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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/PLCELL/KOAB069

Host-interactor screens of Phytophthora infestans RXLR proteins reveal vesicle trafficking as a major effector-targeted process

02 Mar 2021-The Plant Cell (American Society of Plant Biologists)-Vol. 33, Iss: 5, pp 1447-1471
Abstract: Pathogens modulate plant cell structure and function by secreting effectors into host tissues. Effectors typically function by associating with host molecules and modulating their activities. This study aimed to identify the host processes targeted by the RXLR class of host-translocated effectors of the potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. To this end, we performed an in planta protein-protein interaction screen by transiently expressing P. infestans RXLR effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves followed by coimmunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This screen generated an effector-host protein interactome matrix of 59 P. infestans RXLR effectors x 586 N. benthamiana proteins. Classification of the host interactors into putative functional categories revealed over 35 biological processes possibly targeted by P. infestans. We further characterized the PexRD12/31 family of RXLR-WY effectors, which associate and colocalize with components of the vesicle trafficking machinery. One member of this family, PexRD31, increased the number of FYVE positive vesicles in N. benthamiana cells. FYVE positive vesicles also accumulated in leaf cells near P. infestans hyphae, indicating that the pathogen may enhance endosomal trafficking during infection. This interactome dataset will serve as a useful resource for functional studies of P. infestans effectors and of effector-targeted host processes.

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Topics: Phytophthora infestans (51%), Nicotiana benthamiana (51%), Effector (50%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PBIO.3001136
23 Aug 2021-PLOS Biology
Abstract: In plants, nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-containing proteins can form receptor networks to confer hypersensitive cell death and innate immunity. One class of NLRs, known as NLR required for cell death (NRCs), are central nodes in a complex network that protects against multiple pathogens and comprises up to half of the NLRome of solanaceous plants. Given the prevalence of this NLR network, we hypothesised that pathogens convergently evolved to secrete effectors that target NRC activities. To test this, we screened a library of 165 bacterial, oomycete, nematode, and aphid effectors for their capacity to suppress the cell death response triggered by the NRC-dependent disease resistance proteins Prf and Rpi-blb2. Among 5 of the identified suppressors, 1 cyst nematode protein and 1 oomycete protein suppress the activity of autoimmune mutants of NRC2 and NRC3, but not NRC4, indicating that they specifically counteract a subset of NRC proteins independently of their sensor NLR partners. Whereas the cyst nematode effector SPRYSEC15 binds the nucleotide-binding domain of NRC2 and NRC3, the oomycete effector AVRcap1b suppresses the response of these NRCs via the membrane trafficking-associated protein NbTOL9a (Target of Myb 1-like protein 9a). We conclude that plant pathogens have evolved to counteract central nodes of the NRC immune receptor network through different mechanisms. Coevolution with pathogen effectors may have driven NRC diversification into functionally redundant nodes in a massively expanded NLR network.

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Topics: Effector (54%), Innate immune system (51%), Immune receptor (51%)

5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/TPJ.15284
29 May 2021-Plant Journal
Abstract: Phytophthora infestans is a pathogenic oomycete that causes the infamous potato late blight disease. Resistance (R) genes from diverse Solanum species encode intracellular receptors that trigger effective defense responses upon the recognition of cognate RXLR avirulence (Avr) effector proteins. To deploy these R genes in a durable fashion in agriculture, we need to understand the mechanism of effector recognition and the way the pathogen evades recognition. In this study, we cloned 16 allelic variants of the Rpi-chc1 gene from Solanum chacoense and other Solanum species, and identified the cognate P. infestans RXLR effectors. These tools were used to study effector recognition and co-evolution. Functional and non-functional alleles of Rpi-chc1 encode coiled-coil nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (CNL) proteins, being the first described representatives of the CNL16 family. These alleles have distinct patterns of RXLR effector recognition. While Rpi-chc1.1 recognized multiple PexRD12 (Avrchc1.1) proteins, Rpi-chc1.2 recognized multiple PexRD31 (Avrchc1.2) proteins, both belonging to the PexRD12/31 effector superfamily. Domain swaps between Rpi-chc1.1 and Rpi-chc1.2 revealed that overlapping subdomains in the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain are responsible for the difference in effector recognition. This study showed that Rpi-chc1.1 and Rpi-chc1.2 evolved to recognize distinct members of the same PexRD12/31 effector family via the LRR domain. The biased distribution of polymorphisms suggests that exchange of LRRs during host-pathogen co-evolution can lead to novel recognition specificities. These insights will guide future strategies to breed durable resistant varieties.

