# How to Measure Squeezing and Entanglement of Gaussian States without Homodyning

06 Aug 2004-Physical Review Letters (American Institute of Physics)-Vol. 93, Iss: 6, pp 063601-063601

TL;DR: This work proposes a scheme for measuring the squeezing, purity, and entanglement of Gaussian states of light that does not require homodyne detection and needs only beam splitters and single-photon detectors.

Abstract: We propose a scheme for measuring the squeezing, purity, and entanglement of Gaussian states of light that does not require homodyne detection. The suggested setup needs only beam splitters and single-photon detectors. Two-mode entanglement can be detected from coincidences between photodetectors placed on the two beams.

Topics: Homodyne detection (54%), Quantum entanglement (53%)

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Abstract: All our former experience with application of quantum theory seems to say:
{\it what is predicted by quantum formalism must occur in laboratory} But the
essence of quantum formalism - entanglement, recognized by Einstein, Podolsky,
Rosen and Schr\"odinger - waited over 70 years to enter to laboratories as a
new resource as real as energy This holistic property of compound quantum systems, which involves
nonclassical correlations between subsystems, is a potential for many quantum
processes, including ``canonical'' ones: quantum cryptography, quantum
teleportation and dense coding However, it appeared that this new resource is
very complex and difficult to detect Being usually fragile to environment, it
is robust against conceptual and mathematical tools, the task of which is to
decipher its rich structure This article reviews basic aspects of entanglement including its
characterization, detection, distillation and quantifying In particular, the
authors discuss various manifestations of entanglement via Bell inequalities,
entropic inequalities, entanglement witnesses, quantum cryptography and point
out some interrelations They also discuss a basic role of entanglement in
quantum communication within distant labs paradigm and stress some
peculiarities such as irreversibility of entanglement manipulations including
its extremal form - bound entanglement phenomenon A basic role of entanglement
witnesses in detection of entanglement is emphasized

5,916 citations

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Abstract: We review the theory of continuous-variable entanglement with special emphasis on foundational aspects, conceptual structures and mathematical methods. Much attention is devoted to the discussion of separability criteria and entanglement properties of Gaussian states, for their great practical relevance in applications to quantum optics and quantum information, as well as for the very clean framework that they allow for the study of the structure of nonlocal correlations. We give a self-contained introduction to phase-space and symplectic methods in the study of Gaussian states of infinite-dimensional bosonic systems. We review the most important results on the separability and distillability of Gaussian states and discuss the main properties of bipartite entanglement. These include the extremal entanglement, minimal and maximal, of two-mode mixed Gaussian states, the ordering of two-mode Gaussian states according to different measures of entanglement, the unitary (reversible) localization and the scaling of bipartite entanglement in multimode Gaussian states. We then discuss recent advances in the understanding of entanglement sharing in multimode Gaussian states, including the proof of the monogamy inequality of distributed entanglement for all Gaussian states. Multipartite entanglement of Gaussian states is reviewed by discussing its qualification by different classes of separability, and the main consequences of the monogamy inequality, such as the quantification of genuine tripartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states, the promiscuous nature of entanglement sharing in symmetric Gaussian states and the possible coexistence of unlimited bipartite and multipartite entanglement. We finally review recent advances and discuss possible perspectives on the qualification and quantification of entanglement in non-Gaussian states, a field of research that is to a large extent yet to be explored.

456 citations

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TL;DR: The concept of average logarithmic negativity is introduced, showing that it allows a reliable quantitative estimate of continuo us variable entanglement by direct measurements of global and marginal generalized p-entropies.

Abstract: We investigate the relationship between mixedness and entanglement for Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. We introduce generalized entropies based on Schatten $p$ norms to quantify the mixedness of a state and derive their explicit expressions in terms of symplectic spectra. We compare the hierarchies of mixedness provided by such measures with the one provided by the purity (defined as $\mathrm{tr}\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}{\ensuremath{\varrho}}^{2}$ for the state $\ensuremath{\varrho}$) for generic $n$-mode states. We then review the analysis proving the existence of both maximally and minimally entangled states at given global and marginal purities, with the entanglement quantified by the logarithmic negativity. Based on these results, we extend such an analysis to generalized entropies, introducing and fully characterizing maximally and minimally entangled states for given global and local generalized entropies. We compare the different roles played by the purity and by the generalized $p$ entropies in quantifying the entanglement and the mixedness of continuous variable systems. We introduce the concept of average logarithmic negativity, showing that it allows a reliable quantitative estimate of continuous variable entanglement by direct measurements of global and marginal generalized $p$ entropies.

415 citations

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TL;DR: The entanglement potential detects nonclassicality, has a direct physical interpretation, and can be computed efficiently, which make it stand out from previously proposed non classicality measures.

Abstract: We propose the entanglement potential (EP) as a measure of nonclassicality for quantum states of a single-mode electromagnetic field. It is the amount of two-mode entanglement that can be generated from the field using linear optics, auxiliary classical states, and ideal photodetectors. The EP detects nonclassicality, has a direct physical interpretation, and can be computed efficiently. These three properties together make it stand out from previously proposed nonclassicality measures. We derive closed expressions for the EP of important classes of states and analyze as an example of the degradation of nonclassicality in lossy channels.

