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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AJHG.2021.02.009

Human ancient DNA analyses reveal the high burden of tuberculosis in Europeans over the last 2,000 years.

04 Mar 2021-American Journal of Human Genetics (Cell Press)-Vol. 108, Iss: 3, pp 517-524
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB), usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, is the first cause of death from an infectious disease at the worldwide scale, yet the mode and tempo of TB pressure on humans remain unknown. The recent discovery that homozygotes for the P1104A polymorphism of TYK2 are at higher risk to develop clinical forms of TB provided the first evidence of a common, monogenic predisposition to TB, offering a unique opportunity to inform on human co-evolution with a deadly pathogen. Here, we investigate the history of human exposure to TB by determining the evolutionary trajectory of the TYK2 P1104A variant in Europe, where TB is considered to be the deadliest documented infectious disease. Leveraging a large dataset of 1,013 ancient human genomes and using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we find that the P1104A variant originated in the common ancestors of West Eurasians ∼30,000 years ago. Furthermore, we show that, following large-scale population movements of Anatolian Neolithic farmers and Eurasian steppe herders into Europe, P1104A has markedly fluctuated in frequency over the last 10,000 years of European history, with a dramatic decrease in frequency after the Bronze Age. Our analyses indicate that such a frequency drop is attributable to strong negative selection starting ∼2,000 years ago, with a relative fitness reduction on homozygotes of 20%, among the highest in the human genome. Together, our results provide genetic evidence that TB has imposed a heavy burden on European health over the last two millennia.

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Topics: Population (52%), Tuberculosis (50%)
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7 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41591-021-01388-5
Masato Ogishi1, Rui Yang1, Caner Aytekin, David Langlais2  +69 moreInstitutions (17)
28 Jun 2021-Nature Medicine
Abstract: The pathophysiology of adverse events following programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade, including tuberculosis (TB) and autoimmunity, remains poorly characterized. We studied a patient with inherited PD-1 deficiency and TB who died of pulmonary autoimmunity. The patient’s leukocytes did not express PD-1 or respond to PD-1-mediated suppression. The patient’s lymphocytes produced only small amounts of interferon (IFN)-γ upon mycobacterial stimuli, similarly to patients with inborn errors of IFN-γ production who are vulnerable to TB. This phenotype resulted from a combined depletion of Vδ2+ γδ T, mucosal-associated invariant T and CD56bright natural killer lymphocytes and dysfunction of other T lymphocyte subsets. Moreover, the patient displayed hepatosplenomegaly and an expansion of total, activated and RORγT+ CD4−CD8− double-negative αβ T cells, similar to patients with STAT3 gain-of-function mutations who display lymphoproliferative autoimmunity. This phenotype resulted from excessive amounts of STAT3-activating cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-23 produced by activated T lymphocytes and monocytes, and the STAT3-dependent expression of RORγT by activated T lymphocytes. Our work highlights the indispensable role of human PD-1 in governing both antimycobacterial immunity and self-tolerance, while identifying potentially actionable molecular targets for the diagnostic and therapeutic management of TB and autoimmunity in patients on PD-1 blockade. Dysregulated immune features in a patient with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in PDCD1 suggest that IL-6, IL-23, STAT3 and RORγT might be potential targets for treatment of PD-1 blockade-induced autoimmunity.

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Topics: Autoimmunity (54%), Immune system (53%), Interleukin (51%)

