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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12958-021-00723-2

Hsp90 modulates human sperm capacitation via the Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.

04 Mar 2021-Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology (BioMed Central)-Vol. 19, Iss: 1, pp 39-39
Abstract: Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a highly abundant eukaryotic molecular chaperone that plays important roles in client protein maturation, protein folding and degradation, and signal transduction Previously, we found that both Hsp90 and its co-chaperone cell division cycle protein 37 (Cdc37) were expressed in human sperm Hsp90 is known to be involved in human sperm capacitation via unknown underlying mechanism(s) As Cdc37 was a kinase-specific co-chaperone of Hsp90, Hsp90 may regulate human sperm capacitation via other kinases It has been reported that two major mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) and p38, are expressed in human sperm in the same locations as Hsp90 and Cdc37 Phosphorylated Erk1/2 has been shown to promote sperm hyperactivated motility and acrosome reaction, while phosphorylated p38 inhibits sperm motility Therefore, in this study we explored whether Hsp90 modulates human sperm capacitation via the Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways Human sperm was treated with the Hsp90-specific inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) during capacitation Computer-assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) was used to detect sperm motility and hyperactivation The sperm acrosome reaction was analyzed by using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC) staining The interactions between Hsp90, Cdc37, Erk1/2 and p38 were assessed using co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) experiments Western blotting analysis was used to evaluate the levels of protein expression and phosphorylation Human sperm hyperactivation and acrosome reaction were inhibited by 17-AAG, suggesting that Hsp90 is involved in human sperm capacitation In addition, Co-IP experiments revealed that 17-AAG reduced the interaction between Hsp90 and Cdc37, leading to the dissociation of Erk1/2 from the Hsp90-Cdc37 protein complex Western blotting analysis revealed that levels of Erk1/2 and its phosphorylated form were subsequently decreased Decreasing of Hsp90-Cdc37 complex also affected the interaction between Hsp90 and p38 Nevertheless, p38 dissociated from the Hsp90 protein complex and was activated by autophosphorylation Taken together, our findings indicate that Hsp90 is involved in human sperm hyperactivation and acrosome reaction In particular, Hsp90 and its co-chaperone Cdc37 form a protein complex with Erk1/2 and p38 to regulate their kinase activity These results suggest that Hsp90 regulates human sperm capacitation via the Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways

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Topics: Hyperactivation (71%), Sperm motility (69%), Acrosome reaction (66%) ... show more
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5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JPROT.2021.104335
Abstract: Even in stallions with sperm quality within normal reference ranges at ejaculation, subtle differences in sperm quality exist that in many cases lead to reduced time frames for conservation of the ejaculate and/or reduced fertility. The spermatozoon is a cell highly suitable for proteomics studies, and the use of this technique is allowing rapid advances in the understanding of sperm biology. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences among stallions of variable sperm quality (based on motility and sperm velocities), although all horses had sperm characteristics within normal ranges. The proteome was studied using UHPLC/MS/MS and posterior bioinformatic and enrichment analysis; data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD025807 . Sperm motility, linear motility and circular, straight line and average velocities (VCL, VSL, VAP) were measured using computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA). In stallions showing better percentages of motility, circular and average velocity predominated mitochondrial proteins with roles in the Citric acid cycle, pyruvate metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Interestingly, in stallions with better percentages of total motility, sperm proteins were also enriched in proteins within the gene ontology (G0) terms, single fertilization (G0: 0007338), fertilization (G0: 0009566), and zona pellucida receptor complex (GO:0002199). The enrichment of this proteins in samples with better percentages of total motility may offer a molecular explanation for the link between this parameter and fertility. Significance Proteomic analysis identified a high degree of specificity of stallion sperm proteins with discriminant power for motility, linear motility, and sperm velocities (VCL, VAP and VSL). These findings may represent an interesting outcome in relation to the molecular biology regulating the movement of the spermatozoa, and the biological meaning of the measurements that computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) provide. Of a total of 903 proteins identified in stallion spermatozoa, 24 were related to the percentage of total motility in the sample; interestingly, gene ontology (G0) analysis revealed that these proteins were enriched in terms like single fertilization and fertilization, providing a molecular link between motility and fertility. Field studies indicate that the percentage of total motility is the CASA derived parameter with the best correlation with fertility in stallions.

