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Journal ArticleDOI

How Post-war Britain Reflected on the Nazi Persecution and Mass Murder of Europe's Jews: A Reassessment of Early Responses

01 Aug 2010-Jewish culture and history (Taylor & Francis Group)-Vol. 12, pp 95-130
TL;DR: The authors argue that we are mistaken if we look in the past for representations of what we recognise today as "the Holocaust" or if we treat the apparent marginalisation of the Jewish experience as a sign of malevolence.
Abstract: During the 1990s historians began paying attention to how societies in the postwar era reflected on the destruction of Europe's Jews between 1933 and 1945 and soon a consensus evolved that there had been a brief burst of media coverage and outrage related to the liberation of the concentration camps and war crimes trials in 1945–46 which soon faded. However, from 1999 a number of historians looking at the USA and other countries went beyond the identification of a postwar ‘silence’. They argued that it was broken by a deliberate effort of Jewish organisations, mainly in America, for the purpose of creating sympathy for Israel and the Jews more generally. This contribution re-assesses recent trends in the scholarship concerning post-war responses in Britain to the Jewish catastrophe of 1933–45. It argues that we are mistaken if we look in the past for representations of what we recognise today as ‘the Holocaust’ or if we treat the apparent marginalisation of the Jewish experience as a sign of malevolence o...
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article considers how these refugee and survivor women tried to find a place for themselves within 1950s Britain, and reflects upon the discrimination and hostility they faced, and they ways they tried to deal with this.
Abstract: This article analyses the life stories of female Jewish refugees and survivors in 1950s Britain in order to explore their relationship with the existing Jewish community and wider society. The paper is based on an analysis of twenty-one oral history testimonies from the Jewish survivors of the Holocaust collection held at the British library. Around 50,000 Jewish refugees from Central Europe came to Britain in the 1930s after fleeing from Hitler. In addition, a relatively small number of camp survivors and former hidden children settled in the country after the war; the Board of Deputies of British Jews Demographic Unit estimates the figure at 2000. This article considers how these refugee and survivor women tried to find a place for themselves within 1950s Britain. Looking at their experiences of arrival, work and home, it reflects upon the discrimination and hostility they faced, and they ways they tried to deal with this. Finally it discusses what this meant for their sense of belonging or ‘unbelonging’.

12 citations


Cites background from "How Post-war Britain Reflected on t..."

  • ...…in Britain in the 1950s was a result of ‘partial knowledge rather than complete ignorance’: Kushner, Holocaust and the Liberal Imagination; David Cesarani (2010) How Post-war Britain Reflected on the Nazi Persecution and Mass Murder of Europe’s Jews: a reassessment of early responses,…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors traces how the Holocaust has been responded to at a political level in Britain from 1945 to the present, including key moments such as the liberation of the camps in 1945, the Eichmann Trial in 1961, compensation schemes from the mid-1960s, and more recent forms of pedagogic and memorialization issues since the 1990s, ending with the Prime Minister's Holocaust Commission (2014 onwards).
Abstract: This article traces how the Holocaust has been responded to at a political level in Britain from 1945 to the present. It includes key moments such as the liberation of the camps in 1945, the Eichmann Trial in 1961, compensation schemes from the mid-1960s, and more recent forms of pedagogic and memorialization issues since the 1990s, ending with the Prime Minister’s Holocaust Commission (2014 onwards). While the focus is on the official sphere, attention is given throughout to wider cultural and social trends and contexts for the whole period. It emphasizes the contrasting meanings and politics associated with British confrontations with the Holocaust in the postwar era, using for the more recent period especially the 2016 UCL survey What Do Students Know and Understand about the Holocaust?

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Belsen film has been used since the war and some thoughts on its contribution to wider public awareness and understanding of the German concentration camp system and the Holocaust are given in this article.
Abstract: This essay is an examination of the film shot at Bergen-Belsen by British Army cameramen It describes how these men recorded the unfamiliar and horrific scenes they encountered in the camp and offers some explanation for the often-controversial images that resulted There is also a brief history of how the Belsen film has been used since the war and some thoughts on its contribution to wider public awareness and understanding of the German concentration camp system and the Holocaust

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The work of the International Tracing Service (ITS) was discussed in the radio play "The Greatest Detective Story in History" by Alan Burgess as mentioned in this paper, which was performed in the UK in 1950.
Abstract: Alan Burgess's 1950 BBC radio play, The Greatest Detective Story in History , presented a moving and insightful analysis of the work of the International Tracing Service (ITS) and revealed how much was known about the crimes of the Nazis so soon after the war. This article uses Burgess's play in order to focus on the operation of the ITS's child search branch and considers why the work of the ITS was deemed an appropriate topic for a radio drama in Britain in 1950. It argues that, despite the limits of its analysis and adherence to culturally familiar narrative frameworks and conventions, Burgess's play captures the ways in which the Third Reich was understood in Britain in the postwar years: as a vast act of criminality which the British could proudly claim to have helped to destroy. The play also reminds us of the postwar moment when Britain was proud to be involved in international organizations and when rebuilding Europe was perceived to be in British interests.