230 citations

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Abstract: We present a complete analysis of the multipartite entanglement of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems. We derive standard forms which characterize the covariance matrix of pure and mixed three-mode Gaussian states up to local unitary operations, showing that the local entropies of pure Gaussian states are bound to fulfill a relationship which is stricter than the general Araki-Lieb inequality. Quantum correlations can be quantified by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity, the continuous-variable tangle, or contangle. We review and elucidate in detail the proof that in multimode Gaussian states the contangle satisfies a monogamy inequality constraint [G. Adesso and F. Illuminati, New J. Phys8, 15 (2006)]. The residual contangle, emerging from the monogamy inequality, is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communications and defines a measure of genuine tripartite entanglements. We determine the analytical expression of the residual contangle for arbitrary pure three-mode Gaussian states and study in detail the distribution of quantum correlations in such states. This analysis yields that pure, symmetric states allow for a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. We thus name these states $\mathrm{GHZ}∕W$ states of continuous-variable systems because they are simultaneous continuous-variable counterparts of both the GHZ and the $W$ states of three qubits. We finally consider the effect of decoherence on three-mode Gaussian states, studying the decay of the residual contangle. The $\mathrm{GHZ}∕W$ states are shown to be maximally robust against losses and thermal noise.

149 citations

##### References

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TL;DR: A measure of entanglement that can be computed effectively for any mixed state of an arbitrary bipartite system is presented and it is shown that it does not increase under local manipulations of the system.

Abstract: We present a measure of entanglement that can be computed effectively for any mixed state of an arbitrary bipartite system. We show that it does not increase under local manipulations of the system, and use it to obtain a bound on the teleportation capacity and on the distillable entanglement of mixed states.

3,287 citations

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Abstract: Preface. About the Editors. Part I: Quantum Computing. 1. Quantum computing with qubits S.L. Braunstein, A.K. Pati. 2. Quantum computation over continuous variables S. Lloyd, S.L. Braunstein. 3. Error correction for continuous quantum variables S.L. Braunstein. 4. Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm for continuous variables A.K. Pati, S.L. Braunstein. 5. Hybrid quantum computing S. Lloyd. 6. Efficient classical simulation of continuous variable quantum information processes S.D. Bartlett, B.C. Sanders, S.L. Braunstein, K. Nemoto. Part II: Quantum Entanglement. 7. Introduction to entanglement-based protocols S.L. Braunstein, A.K. Pati. 8. Teleportation of continuous uantum variables S.L. Braunstein, H.J. Kimble. 9. Experimental realization of continuous variable teleportation A. Furusawa, H.J. Kimble. 10. Dense coding for continuous variables S.L. Braunstein, H.J. Kimble. 11. Multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradoxes for continuous variables S. Massar, S. Pironio. 12. Multipartite entanglement for continuous variables P. van Loock, S.L. Braunstein. 13. Inseparability criterion for continuous variable systems Lu-Ming Duan, G. Giedke, J.I. Cirac, P. Zoller. 14. Separability criterion for Gaussian states R. Simon. 15. Distillability and entanglement purification for Gaussian states G. Giedke, Lu-Ming Duan, J.I. Cirac, P. Zoller. 16. Entanglement purification via entanglement swapping S. Parke, S. Bose, M.B. Plenio. 17. Bound entanglement for continuous variables is a rare phenomenon P. Horodecki, J.I. Cirac, M. Lewenstein. Part III: Continuous Variable Optical-Atomic Interfacing. 18. Atomic continuous variable processing and light-atoms quantum interface A. Kuzmich, E.S. Polzik. Part IV: Limits on Quantum Information and Cryptography. 19. Limitations on discrete quantum information and cryptography S.L. Braunstein, A.K. Pati. 20. Quantum cloning with continuous variables N.J. Cerf. 21. Quantum key distribution with continuous variables in optics T.C. Ralph. 22. Secure quantum key distribution using squeezed states D. Gottesman, J. Preskill. 23. Experimental demonstration of dense coding and quantum cryptography with continuous variables Kunchi Peng, Qing Pan, Jing Zhang, Changde Xie. 24. Quantum solitons in optical fibres: basic requisites for experimental quantum communication G. Leuchs, Ch. Silberhorn, E. Konig, P.K. Lam, A. Sizmann, N. Korolkova. Index.

2,618 citations

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TL;DR: The Peres-Horodecki criterion of positivity under partial transpose is studied in the context of separability of bipartite continuous variable states and turns out to be a necessary and sufficient condition for separability.

Abstract: The Peres-Horodecki criterion of positivity under partial transpose is studied in the context of separability of bipartite continuous variable states. The partial transpose operation admits, in the continuous case, a geometric interpretation as mirror reflection in phase space. This recognition leads to uncertainty principles, stronger than the traditional ones, to be obeyed by all separable states. For all bipartite Gaussian states, the Peres-Horodecki criterion turns out to be a necessary and sufficient condition for separability.

1,570 citations

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TL;DR: An inseparability criterion based on the total variance of a pair of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type operators is proposed for continuous variable systems and turns out to be a necessary and sufficient condition for inseparability.

Abstract: As with discrete systems, quantum entanglement also plays the basic role in quantum information protocols with continuous variables. A problem of great importance is then to check whether a continuous variable state, generally mixed, is entangled (inseparable). For discrete systems, there is the Peres-Horodecki inseparability criterion [1,2], based on the negativity of the partial transpose of the composite density operator. This negativity provides a necessary and sufficient condition for inseparability of 2 × 2 or 2 × 3 —dimensional systems. In this section, we will describe an entirely different inseparability criterion for continuous variable states, which was first proposed in Ref. [3]. The Peres-Horodecki criterion was also successfully extended to the continuous variable systems shortly afterwards, which will be described in the next section by Simon.

1,510 citations

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13 Mar 1998

Abstract: Classical Models of Light Experiments with Photons Quantum Models of Light Basic Optical Components Photo-currents: Generation and Detection The Laser Quantum Noise: Basic Measurements Sub-Poissonian Light Squeezing Experiments Quantum Non-demolition Experiments Applications of Quantum Optics Summary and Outlook Appendices Index.

753 citations