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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/08830185.2020.1840567

How could we forget immunometabolism in SARS-CoV2 infection or COVID-19?

04 Mar 2021-International Reviews of Immunology (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 40, pp 1-36
Abstract: SARS-CoV2 infection or COVID-19 has created panic around the world since its first origin in December 2019 in Wuhan city, China. The COVID-19 pandemic has infected more than 46.4 million people, with 1,199,727 deaths. The immune system plays a crucial role in the severity of COVID-19 and the development of pneumonia-induced acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Along with providing protection, both innate and T cell-based adaptive immune response dysregulate during severe SARS-CoV2 infection. This dysregulation is more pronounced in older population and patients with comorbidities (Diabetes, hypertension, obesity, other pulmonary and autoimmune diseases). However, COVID-19 patients develop protective antibodies (Abs) against SARS-CoV2, but they do not long for last. The induction of the immune response against the pathogen also requires metabolic energy that generates through the process of immunometabolism. The change in the metabolic stage of immune cells from homeostasis to an inflammatory or infectious environment is called immunometabolic reprogramming. The article describes the cellular immunology (macrophages, T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, NK cells and pulmonary epithelial cells (PEC) and vascular endothelial cells) and the associated immune response during COVID-19. Immunometabolism may serve as a cell-specific therapeutic approach to target COVID-19.

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Topics: Acquired immune system (61%), Immune system (59%), T cell (58%) ... read more
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10 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41574-020-00462-1
Abstract: Obesity and impaired metabolic health are established risk factors for the non-communicable diseases (NCDs) type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, otherwise known as metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). With the worldwide spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), obesity and impaired metabolic health also emerged as important determinants of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, novel findings indicate that specifically visceral obesity and characteristics of impaired metabolic health such as hyperglycaemia, hypertension and subclinical inflammation are associated with a high risk of severe COVID-19. In this Review, we highlight how obesity and impaired metabolic health increase complications and mortality in COVID-19. We also summarize the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection for organ function and risk of NCDs. In addition, we discuss data indicating that the COVID-19 pandemic could have serious consequences for the obesity epidemic. As obesity and impaired metabolic health are both accelerators and consequences of severe COVID-19, and might adversely influence the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, we propose strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity and impaired metabolic health on a clinical and population level, particularly while the COVID-19 pandemic is present.

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Topics: Disease (54%), Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (52%), Obesity (50%) ... read more

69 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1210/CLINEM/DGAB055
Abstract: CONTEXT Demonstrating the ability to mount a neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of diabetes is crucial to understand COVID-19 pathogenesis, reinfection potential, and vaccine development. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to characterize the kinetics and durability of neutralizing antibody (Nab) response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the presence of hyperglycemia. METHODS Using a lentiviral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay to measure Nabs, we characterized 150 patients randomly selected from a cohort of 509 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. We analyzed Nab response according to the presence of diabetes or hyperglycemia, at the time of hospitalization and during the postdischarge follow-up: 1-, 3-, and 6-month outpatient visits. RESULTS Among 150 randomly selected patients 40 (26.6%) had diabetes. Diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 8.9, P < .001), glucose levels (HR 1.25 × 1.1 mmol/L, P < .001), and glucose variability (HR 1.17 × 0.6 mmol/L, P < .001) were independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. The neutralizing activity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients with diabetes was superimposable, as for kinetics and extent, to that of patients without diabetes. It was similar across glucose levels and correlated with the humoral response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Positivity for Nabs at the time of hospital admission conferred protection on mortality, both in the presence (HR 0.28, P = .046) or absence of diabetes (HR 0.26, P = .030). The longevity of the Nab response was not affected by diabetes. CONCLUSION Diabetes and hyperglycemia do not affect the kinetics and durability of the neutralizing antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. These findings provide the rational to include patients with diabetes in the early phase of the vaccination campaign against SARS-CoV-2.

