scispace - formally typeset

Journal ArticleDOI

Human monoclonal thyroglobulin autoantibodies: epitopes and immunoglobulin genes.

01 Oct 2004-The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (Endocrine Society)-Vol. 89, Iss: 10, pp 5116-5123

TL;DR: The TgAb panel provides novel information regarding the repertoire of H chain genes encoding human TgAbs as well as the relationship between the H chains and the epitopes recognized on this major thyroid autoantigen.

AbstractAutoantibodies to thyroglobulin (TgAbs) are common markers of thyroid autoimmunity, but relatively few human monoclonal TgAbs have been described. From a panel of 64 human monoclonal TgAbs (isolated from a thyroid-disease derived combinatorial Ig gene library), we selected seven with unique genetic features for detailed characterization. These TgAbs preferentially recognize native (not denatured) Tg, like serum autoantibodies. Most have high affinities for Tg (dissociation constant 10(-10) to 10(-9) m). Their light (L) chain Ig genes are not unusual, but four of the five heavy (H) chain genes are new. Moreover, one H chain belongs to the small VH2 family, not previously reported for autoantibodies to Tg or thyroid peroxidase. The TgAbs inhibit the binding to Tg of the thyroid donor's serum autoantibodies, indicating epitopic overlap. Competition analysis (surface plasmon resonance) shows that the TgAbs recognize overlapping epitopes in an immunodominant region on the Tg dimer ( approximately 660 kDa). Two major and several minor epitopic regions were defined, each associated with a particular H + L chain combination. In conclusion, our TgAb panel provides novel information regarding the repertoire of H chain genes encoding human TgAbs as well as the relationship between the H chains and the epitopes recognized on this major thyroid autoantigen.

Topics: Thyroglobulin (53%), Thyroid peroxidase (52%), Epitope (50%)

...read more

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this overview, 13 papers that should be on everyone's ‘must read’ list for 2003 are spotlighted and examples of how to identify and interpret high‐quality biosensor data are provided.
Abstract: In the year 2003 there was a 17% increase in the number of publications citing work performed using optical biosensor technology compared with the previous year. We collated the 962 total papers for 2003, identified the geographical regions where the work was performed, highlighted the instrument types on which it was carried out, and segregated the papers by biological system. In this overview, we spotlight 13 papers that should be on everyone's 'must read' list for 2003 and provide examples of how to identify and interpret high-quality biosensor data. Although we still find that the literature is replete with poorly performed experiments, over-interpreted results and a general lack of understanding of data analysis, we are optimistic that these shortcomings will be addressed as biosensor technology continues to mature.

510 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...[111–289], antibody–antigen [290–411] and receptor–...

    [...]

  • ...research performed using Biacore instruments [111–931]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The goal of inducing self-tolerance to prevent autoimmune thyroid disease will require accurate prediction of at-risk individuals together with an antigen-specific, not blanket, therapeutic approach.
Abstract: Thyroid autoimmunity involves loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins in genetically susceptible individuals in association with environmental factors. In central tolerance, intrathymic autoantigen presentation deletes immature T cells with high affinity for autoantigen-derived peptides. Regulatory T cells provide an alternative mechanism to silence autoimmune T cells in the periphery. The TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) have unusual properties ("immunogenicity") that contribute to breaking tolerance, including size, abundance, membrane association, glycosylation, and polymorphisms. Insight into loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins comes from spontaneous and induced animal models: 1) intrathymic expression controls self-tolerance to the TSHR, not TPO or Tg; 2) regulatory T cells are not involved in TSHR self-tolerance and instead control the balance between Graves' disease and thyroiditis; 3) breaking TSHR tolerance involves contributions from major histocompatibility complex molecules (humans and induced mouse models), TSHR polymorphism(s) (humans), and alternative splicing (mice); 4) loss of tolerance to Tg before TPO indicates that greater Tg immunogenicity vs TPO dominates central tolerance expectations; 5) tolerance is induced by thyroid autoantigen administration before autoimmunity is established; 6) interferon-α therapy for hepatitis C infection enhances thyroid autoimmunity in patients with intact immunity; Graves' disease developing after T-cell depletion reflects reconstitution autoimmunity; and 7) most environmental factors (including excess iodine) "reveal," but do not induce, thyroid autoimmunity. Micro-organisms likely exert their effects via bystander stimulation. Finally, no single mechanism explains the loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins. The goal of inducing self-tolerance to prevent autoimmune thyroid disease will require accurate prediction of at-risk individuals together with an antigen-specific, not blanket, therapeutic approach.