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Topics: Sperm motility (70%), Sperm (60%), Single fertilization (55%) ... show more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/FEMSYR/FOAB054
Julia L. Crunden1, Stephanie Diezmann1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a central regulator of cellular proteostasis. It stabilizes numerous proteins that are involved in fundamental processes of life, including cell growth, cell cycle progression, and the environmental response. In addition to stabilizing proteins, Hsp90 governs gene expression and controls the release of cryptic genetic variation. Given its central role in evolution and development, it is important to identify proteins and genes that interact with Hsp90. This requires sophisticated genetic and biochemical tools, including extensive mutant collections, suitable epitope tags, proteomics approaches and Hsp90 specific pharmacological inhibitors for chemogenomic screens. These usually only exist in model organisms, such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yet, the importance of other fungal species, such as Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, as serious human pathogens accelerated the development of genetic tools to study their virulence and stress response pathways. These tools can also be exploited to map Hsp90 interaction networks. Here, we review tools and techniques for Hsp90 network mapping available in different fungi and provide a summary of existing mapping efforts. Mapping Hsp90 networks in fungal species spanning >500 million years of evolution provides a unique vantage point, allowing tracking of the evolutionary history of eukaryotic Hsp90 networks.

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Topics: Proteostasis (51%)

Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.07.13.452164
Paul J. Cullen1, Beatriz González1Institutions (1)
14 Jul 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: All cells maintain an axis of polarity that directs the orientation of growth. Cell polarity can be reorganized during development and in response to extrinsic cues to produce new cell types. Rho GTPases are central regulators of cell polarity and signal-dependent cell differentiation. We show here that one of the best understood Rho GTPases, the highly conserved yeast Cdc42p, is turned over by members of the Heat Shock family of Proteins (HSPs). The Hsp40p chaperone, Ydj1p, was required for turnover of Cdc42p by the NEDD4 E3 ubiquitin ligase, Rsp5p, in the proteosome. Cdc42p turnover was regulated by HSPs at high temperatures, and in aging cells where the protein formed aggregates, implicating HSPs in Rho GTPase quality control. We also show that Cdc42pQ61L, which mimics the active (GTP-bound) conformation of the protein, was turned over at elevated levels by Ydj1p and Rsp5p. A turnover-defective version of Cdc42pQ61L led to multibudding phenotypes, implicating Cdc42 turnover in singularity in cell polarization. Cdc42p turnover also impacted MAP kinase pathway specificity. A pathway-specific scaffold, Bem4p, stabilized Cdc42p levels, which biased Cdc42p function in one MAPK pathway over another. Turnover regulation of Rho GTPases by HSPs and scaffolds provides new dimensions to the regulation of cell polarity and signal-dependent morphogenesis. Significance StatementRho GTPases are switch-like proteins that govern major decisions in cell polarity and signaling in eukaryotes. We elucidate here a pathway that turns over the yeast Rho GTPase Cdc42p, which is mediated by the heat-shock family of proteins (HSPs) and the NEDD4-type E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p. This finding provides a way for HSPs to exert their widespread effects on morphogenetic responses, phenotypic plasticity, and signaling pathways. We also found that turnover of an active version of Cdc42p is critical for modulating cell polarity. Cdc42p turnover also impacted its function in a pathway specific setting, as stabilization of Cdc42p by Bem4p (SmgGDS-type scaffold) influenced the activity of a specific MAPK pathway. HSPs may regulate Rho GTPase turnover in many systems.