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.2102804118
Tom Le Voyer1, Tom Le Voyer2, Anna-Lena Neehus2, Anna-Lena Neehus1  +54 moreInstitutions (12)
Abstract: Human inborn errors of IFN-γ underlie mycobacterial disease, due to insufficient IFN-γ production by lymphoid cells, impaired myeloid cell responses to this cytokine, or both. We report four patients from two unrelated kindreds with intermittent monocytosis and mycobacterial disease, including bacillus Calmette-Guerin-osis and disseminated tuberculosis, and without any known inborn error of IFN-γ. The patients are homozygous for ZNFX1 variants (p.S959* and p.E1606Rfs*10) predicted to be loss of function (pLOF). There are no subjects homozygous for pLOF variants in public databases. ZNFX1 is a conserved and broadly expressed helicase, but its biology remains largely unknown. It is thought to act as a viral double-stranded RNA sensor in mice, but these patients do not suffer from severe viral illnesses. We analyze its subcellular localization upon overexpression in A549 and HeLa cell lines and upon stimulation of THP1 and fibroblastic cell lines. We find that this cytoplasmic protein can be recruited to or even induce stress granules. The endogenous ZNFX1 protein in cell lines of the patient homozygous for the p.E1606Rfs*10 variant is truncated, whereas ZNFX1 expression is abolished in cell lines from the patients with the p.S959* variant. Lymphocyte subsets are present at normal frequencies in these patients and produce IFN-γ normally. The hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells of the patients tested respond normally to IFN-γ. Our results indicate that human ZNFX1 is associated with stress granules and essential for both monocyte homeostasis and protective immunity to mycobacteria.

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Topics: Monocytosis (55%), Monocyte homeostasis (54%), Stress granule (53%) ... read more

6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COI.2021.04.006
Abstract: Population genetic studies have clearly indicated that immunity and host defense are among the functions most frequently subject to natural selection, and increased our understanding of the biological relevance of the corresponding genes and their contribution to variable immune traits and diseases. Herein, we will focus on some recently studied forms of human adaptation to infectious agents, including hybridization with now-extinct hominins, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans, and admixture between modern human populations. These studies, which are partly enabled by the technological advances in the sequencing of DNA from ancient remains, provide new insight into the sources of immune response variation in contemporary humans, such as the recently reported link between Neanderthal heritage and susceptibility to severe COVID-19 disease. Furthermore, ancient DNA analyses, in both humans and pathogens, allow to measure the action of natural selection on immune genes across time and to reconstruct the impact of past epidemics on the evolution of human immunity.

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Topics: Population (53%), Ancient DNA (52%), Genomics (51%) ... read more

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41590-021-01030-Z
Evangelos Andreakos1, Laurent Abel2, Laurent Abel3, Laurent Abel4  +17 moreInstitutions (13)
18 Oct 2021-Nature Immunology
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 infections display tremendous interindividual variability, ranging from asymptomatic infections to life-threatening disease. Inborn errors of, and autoantibodies directed against, type I interferons (IFNs) account for about 20% of critical COVID-19 cases among SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. By contrast, the genetic and immunological determinants of resistance to infection per se remain unknown. Following the discovery that autosomal recessive deficiency in the DARC chemokine receptor confers resistance to Plasmodium vivax, autosomal recessive deficiencies of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and the enzyme FUT2 were shown to underlie resistance to HIV-1 and noroviruses, respectively. Along the same lines, we propose a strategy for identifying, recruiting, and genetically analyzing individuals who are naturally resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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Topics: Chemokine receptor (51%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COI.2021.07.001
Abstract: Clinical disease caused by the agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and by less virulent mycobacteria, such as bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccines and environmental mycobacteria, can result from inborn errors of immunity (IEIs). IEIs underlie more than 450 conditions, each associated with an impairment of the development and/or function of hematopoietic and/or non-hematopoietic cells involved in host defense. Only a minority of IEIs confer predisposition to mycobacterial disease. The IEIs underlying susceptibility to bona fide tuberculosis are less well delineated than those responsible for susceptibility to less virulent mycobacteria. However, all these IEIs share a defining feature: the impairment of immunity mediated by interferon gamma (IFN-γ). More profound IFN-γ deficiency is associated with a greater vulnerability to weakly virulent mycobacteria, whereas more selective IFN-γ deficiency is associated with a more selective predisposition to mycobacterial disease. We review here recent progress in the study of IEIs underlying mycobacterial diseases.