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10 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22094716
Abstract: Hexokinases are a family of ubiquitous exose-phosphorylating enzymes that prime glucose for intracellular utilization. Hexokinase 2 (HK2) is the most active isozyme of the family, mainly expressed in insulin-sensitive tissues. HK2 induction in most neoplastic cells contributes to their metabolic rewiring towards aerobic glycolysis, and its genetic ablation inhibits malignant growth in mouse models. HK2 can dock to mitochondria, where it performs additional functions in autophagy regulation and cell death inhibition that are independent of its enzymatic activity. The recent definition of HK2 localization to contact points between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum called Mitochondria Associated Membranes (MAMs) has unveiled a novel HK2 role in regulating intracellular Ca2+ fluxes. Here, we propose that HK2 localization in MAMs of tumor cells is key in sustaining neoplastic progression, as it acts as an intersection node between metabolic and survival pathways. Disrupting these functions by targeting HK2 subcellular localization can constitute a promising anti-tumor strategy.

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Topics: Subcellular localization (53%), Autophagy (52%), Anaerobic glycolysis (50%) ... read more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.31146/1682-8658-ECG-187-3-5-82
V. B. Grinevich1, Y. A. Kravchuk1, V. I. Ped1, E. I. Sas1  +16 moreInstitutions (4)
22 May 2021-
Abstract: The presented clinical practice guidelines of the Gastroenterological Scientific Society of Russia (GSSR), diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches for patients with digestive diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. The guidelines were approved by the XXIII Congress of the GSSR and the 22nd International Slavonic-Baltic Scientifi c Forum “St. Petersburg - Gastro-2020 ON-LINE” (St. Petersburg, June 11, 2020). The presented clinical practice guidelines of the Russian Scientific Medical Society of Internal Medicine (RSMSIM) and the Gastroenterological Scientific Society of Russia (GSSR), diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches for patients with digestive diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. The recommendations were approved at the XV National Congress of Internal Medicine, XXIII Congress of NOGR on the basis of the 1st edition, adopted at the 22nd International Slavic- Baltic Scientific Forum “St. Petersburg - Gastro-2020 ON-LINE”.

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4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.17816/RMMAR76269
14 Aug 2021-
Abstract: With a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19), gastroenterological symptoms are often detected, which is due to both the damage to the digestive organs by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and the exacerbation of chronic diseases, as well as aggressive multicomponent therapy. The severity of gastroenterological manifestations, primarily impaired liver function, is associated with a more severe and complicated course of COVID-19 infection. Numerous mechanisms of damage to the digestive organs in COVID-19 have been identified: direct damage by the virus due to resuscitation and multicomponent therapy, impaired central and peripheral nervous regulation, immunothrombotic syndrome, virus persistence in the gastrointestinal tract, induction of autoimmune reactions by the virus, humoral disorders (changes in serotonin levels, bradykinin, activation of mast cells). Violation of the microbial-tissue complex of the intestine and the permeability of the intestinal barrier, induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, ensures the formation and progression of chronic systemic inflammation, cytokine aggression, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, which affect the severity of the infection. Therapy for patients with COVID-19 should include therapeutic approaches aimed at correcting disorders of the intestinal microbiota, intestinal barrier permeability, and relief of gastroenterological manifestations

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Topics: Systemic inflammation (52%), Coronavirus (51%)

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271 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41586-020-2012-7
Peng Zhou1, Xing-Lou Yang1, Xian Guang Wang2, Ben Hu1  +25 moreInstitutions (3)
03 Feb 2020-Nature
Abstract: Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 18 years ago, a large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats1–4. Previous studies have shown that some bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans5–7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, which started on 12 December 2019, had caused 2,794 laboratory-confirmed infections including 80 deaths by 26 January 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at an early stage of the outbreak. The sequences are almost identical and share 79.6% sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, we show that 2019-nCoV is 96% identical at the whole-genome level to a bat coronavirus. Pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins domains show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. In addition, 2019-nCoV virus isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient could be neutralized by sera from several patients. Notably, we confirmed that 2019-nCoV uses the same cell entry receptor—angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)—as SARS-CoV. Characterization of full-length genome sequences from patients infected with a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) shows that the sequences are nearly identical and indicates that the virus is related to a bat coronavirus.