124 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The pattern of Tg recognition is similar when HT patients are compared to GD and NTMG to PTC patients and differs when AITD are compared with non-AITD patients.
Abstract: Context: Thyroglobulin (Tg) epitopes of serum Tg autoantibodies (TgAb) have been characterized using inhibition of Tg binding by human monoclonal TgAb in autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) [Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and Graves’ disease (GD)] but not in non-AITD [nontoxic multinodular goiter (NTMG) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)]. Objective: Our objective was to compare Tg epitopes of serum TgAb from patients with AITD, non-AITD, and PTC associated with histological thyroiditis (PTC-T) using inhibition of Tg binding by four recombinant human TgAb-Fab (epitopic regions A–D). Design: Inhibition of Tg binding of 24 HT, 25 GD, 19 NTMG, 15 PTC, and 25 PTC-T TgAb-positive sera by each TgAb-Fab was evaluated in ELISA. Inhibition by the pool of the four TgAb-Fab was evaluated using labeled Tg. Results: Levels of inhibition were different for TgAb-Fab regions A (P = 0.001), B (0.007), and D (0.011). Inhibition by region A TgAb-Fab was significantly higher in HT, GD, and PTC-T than in NTMG and PTC patients...

61 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In papillary thyroid carcinoma, LT on histology must be carefully searched for because it is frequently associated with TgAb and therefore mistakenly low or undetectable Tg, which can be underestimated in patients with T g autoantibodies (TgAb).
Abstract: Context: Serum thyroglobulin (Tg), the marker of residual tumor in papillary thyroid carcinoma, can be underestimated in patients with Tg autoantibodies (TgAb) TgAb are due to a coexistent lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) or the papillary thyroid carcinoma per se TgAb assays are highly discordant Design: We evaluated 141 patients with a clinical diagnosis of nodular thyroid disease, 32 of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and four of Graves' disease, who underwent total thyroidectomy for an associated papillary thyroid carcinoma Patients were classified as papillary thyroid carcinoma-lymphocytic thyroiditis (PTC-T) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) according to the presence or absence of LT on histology Tg was measured before thyroid remnant ablation, when it is expectedly detectable, by an immunometric assay (IMA) and TgAb by three noncompetitive IMA and three competitive radioimmunoassays (RIA) The number of lymphocytes was compared with TgAb concentration Results: Seventy-two of 177 patients (407%) were

54 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Iodine-induced thyroid autoimmunity is related to TgAb and the unmasking of a cryptic epitope on Tg contributes to this relationship in humans.
Abstract: Context: The mechanisms linking thyroid autoimmunity and iodine use in humans are unknown. Objective: Our aim was to correlate iodine intake, thyroid autoimmunity, and recognition of thyroglobulin (Tg) epitopes after implementation of iodine prophylaxis. Setting: The general community living in an Italian village was evaluated. Main Outcome Measures: Thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb), thyroperoxidase autoantibodies (TPOAb), and urinary iodine excretion were assessed in 906 iodized salt users (IS-users) and 389 nonusers (IS-nonusers). Ultrasound (US) was performed to identify thyroid hypoechogenicity, suggestive of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). TgAb epitope pattern in 16 IS-users and 17 IS-nonusers was evaluated by an inhibition binding assay to Tg, using human monoclonal TgAb-Fab directed to A, B, C, and D epitopes on Tg. Results: Median urinary iodine excretion was slightly higher in IS-users than in IS-nonusers (112.0 μg/L vs 86.5 μg/L; P < .01). TgAb, and not TPOAb, was more frequent in IS-users (18.9%...

53 citations


References
More filters

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The polymerase chain reaction and VH family-based primers are used to clone and sequence 74 human germline VH segments from a single individual and a directory is built to include all known germline sequences.
Abstract: We have used the polymerase chain reaction and VH family-based primers to clone and sequence 74 human germline VH segments from a single individual and built a directory to include all known germline sequences. The directory contains 122 VH segments with different nucleotide sequences, 83 of which have open reading frames. The directory indicates that the structural diversity of the germline repertoire for antigen binding is fixed by about 50 groups of VH segments: each group encodes identical hypervariable loops. The directory should help in mapping the VH locus, in estimating somatic mutation and VH segment usage and in designing and constructing synthetic antibody libraries.

