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Journal ArticleDOI

How can obese weight controllers minimize weight gain during the high risk holiday season? By self-monitoring very consistently.

01 Jul 1999-Health Psychology (American Psychological Association)-Vol. 18, Iss: 4, pp 364-368

TL;DR: Findings support the critical role of self-monitoring in weight control and demonstrate the benefits of a low-cost intervention for assisting weight controllers during the holidays.

AbstractThis study examined the efficacy of augmenting standard weekly cognitive-behavioral treatment for obesity with a self-monitoring intervention during the high risk holiday season. Fifty-seven participants in a long-term cognitive-behavioral treatment program were randomly assigned to self-monitoring intervention or comparison groups. During 2 holiday weeks (Christmas-New Years), the intervention group's treatment was supplemented with additional phone calls and daily mailings, all focused on self-monitoring. As hypothesized, the intervention group self-monitored more consistently and managed their weight better than the comparison group during the holidays. However, both groups struggled with weight management throughout the holidays. These findings support the critical role of self-monitoring in weight control and demonstrate the benefits of a low-cost intervention for assisting weight controllers during the holidays.

Topics: Weight management (52%), Weight gain (50%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A significant association between self-monitoring and weight loss was consistently found; however, the level of evidence was weak and the most significant limitations of the reviewed studies were the homogenous samples and reliance on self-report.
Abstract: Self-monitoring is the centerpiece of behavioral weight loss intervention programs This article presents a systematic review of the literature on three components of self-monitoring in behavioral weight loss studies: diet, exercise, and self-weighing This review included articles that were published between 1993 and 2009 that reported on the relationship between weight loss and these self-monitoring strategies Of the 22 studies identified, 15 focused on dietary self-monitoring, one on self-monitoring exercise, and six on self-weighing A wide array of methods was used to perform self-monitoring; the paper diary was used most often Adherence to self-monitoring was reported most frequently as the number of diaries completed or the frequency of log-ins or reported weights The use of technology, which included the Internet, personal digital assistants, and electronic digital scales were reported in five studies Descriptive designs were used in the earlier studies whereas more recent reports involved prospective studies and randomized trials that examined the effect of self-monitoring on weight loss A significant association between self-monitoring and weight loss was consistently found; however, the level of evidence was weak because of methodologic limitations The most significant limitations of the reviewed studies were the homogenous samples and reliance on self-report In all but two studies, the samples were predominantly white and women This review highlights the need for studies in more diverse populations, for objective measures of adherence to self-monitoring, and for studies that establish the required dose of self-monitoring for successful outcomes

905 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Behavioral treatment for obesity seeks to identify and modify eating, activity, and thinking habits that contribute to patients' weight problems This approach recognizes that body weight is affected by factors other than behavior, which include genetic, metabolic, and hormonal influences Behavioral treatment helps obese individuals develop a set of skills (eg, a low-fat diet, a high-activity lifestyle, realistic expectations) to regulate weight, even though patients may remain overweight after treatment This article describes the behavioral treatment of obesity, its short- and long-term results, and methods to improve long-term weight loss

618 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that behavioral treatment is effective in inducing a 10% weight loss, which is sufficient to significantly improve health, and innovative programs are being developed to disseminate behavioral approaches beyond traditional academic settings.
Abstract: This review has shown that behavioral treatment is effective in inducing a 10% weight loss, which is sufficient to significantly improve health. Weight loss maintenance is challenging for most patients. Long-term outcomes have the potential to be improved through various methods including prolonging contact between patients and providers (either in the clinic or via Internet or telephone), facilitating high amounts of physical activity, or combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy. Innovative programs also are being developed to disseminate behavioral approaches beyond traditional academic settings.

486 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
21 Sep 2008
TL;DR: It is shown that participants who had an awareness display were able to maintain their physical activity level (even during the holidays), while the level of physical activity for participants who did not have an Awareness display dropped significantly.
Abstract: Personal, mobile displays, such as those on mobile phones, are ubiquitous, yet for the most part, underutilized. We present results from a field experiment that investigated the effectiveness of these displays as a means for improving awareness of daily life (in our case, self-monitoring of physical activity). Twenty-eight participants in three experimental conditions used our UbiFit system for a period of three months in their day-to-day lives over the winter holiday season. Our results show, for example, that participants who had an awareness display were able to maintain their physical activity level (even during the holidays), while the level of physical activity for participants who did not have an awareness display dropped significantly. We discuss our results and their general implications for the use of everyday mobile devices as awareness displays.

430 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors.
Abstract: Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation and evaluation of the effectiveness of behavior change theories and models applied to nutrition care interventions are recommended.

304 citations


References
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Book
01 Jan 1979

11,861 citations


"How can obese weight controllers mi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Because of concerns about thereliability of weight-change scores (see Cook & Campbell, 1979), the same variableswere evaluated with weight in pounds as the dependent variable....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The question of how affect arises and what affect indicates is examined from a feedback-based view-point on self-regulation. Using the analogy of action control as the attempt to diminish distance to a goal, a second feedback system is postulated that senses and regulates the rate at which the action-guiding system is functioning

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Abstract: Basic Issues: Introduction: Self-Regulation Failure in Social and Theoretical Context. General Patterns and Mechanisms of Self-Regulation Failure. Controlling Thoughts, Feelings, and Actions: Task Performance and Self-Regulation Failure: Blowing It. Self-Management: Taking Care of Yourself. Thoughts Out of Control. Failure to Control Emotions and Moods. Controlling Impulses and Appetities: Impulses and Appetites. Alcohol Consumption and Abuse. Eating Too Much. Smoking. A Sampler of Other Behavioral Control Problems: Gambling, Shopping, and Aggression. Conclusion: Self Regulation: Propects, Problems, and Promises. References. Subject Index.

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"How can obese weight controllers mi..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...According to self-regulatory theories (eg, Baumeister, Heatherton, & Tice, 1994; Carver & Scheier, 1990; Kanfer & Karoly, 1972; Kirschenbaum, 1987), self-monitoring should play a vital role in effective weightcontrol....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The concept of ‘self-control,” until recently embedded in intrapsychic personality theories and banished from strict behavioral accounts of human activity, is considered from the perspective of a closed-loop learning paradigm. In considering self-regulatory and self-control behavior, an attempt is made (1) to extricate these concepts from the realm of philosophical debate on the image of man, (2) to point to their growing relevance in the context of rapidly changing environments, (3) to provide behavioral definitions and a tentative and testable process model, and (4) to outline their clinical (therapeutic) implications. The current conceptualization emphasizes (a) the contractual elements in self-control, (b) the critical importance of insuring the link between intentions (often of a verbal variety) and behavioral execution, and (c) the interdependence of external and internal controlling variables. In a larger context, the paper seeks to show how man's “selfreflectiveness” can be incorporated within an empirically based behavior theory. Suggestions for research are presented.

451 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the matched subgroups, obese people who had sought treatment reported greater psychopathology and more binge eating than did those who had not sought treatment or did normal-weight controls.
Abstract: A group of obese people who had not sought treatment, an obese group who had sought treatment in a professional, hospital-based program, and normal-weight controls (N = 547) were compared in regard to level of psychopathology, binge eating, and negative emotional eating. Because the groups differed significantly on several demographic variables, 3 demographically matched groups were created and compared (n = 177, 59 per group). In the matched subgroups, obese people who had sought treatment reported greater psychopathology and more binge eating than did those who had not sought treatment or did normal-weight controls. Both obese groups (including those who had not sought treatment) endorsed more symptoms of distress, negative emotional eating, overeating, difficulty resisting temptation, and less exercise than did normal-weight controls.

330 citations