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Topics: GTPase (59%), Cell polarity (57.99%), CDC42 (56.99%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1155/2021/8281506
Feng Zhao1, Yingjun Deng1, Guan-Chao Du1, Sheng-Jing Liu1  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Background. The traditional Chinese medicines Astragalus and Angelica are often combined to treat male infertility, but the specific therapeutic mechanism is not clear. Therefore, this study applies a network pharmacology approach to investigate the possible mechanism of action of the drug pair Astragalus-Angelica (PAA) in the treatment of male infertility. Methods. Relevant targets for PAA treatment of male infertility are obtained through databases. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are constructed through STRING database and screen core targets, and an enrichment analysis is conducted through the Metascape platform. Finally, molecular docking experiments were carried out to evaluate the affinity between the target protein and the ligand of PAA. Results. The active ingredients of 112 PAA, 980 corresponding targets, and 374 effective targets of PAA for the treatment of male infertility were obtained, which are related to PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, and thyroid hormone signaling pathway. Conclusion. In this study, using a network pharmacology method, we preliminarily analyzed the effective components and action targets of the PAA. We also explored the possible mechanism of action of PAA in treating male infertility. They also lay a foundation for expanding the clinical application of PAA and provide new ideas and directions for further research on the mechanisms of action of the PAA and its components for male infertility treatment.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPHYS.2021.761910
Abstract: Potassium channels are involved in membrane hyperpolarization and ion homeostasis regulation during human sperm capacitation. However, the types of potassium channels in human sperm remain controversial. The voltage-gated ion channel KCNQ1 is ubiquitously expressed and regulates key physiological processes in the human body. In the present study, we investigated whether KCNQ1 is expressed in human sperm and what role it might have in sperm function. The expression and localization of KCNQ1 in human sperm were evaluated using Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. During capacitation incubation, human sperm were treated with KCNQ1- specific inhibitor chromanol 293B. Sperm motility was analyzed using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. The acrosome reaction was studied using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin staining. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation levels and localization after capacitation were determined using Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Intracellular K+, Ca2+, Cl-, pH, and membrane potential were analyzed using fluorescent probes. The results demonstrate that KCNQ1 is expressed and localized in the head and tail regions of human sperm. KCNQ1 inhibition reduced sperm motility, acrosome reaction rates, and protein tyrosine phosphorylation but had no effect on hyperactivation. KCNQ1 inhibition also increased intracellular K+, membrane potential, and intracellular Cl-, while decreasing intracellular Ca2+ and pH. In conclusion, the KCNQ1 channel plays a crucial role during human sperm capacitation.

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Topics: Sperm motility (71%), Hyperactivation (70%), Acrosome reaction (68%) ... show more

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41 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRM2918
Abstract: Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that facilitates the maturation of a wide range of proteins (known as clients). Clients are enriched in signal transducers, including kinases and transcription factors. Therefore, HSP90 regulates diverse cellular functions and exerts marked effects on normal biology, disease and evolutionary processes. Recent structural and functional analyses have provided new insights on the transcriptional and biochemical regulation of HSP90 and the structural dynamics it uses to act on a diverse client repertoire. Comprehensive understanding of how HSP90 functions promises not only to provide new avenues for therapeutic intervention, but to shed light on fundamental biological questions.

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Topics: Ganetespib (51%)

1,457 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRI3495
J. Simon C. Arthur1, Steven C. Ley2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Following pathogen infection or tissue damage, the stimulation of pattern recognition receptors on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm of innate immune cells activates members of each of the major mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) subfamilies--the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) subfamilies. In conjunction with the activation of nuclear factor-κB and interferon-regulatory factor transcription factors, MAPK activation induces the expression of multiple genes that together regulate the inflammatory response. In this Review, we discuss our current knowledge about the regulation and the function of MAPKs in innate immunity, as well as the importance of negative feedback loops in limiting MAPK activity to prevent host tissue damage. We also examine how pathogens have evolved complex mechanisms to manipulate MAPK activation to increase their virulence. Finally, we consider the potential of the pharmacological targeting of MAPK pathways to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

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Topics: MAPK/ERK pathway (60%), Pattern recognition receptor (59%), Innate immune system (56%) ... show more

1,002 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/CNCR.28864
15 Nov 2014-Cancer
Abstract: The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated (MAPK/ERK) pathway is activated by upstream genomic events and/or activation of multiple signaling events in which information coalesces at this important nodal pathway point. This pathway is tightly regulated under normal conditions by phosphatases and bidirectional communication with other pathways, like the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/m-TOR) pathway. Recent evidence indicates that the MAPK/ERK signaling node can function as a tumor suppressor as well as the more common pro-oncogenic signal. The effect that predominates depends on the intensity of the signal and the context or tissue in which the signal is aberrantly activated. Genomic profiling of tumors has revealed common mutations in MAPK/ERK pathway components, such as v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF). Currently approved for the treatment of melanoma, inhibitors of BRAF kinase are being studied alone and in combination with inhibitors of the MAPK and other pathways to optimize the treatment of many tumor types. Therapies targeted toward MAPK/ERK components have various response rates when used in different solid tumors, such as colorectal cancer and ovarian cancer. Understanding the differential nature of activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway in each tumor type is critical in developing single and combination regimens, because different tumors have unique mechanisms of primary and secondary signaling and subsequent sensitivity to drugs.