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Topics: Effector (61%), Leucine-rich repeat (51%), Phytophthora infestans (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/NPH.17828
Georgina Fabro1Institutions (1)
20 Nov 2021-New Phytologist
Abstract: Oomycete phytopathogens have adapted to colonize plants by using effectors as their molecular weapons. Intracellular effectors, mostly proteins but also small ribonucleic acids, are delivered by the pathogens into the host cell cytoplasm where they interfere with normal plant physiology. The diverse host processes emerging as "victims" of these "specialized bullets" include gene transcription and RNA-mediated silencing, cell death, protein stability, protein secretion, and autophagy. Some effector targets are directly involved in defense execution, while others participate in fundamental metabolisms whose alteration collaterally affects defenses. Other effector targets are susceptibility factors (SFs), i.e., host components that make plants vulnerable to pathogens. SFs are mostly negative regulators of immunity, but some seem necessary to sustain or promote pathogen colonization.

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Topics: Host cell cytoplasm (59%), Effector (55%), Protein degradation (53%)



References
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103 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/25.17.3389
Abstract: The BLAST programs are widely used tools for searching protein and DNA databases for sequence similarities. For protein comparisons, a variety of definitional, algorithmic and statistical refinements described here permits the execution time of the BLAST programs to be decreased substantially while enhancing their sensitivity to weak similarities. A new criterion for triggering the extension of word hits, combined with a new heuristic for generating gapped alignments, yields a gapped BLAST program that runs at approximately three times the speed of the original. In addition, a method is introduced for automatically combining statistically significant alignments produced by BLAST into a position-specific score matrix, and searching the database using this matrix. The resulting Position-Specific Iterated BLAST (PSIBLAST) program runs at approximately the same speed per iteration as gapped BLAST, but in many cases is much more sensitive to weak but biologically relevant sequence similarities. PSI-BLAST is used to uncover several new and interesting members of the BRCT superfamily.

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Topics: Substitution matrix (57%), Sequence database (54%), Sequence profiling tool (53%) ... show more

66,744 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMETH.2019
01 Jul 2012-Nature Methods
Abstract: Fiji is a distribution of the popular open-source software ImageJ focused on biological-image analysis. Fiji uses modern software engineering practices to combine powerful software libraries with a broad range of scripting languages to enable rapid prototyping of image-processing algorithms. Fiji facilitates the transformation of new algorithms into ImageJ plugins that can be shared with end users through an integrated update system. We propose Fiji as a platform for productive collaboration between computer science and biology research communities.

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Topics: Software design (51%), Software (50%)

30,888 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BIOINFORMATICS/BTM404
Mark A. Larkin1, Gordon Blackshields2, Nigel P. Brown2, R. Chenna2  +9 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Nov 2007-Bioinformatics
Abstract: Summary: The Clustal W and Clustal X multiple sequence alignment programs have been completely rewritten in C++. This will facilitate the further development of the alignment algorithms in the future and has allowed proper porting of the programs to the latest versions of Linux, Macintosh and Windows operating systems. Availability: The programs can be run on-line from the EBI web server: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/tools/clustalw2. The source code and executables for Windows, Linux and Macintosh computers are available from the EBI ftp site ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/software/clustalw2/ Contact: clustalw@ucd.ie

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23,252 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/MOLBEV/MSY096
Sudhir Kumar1, Sudhir Kumar2, Glen Stecher2, Michael Li2  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.

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Topics: Mega- (60%), Virtualization (51%), Software (50%)

11,718 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1101/GR.849004
01 Jun 2004-Genome Research
Abstract: WebLogo generates sequence logos, graphical representations of the patterns within a multiple sequence alignment. Sequence logos provide a richer and more precise description of sequence similarity than consensus sequences and can rapidly reveal significant features of the alignment otherwise difficult to perceive. Each logo consists of stacks of letters, one stack for each position in the sequence. The overall height of each stack indicates the sequence conservation at that position (measured in bits), whereas the height of symbols within the stack reflects the relative frequency of the corresponding amino or nucleic acid at that position. WebLogo has been enhanced recently with additional features and options, to provide a convenient and highly configurable sequence logo generator. A command line interface and the complete, open WebLogo source code are available for local installation and customization.

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Topics: Sequence logo (71%), Multiple sequence alignment (56%), Sequence (medicine) (54%) ... show more

9,230 Citations


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