databases were searched and 90 studies met the inclusion criteria. Results Eighty per cent of studies found were undertaken in Europe, over one-third in the UK. Median proportions for repetition 1 year later were: 16% non-fatal and 2% fatal; after more than 9 years, around 7% of patients had died by suicide. The UK studies found particularly low rates of subsequent suicide. Conclusions After 1 year, non-fatal repetition rates are around 15%. The strong connection between self-harm and later suicide lies somewhere between 0.5% and 2% after 1 year and above 5% after 9 years. Suicide risk among self-harm patients is hundreds of times higher than in the general population.

948 citations


01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: Deliberate self harm defined according to strict criteria is common in adolescents, especially females Associated factors include recent awareness of self harm in peers, self harm by family members, drug misuse, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, and low self esteem.

897 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
23 Nov 2002-BMJ
Abstract: Objective: To determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the factors associated with it. Design: Cross sectional survey using anonymous self report questionnaire. Setting: 41 schools in England. Participants: 6020 pupils aged 15 and 16 years. Main outcome measure: Deliberate self harm. Results: 398 (6.9%) participants reported an act of deliberate self harm in the previous year that met study criteria. Only 12.6% of episodes had resulted in presentation to hospital. Deliberate self harm was more common in females than it was in males (11.2% v 3.2%; odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 3.1 to 4.9). In females the factors included in a multivariate logistic regression for deliberate self harm were recent self harm by friends, self harm by family members, drug misuse, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, and low self esteem. In males the factors were suicidal behaviour in friends and family members, drug use, and low self esteem. Conclusions: Deliberate self harm is common in adolescents, especially females. School based mental health initiatives are needed. These could include approaches aimed at educating school pupils about mental health problems and screening for those at risk. #### What is already known on this topic What is already known on this topic Deliberate self harm is a common reason for presentation of adolescents to hospital Community studies from outside the United Kingdom have shown much greater prevalence of self harm in adolescents than hospital based studies #### What this study adds What this study adds Deliberate self harm defined according to strict criteria is common in adolescents, especially females Associated factors include recent awareness of self harm in peers, self harm by family members, drug misuse, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, and low self esteem

873 citations