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Topics: MAPK/ERK pathway (64%), Protein kinase B (56.99%), Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (56%) ... show more

535 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE09767
17 Mar 2011-Nature
Abstract: Steroid hormone progesterone released by cumulus cells surrounding the egg is a potent stimulator of human spermatozoa. It attracts spermatozoa towards the egg and helps them penetrate the egg's protective vestments. Progesterone induces Ca(2+) influx into spermatozoa and triggers multiple Ca(2+)-dependent physiological responses essential for successful fertilization, such as sperm hyperactivation, acrosome reaction and chemotaxis towards the egg. As an ovarian hormone, progesterone acts by regulating gene expression through a well-characterized progesterone nuclear receptor. However, the effect of progesterone upon transcriptionally silent spermatozoa remains unexplained and is believed to be mediated by a specialized, non-genomic membrane progesterone receptor. The identity of this non-genomic progesterone receptor and the mechanism by which it causes Ca(2+) entry remain fundamental unresolved questions in human reproduction. Here we elucidate the mechanism of the non-genomic action of progesterone on human spermatozoa by identifying the Ca(2+) channel activated by progesterone. By applying the patch-clamp technique to mature human spermatozoa, we found that nanomolar concentrations of progesterone dramatically potentiate CatSper, a pH-dependent Ca(2+) channel of the sperm flagellum. We demonstrate that human CatSper is synergistically activated by elevation of intracellular pH and extracellular progesterone. Interestingly, human CatSper can be further potentiated by prostaglandins, but apparently through a binding site other than that of progesterone. Because our experimental conditions did not support second messenger signalling, CatSper or a directly associated protein serves as the elusive non-genomic progesterone receptor of sperm. Given that the CatSper-associated progesterone receptor is sperm specific and structurally different from the genomic progesterone receptor, it represents a promising target for the development of a new class of non-hormonal contraceptives.

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Topics: Progesterone receptor (74%), Membrane progesterone receptor (68%), Hyperactivation (60%) ... show more

464 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE09769
17 Mar 2011-Nature
Abstract: The female steroid hormone progesterone is produced by the ovaries and the placenta, and supports gestation and embryogenesis through its actions on a well-characterized nuclear progesterone receptor. But progesterone released by cells surrounding the egg also stimulates sperm cells within the Fallopian tubes and increases their fertilizing ability, and the mechanism of this action of progesterone has remained elusive. Two independent research groups now report that progesterone potently activates CatSper, the principal Ca2+ channel of the sperm flagellum. Their data demonstrate that the CatSper channel or a directly associated membrane protein serves as a novel progesterone receptor that can mediate a fast, non-genomic effect of progesterone at the level of the sperm plasma membrane. These results should help to define the physiological role of progesterone and CatSper in sperm, and could lead to the development of new classes of non-hormonal contraceptives. Progesterone stimulates an increase in Ca2+ levels in human sperm, but the underlying signalling mechanism is poorly understood. Two studies now show that progesterone activates the sperm-specific, pH-sensitive CatSper calcium channel, leading to a rapid influx of Ca2+ ions into the spermatozoa. These results should help to define the physiological role of progesterone and CatSper in sperm, and could lead to the development of new classes of non-hormonal contraceptives. In the oviduct, cumulus cells that surround the oocyte release progesterone. In human sperm, progesterone stimulates a Ca2+ increase by a non-genomic mechanism1,2,3. The Ca2+ signal has been proposed to control chemotaxis, hyperactivation and acrosomal exocytosis of sperm4,5,6,7,8. However, the underlying signalling mechanism has remained mysterious. Here we show that progesterone activates the sperm-specific, pH-sensitive CatSper Ca2+ channel9,10,11. We found that both progesterone and alkaline pH stimulate a rapid Ca2+ influx with almost no latency, incompatible with a signalling pathway involving metabotropic receptors and second messengers. The Ca2+ signals evoked by alkaline pH and progesterone are inhibited by the Cav channel blockers NNC 55-0396 and mibefradil. Patch-clamp recordings from sperm reveal an alkaline-activated current carried by mono- and divalent ions that exhibits all the hallmarks of sperm-specific CatSper Ca2+ channels10,11. Progesterone substantially enhances the CatSper current. The alkaline- and progesterone-activated CatSper current is inhibited by both drugs. Our results resolve a long-standing controversy over the non-genomic progesterone signalling. In human sperm, either the CatSper channel itself or an associated protein serves as the non-genomic progesterone receptor. The identification of CatSper channel blockers will greatly facilitate the study of Ca2+ signalling in sperm and help to define further the physiological role of progesterone and CatSper.

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Topics: Progesterone receptor (65%), Hyperactivation (63%), Sperm plasma membrane (60%) ... show more

442 Citations