2 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, Efraim Sicher limits his studv to those marginal writers who, though publicly identified themselves as Jews, are Jews outside the organized Jewish community and distant from traditional Jewish life.
Abstract: In his attempt to handle this problem, Efraim Sicher limits his studv to those marginal writers who, though publicly identified themselves as Jews, "are Jews outside the organized Jewish community and distant from traditional Jewish life" (p x) Into this category seem to fall some of the most notable novelists, playwrights, and poets which the Anglo-Jewish community has contributed in the last three decades

2 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI

334 citations

Book
01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: The Court of International Criminal Tribunal for International Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (COPIN) as mentioned in this paper proposed a framework for the consideration of war crimes and war crimes against humanity.
Abstract: Background - Preparations - The Court - Crimes against Peace - War Crimes - Crimes Against Humanity - Last Words - Assessment - Appendices: - Charges, Verdicts, Sentences - Chronology - Questions for Consideration - Selected Bibliography - Index

121 citations

Book
13 Feb 1999
TL;DR: In this paper, the post-war treatment of resistance veterans is discussed, and the legacy of forced economic migration is discussed. But the focus is on the deportation of labour conscripts.
Abstract: List of illustrations Acknowledgements List of abbreviations Introduction Part I. Troublesome Heroes: The Post-War Treatment of Resistance Veterans: 1. Approaching victory and re-establishing the state 2. Heroes of a nation: Belgium and France 3. A nation of heroes: the Netherlands Part II. Repatriating Displaced Populations from Germany: 4. Displaced populations 5. The challenge to the post-war state: Belgium and the Netherlands 6. Petain's exiles and De Gaulle's deportees Part III. The Legacy of Forced Economic Migration: 7. Labour and total war 8. Moral panic: 'the soap, the suit and above all the Bible' 9. Patriotic scrutiny 10. 'Deportation': the defence of the labour conscripts Part IV. Martyrs and Other Victims of Nazi Persecution 11. Plural persecutions 12. National martyrdom 13. Patriotic memories and the genocide 14. Remembering the war and legitimising the post-war international order Conclusion Bibliography Index.

115 citations

Book
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: A Nuremberg Historiography of the Holocaust? Conclusions Appendix A: Charter of the International Military Tribunal, Article 6 Appendix B: The Defendants and Organizations before the IMT Appendix C: The Subsequent NUREmberg Proceedings Bibliography as mentioned in this paper
Abstract: Introduction PART I: THE LEGAL PRISM 1. Shaping the Trials: The Politics of Trial Policy 1945-1949 2. Race-specific Crimes in Punishment and Re-educative Policy: The Jewish Factor PART II: POSTWAR REPRESENTATIONS AND PERCEPTIONS 3. Plumbing the Depths of Nazi Criminality: The Limits of Legal Imagination 4. Charting the Breadth of Nazi Criminality: The Failure of the Trial Medium PART III: THE TRIALS AND POSTERITY 5. A Nuremberg Historiography of the Holocaust? Conclusions Appendix A: Charter of the International Military Tribunal, Article 6 Appendix B: The Defendants and Organizations before the IMT Appendix C: The Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings Bibliography

96 citations


"How Post-war Britain Reflected on t..." refers background in this paper

  • ...News reports and judicial investigations tended to highlight the concentration camps rather than the death camps and tended to gloss over the mass murder of Jews in eastern Europe.5 Furthermore, thanks to the predominance of a liberal-universalist or leh-wing anti-fascist agenda, the identity of the Jews as the chief victims of Nazi racial policy was frequently blurred, while their suffering tended to be subsumed into the plight of other national, ethnic, or religious groups who had suffered Nazi brutality....

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  • ...The chapter on 'The Little Death Ships', the rickety vessels that sought to carry 'illegal' Jewish immigrants to Palestine during the war years, directly linked the rise of Jewish terrorism in Palestine to the frustration of attempts by Jews to escape the genocide in Europe.75 Meanwhile the British government tried to involve the United States in solving the dilemma of Palestine....

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  • ...In August 1947, after a vicious round of Jewish terrorism against the British and no less ferocious counter-measures, he published in the New Statesman a 'Letter to a Parent of a British Soldier in Palestine' in which he summarised the Jewish case for statehood and reminded readers of what the Jews had experienced in Europe....

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  • ...This policy condemned tens of thousands of survivors of the ghettos and camps to languish in Displaced Person's (DP) camps in central Europe....

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  • ...and the practical measures taken or contemplated to be taken in 118 JEWISH CULTURE AND HISTORY those countries to enable them to live free from discrimination and oppression and to make estimates of those who wish or will be impelled by their conditions to migrate to Palestine or other countries outside Europe....

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Book
01 Jan 1938

86 citations