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Topics: Coronavirus (67%), Betacoronavirus (54%), Deltacoronavirus (51%) ... read more

12,056 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/44385
14 Oct 1999-Nature
Abstract: Naive T lymphocytes travel to T-cell areas of secondary lymphoid organs in search of antigen presented by dendritic cells. Once activated, they proliferate vigorously, generating effector cells that can migrate to B-cell areas or to inflamed tissues. A fraction of primed T lymphocytes persists as circulating memory cells that can confer protection and give, upon secondary challenge, a qualitatively different and quantitatively enhanced response. The nature of the cells that mediate the different facets of immunological memory remains unresolved. Here we show that expression of CCR7, a chemokine receptor that controls homing to secondary lymphoid organs, divides human memory T cells into two functionally distinct subsets. CCR7- memory cells express receptors for migration to inflamed tissues and display immediate effector function. In contrast, CCR7+ memory cells express lymph-node homing receptors and lack immediate effector function, but efficiently stimulate dendritic cells and differentiate into CCR7- effector cells upon secondary stimulation. The CCR7+ and CCR7- T cells, which we have named central memory (TCM) and effector memory (TEM), differentiate in a step-wise fashion from naive T cells, persist for years after immunization and allow a division of labour in the memory response.

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Topics: Memory T cell (66%), IL-2 receptor (63%), Cytotoxic T cell (61%) ... read more

5,235 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30937-5
02 May 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: www.thelancet.com Vol 395 May 2, 202

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Topics: Endotheliitis (68%)

3,207 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1172/JCI137244
Guang Chen, Di Wu, Wei Guo, Yong Cao  +16 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: BACKGROUNDSince December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, and is now becoming a global threat. We aimed to delineate and compare the immunological features of severe and moderate COVID-19.METHODSIn this retrospective study, the clinical and immunological characteristics of 21 patients (17 male and 4 female) with COVID-19 were analyzed. These patients were classified as severe (11 cases) and moderate (10 cases) according to the guidelines released by the National Health Commission of China.RESULTSThe median age of severe and moderate cases was 61.0 and 52.0 years, respectively. Common clinical manifestations included fever, cough, and fatigue. Compared with moderate cases, severe cases more frequently had dyspnea, lymphopenia, and hypoalbuminemia, with higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and D-dimer as well as markedly higher levels of IL-2R, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α. Absolute numbers of T lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells decreased in nearly all the patients, and were markedly lower in severe cases (294.0, 177.5, and 89.0 × 106/L, respectively) than moderate cases (640.5, 381.5, and 254.0 × 106/L, respectively). The expression of IFN-γ by CD4+ T cells tended to be lower in severe cases (14.1%) than in moderate cases (22.8%).CONCLUSIONThe SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect primarily T lymphocytes, particularly CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, resulting in a decrease in numbers as well as IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells. These potential immunological markers may be of importance because of their correlation with disease severity in COVID-19.TRIAL REGISTRATIONThis is a retrospective observational study without a trial registration number.FUNDINGThis work is funded by grants from Tongji Hospital for the Pilot Scheme Project, and partly supported by the Chinese National Thirteenth Five Years Project in Science and Technology for Infectious Disease (2017ZX10202201).

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2,445 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.04.026
28 May 2020-Cell
Abstract: Viral pandemics, such as the one caused by SARS-CoV-2, pose an imminent threat to humanity. Because of its recent emergence, there is a paucity of information regarding viral behavior and host response following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we offer an in-depth analysis of the transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 compared with other respiratory viruses. Cell and animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, in addition to transcriptional and serum profiling of COVID-19 patients, consistently revealed a unique and inappropriate inflammatory response. This response is defined by low levels of type I and III interferons juxtaposed to elevated chemokines and high expression of IL-6. We propose that reduced innate antiviral defenses coupled with exuberant inflammatory cytokine production are the defining and driving features of COVID-19.

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2,083 Citations


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