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1 Citations


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40 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE15393
Adam Auton1, Gonçalo R. Abecasis2, David Altshuler3, Richard Durbin4  +514 moreInstitutions (90)
01 Oct 2015-Nature
Abstract: The 1000 Genomes Project set out to provide a comprehensive description of common human genetic variation by applying whole-genome sequencing to a diverse set of individuals from multiple populations. Here we report completion of the project, having reconstructed the genomes of 2,504 individuals from 26 populations using a combination of low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, deep exome sequencing, and dense microarray genotyping. We characterized a broad spectrum of genetic variation, in total over 88 million variants (84.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 3.6 million short insertions/deletions (indels), and 60,000 structural variants), all phased onto high-quality haplotypes. This resource includes >99% of SNP variants with a frequency of >1% for a variety of ancestries. We describe the distribution of genetic variation across the global sample, and discuss the implications for common disease studies.

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Topics: 1000 Genomes Project (62%), Exome sequencing (59%), Genome-wide association study (59%) ... read more

9,821 Citations


Open accessBook
11 Jul 1991-
Abstract: Part 1 Microparasites: biology of host-microparasite associations the basic model - statics static aspects of eradication and control the basic model - dynamics dynamic aspects of eradication and control beyond the basic model - empirical evidence of inhomogeneous mixing age-related transmission rates genetic heterogeneity social heterogeneity and sexually transmitted diseases spatial and other kinds of heterogeneity endemic infections in developing countries indirectly transmitted microparasites. Part 2 Macroparasites: biology of host-macroparasite associations the basic model - statics the basic model - dynamics acquired immunity heterogeneity within the human community indirectly transmitted helminths experimental epidemiology parasites, genetic variability, and drug resistance the ecology and genetics of host-parasite associations.

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7,668 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE11582
Luke Jostins1, Stephan Ripke2, Rinse K. Weersma3, Richard H. Duerr4  +102 moreInstitutions (55)
01 Nov 2012-Nature
Abstract: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry, with rising prevalence in other populations. Genome-wide association studies and subsequent meta-analyses of these two diseases as separate phenotypes have implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy, in their pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases. Here we expand on the knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis genome-wide association scans, followed by extensive validation of significant findings, with a combined total of more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci, that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional (consistently favouring one allele over the course of human history) and balancing (favouring the retention of both alleles within populations) selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe considerable overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD.

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3,586 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/GENETICS/162.4.2025
01 Dec 2002-Genetics
Abstract: We propose a new method for approximate Bayesian statistical inference on the basis of summary statistics. The method is suited to complex problems that arise in population genetics, extending ideas developed in this setting by earlier authors. Properties of the posterior distribution of a parameter, such as its mean or density curve, are approximated without explicit likelihood calculations. This is achieved by fitting a local-linear regression of simulated parameter values on simulated summary statistics, and then substituting the observed summary statistics into the regression equation. The method combines many of the advantages of Bayesian statistical inference with the computational efficiency of methods based on summary statistics. A key advantage of the method is that the nuisance parameters are automatically integrated out in the simulation step, so that the large numbers of nuisance parameters that arise in population genetics problems can be handled without difficulty. Simulation results indicate computational and statistical efficiency that compares favorably with those of alternative methods previously proposed in the literature. We also compare the relative efficiency of inferences obtained using methods based on summary statistics with those obtained directly from the data using MCMC.

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Topics: Bayesian statistics (66%), Nuisance parameter (65%), Computational statistics (64%) ... read more

2,485 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/GKX1153
Melissa J. Landrum1, Jennifer M. Lee1, Mark L. Benson1, Garth Brown1  +18 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: ClinVar (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/) is a freely available, public archive of human genetic variants and interpretations of their significance to disease, maintained at the National Institutes of Health. Interpretations of the clinical significance of variants are submitted by clinical testing laboratories, research laboratories, expert panels and other groups. ClinVar aggregates data by variant-disease pairs, and by variant (or set of variants). Data aggregated by variant are accessible on the website, in an improved set of variant call format files and as a new comprehensive XML report. ClinVar recently started accepting submissions that are focused primarily on providing phenotypic information for individuals who have had genetic testing. Submissions may come from clinical providers providing their own interpretation of the variant ('provider interpretation') or from groups such as patient registries that primarily provide phenotypic information from patients ('phenotyping only'). ClinVar continues to make improvements to its search and retrieval functions. Several new fields are now indexed for more precise searching, and filters allow the user to narrow down a large set of search results.

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Topics: Variant Call Format (53%)

1,264 Citations