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Book ChapterDOI

How to Choose a Title

01 Jan 2022-pp 185-192
TL;DR: In biomedical research, the title or name of the article is without any reservation the most important part of the paper and the most read part in the journal as discussed by the authors, and the title is the face of the research and it should sum up the main notion of the experiment/research in such a way that in the fewest possible words one can summarize the facts of a paper and attract the reader as well.
Abstract: ‘What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet’ is a famous quote from Shakespeare’s play ‘Romeo and Juliet’. However, in biomedical research, the title or name of the article is without any reservation the most important part of the paper and the most read part in the journal. The title is the face of the research and it should sum up the main notion of the experiment/research in such a way that in the fewest possible words one can summarize the facts of the paper and attract the reader as well. ‘Being concise, precise, and meticulous is the key’ for planning a title [1].

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Journal ArticleDOI
08 Sep 2020-JAMA
TL;DR: In this interim report of the phase 1 and phase 2 trials of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine, patients had a low rate of adverse reactions and demonstrated immunogenicity; the study is ongoing.
Abstract: Importance A vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is urgently needed. Objective To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an investigational inactivated whole-virus COVID-19 vaccine in China. Interventions In the phase 1 trial, 96 participants were assigned to 1 of the 3 dose groups (2.5, 5, and 10 μg/dose) and an aluminum hydroxide (alum) adjuvant-only group (n = 24 in each group), and received 3 intramuscular injections at days 0, 28, and 56. In the phase 2 trial, 224 adults were randomized to 5 μg/dose in 2 schedule groups (injections on days 0 and 14 [n = 84] vs alum only [n = 28], and days 0 and 21 [n = 84] vs alum only [n = 28]). Design, setting, and participants Interim analysis of ongoing randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and 2 clinical trials to assess an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. The trials were conducted in Henan Province, China, among 96 (phase 1) and 224 (phase 2) healthy adults aged between 18 and 59 years. Study enrollment began on April 12, 2020. The interim analysis was conducted on June 16, 2020, and updated on July 27, 2020. Main outcomes and measures The primary safety outcome was the combined adverse reactions 7 days after each injection, and the primary immunogenicity outcome was neutralizing antibody response 14 days after the whole-course vaccination, which was measured by a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test against live severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Results Among 320 patients who were randomized (mean age, 42.8 years; 200 women [62.5%]), all completed the trial up to 28 days after the whole-course vaccination. The 7-day adverse reactions occurred in 3 (12.5%), 5 (20.8%), 4 (16.7%), and 6 (25.0%) patients in the alum only, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups, respectively, in the phase 1 trial; and in 5 (6.0%) and 4 (14.3%) patients who received injections on days 0 and 14 for vaccine and alum only, and 16 (19.0%) and 5 (17.9%) patients who received injections on days 0 and 21 for vaccine and alum only, respectively, in the phase 2 trial. The most common adverse reaction was injection site pain, followed by fever, which were mild and self-limiting; no serious adverse reactions were noted. The geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies in the low-, medium-, and high-dose groups at day 14 after 3 injections were 316 (95% CI, 218-457), 206 (95% CI, 123-343), and 297 (95% CI, 208-424), respectively, in the phase 1 trial, and were 121 (95% CI, 95-154) and 247 (95% CI, 176-345) at day 14 after 2 injections in participants receiving vaccine on days 0 and 14 and on days 0 and 21, respectively, in the phase 2 trial. There were no detectable antibody responses in all alum-only groups. Conclusions and relevance In this interim report of the phase 1 and phase 2 trials of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine, patients had a low rate of adverse reactions and demonstrated immunogenicity; the study is ongoing. Efficacy and longer-term adverse event assessment will require phase 3 trials. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Identifier: ChiCTR2000031809.

631 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To determine whether premenopausal daughters of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis have lower bone mass than other women of the same age, the bone mineral content of the lumps were measured.
Abstract: To determine whether premenopausal daughters of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis have lower bone mass than other women of the same age, we measured the bone mineral content of the lu...

591 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This new diagnostic technique serves as a practical, noninvasive means to detect microsporidia spores in stool specimens and is also applicable to the examination of duodenal aspirates.
Abstract: Background. The diagnosis of infection with Enterocytozoon bieneusi, a microsporidian organism that causes chronic diarrhea in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), has depended on invasive procedures. We have developed a new method to detect microsporidia spores in feces and duodenal aspirates. Methods. Stool was obtained from four HIV-infected patients with biopsy-confirmed intestinal microsporidiosis. Slides prepared from unconcentrated, formalin-fixed stool specimens were stained with a new chromotrope-based technique and examined by light microscopy. Methods of stool concentration were also compared. The technique was then evaluated by examining 215 specimens from 134 HIV-infected persons with or without diarrhea. In addition, duodenal aspirates from 10 patients with unexplained chronic diarrhea were examined by light microscopy after staining according to the new and the traditional techniques. Results. E. bieneusi spores were found in all unconcentrated stool speci...

471 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In adolescents with obesity, the use of liraglutide (3.0 mg) plus lifestyle therapy led to a significantly greater reduction in the BMI standard-deviation score than placeboplus lifestyle therapy.
Abstract: Background Obesity is a chronic disease with limited treatment options in pediatric patients. Liraglutide may be useful for weight management in adolescents with obesity. Methods In this r...

225 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings showed that differences exist between articles with different types of titles in terms of downloads and citations, especially articles with question titles tended to be downloaded more but cited less than the others.
Abstract: Title of an article can be descriptive, declarative or a question. It plays important role in both marketing and findability of article. We investigate the impact of the type of article titles on the number of citations and downloads articles receive. Number of downloads and citations for all articles published in six of PLoS (Public Library of Science) journals (2,172 articles) were obtained from PLoS and type of each article's title (including descriptive, indicative and question) was determined as well as the number of substantive words in title (title length). Statistical difference and correlation tests were carried out. The findings showed that differences exist between articles with different types of titles in terms of downloads and citations, especially articles with question titles tended to be downloaded more but cited less than the others. Articles with longer titles were downloaded slightly less than the articles with shorter titles. Titles with colon tended to be longer and receive fewer downloads and citations. As expected, number of downloads and citations were positively correlated.

220 citations

Trending Questions (3)
How many macimal word for a good title research?

The maximum word count for a good research title should be less than 16 words, as it needs to be concise, precise, and attract readers while summarizing the main notion of the research.

How to make a title in research?

To create a research title, be concise, precise, and avoid abbreviations, symbols, unfamiliar jargon, and wordy phrases. Summarize the main idea in 10-15 words, ensuring clarity and attraction.

How to make research title?

The paper provides five basic steps for designing a research title, which include writing the hypothesis and ending with a phrase that can capture the reader's attention. The title should be concise, precise, and avoid using abbreviations or symbols.