999 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The RIA method used in this study provided more clinically appropriate serum Tg values in the group of TgAb-positive patients with metastatic DTC and may be an additional clinically useful tumor marker parameter for following T gAb- positive patients.
Abstract: The prevalence of circulating thyroid autoantibodies (TgAb or antithyroid peroxidase) was increased nearly 3-fold in patients with differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) compared with the general population (40% vs. 14%, respectively). Serum TgAb (with or without antithyroid peroxidase) was present in 25% of DTC patients and 10% of the general population. Serial postsurgical serum TgAb and serum Tg patterns correlated with the presence or absence of disease. Measurements of serum Tg were made in 87 TgAb-positive sera by a RIA and two immunometric assay (IMA) methods to study TgAb interference. TgAb interference, defined as a significant intermethod discordance (>41.7% coefficient of variation) between the Tg RIA and Tg IMA values relative to TgAb-negative sera, was found in 69% of the TgAb-positive sera. TgAb interference was characterized by higher Tg RIA vs. IMA values and was, in general, more frequent and severe in sera containing high TgAb concentrations. However, some sera displayed marked interference when serum TgAb was low (1-2 IU/mL), whereas other sera with very high TgAb values (>1000 IU/mL) displayed no interference. An agglutination method was found to be too insensitive to detect low TgAb concentrations (1-10 IU/mL) causing interference. Exogenous Tg recovery tests were an unreliable means for detecting TgAb interference. Specifically, the exogenous Tg recovered varied with the type and amount of Tg added and the duration of incubation employed. Further, recoveries of more than 80% were found for some sera displaying gross serum RIA/IMA discordances. The measurement of serum Tg in DTC patients with circulating TgAb is currently problematic. It is important to use a Tg method that provides measurements that are concordant with tumor status. IMA methods are prone to underestimate serum when TgAb is present, increasing the risk that persistent or metastatic DTC will be missed. The RIA method used in this study provided more clinically appropriate serum Tg values in the group of TgAb-positive patients with metastatic DTC. Furthermore, as serial serum TgAb measurements paralleled serial serum Tg RIA measurements, TgAb concentrations may be an additional clinically useful tumor marker parameter for following TgAb-positive patients. Disparities between serial serum Tg and TgAb measurements might alert the physician to the possibility of TgAb interference with the serum Tg measurement and prompt a more cautious use of such data for clinical decision-making.

489 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first report of the physical linkage of the variable and constant loci of a human Ig gene family is provided by demonstrating that the most proximal known human VH segments lie within 100 kb of the constant region locus.
Abstract: We present a detailed analysis of the content and organization of the human immunoglobulin VH locus. Human VH genes representing five distinct families were isolated, including novel members belonging to two out of three of the known VH gene families (VH1 and VH3) as well as members of three new families (VH4, VH5, and VH6). We report the nucleotide sequence of 21 novel human VH genes, many of which belong to the three new VH gene families. In addition, we provide a preliminary analysis of the organization of these gene segments over the full extent of the locus. We find that the five multi-segment families (VH1-5) have members interspersed over nearly the full 1500-2000 kb of the VH locus, and estimate that the entire heavy chain locus covers 2500 kb or less. Finally, we provide the first report of the physical linkage of the variable and constant loci of a human Ig gene family by demonstrating that the most proximal known human VH segments lie within 100 kb of the constant region locus.

458 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Comparison with 236 rearranged sequences revealed that no more than 24 of these germ‐line sequences could be assigned rearranged counterparts, that some of these were rarely used, and that only about 11 sequences are used frequently, suggesting that the expressed Vχ repertoire is mainly derived from a limited number of segments.
Abstract: From the genomic DNA of a single individual, we have amplified, cloned and sequenced 37 human germ-line V kappa segments. Four of these segments were new. We then compiled a comprehensive directory of all germ-line V kappa segments and identified 50 different sequences with open reading frames. Comparison with 236 rearranged sequences revealed that no more than 24 of these germ-line sequences could be assigned rearranged counterparts, that some of these were rarely used, and that only about 11 sequences are used frequently. This suggests that the expressed V kappa repertoire is mainly derived from a limited number of segments. Most surprisingly, the J kappa-distal region of the locus appears to be rarely used: we could unambiguously assign 162 rearranged sequences to V kappa segments of the J kappa-proximal region, but only 5 to segments of the J kappa-distal region.

403 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A large group of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who had serum thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin, or TSH-receptor antibodies due to coexistent thyroid autoimmune disease were studied, finding gradual disappearance of antibodies gradually disappeared in most patients.
Abstract: Le malattie autoimmuni della tiroide sono caratterizzate dalla presenza di anticorpi diretti contro la tireoperossidasi (TPO), la tireoglobulina (Tg) e il recettore per l’ormone tireotropo (TSH-R). Questo studio ha valutato se la rimozione completa degli antigeni tiroidei fosse in grado di indurre la scomparsa dei segni di autoimmunita tiroidea circolante. Lo studio e basato su una revisione retrospettiva delle cartelle cliniche di pazienti che erano stati seguiti e trattati secondo un protocollo standard. Sono stati studiati 182 pazienti affetti da tumore differenziato della tiroide i quali, per la coesistenza di una tiroidite cronica autoimmune, di un morbo di Basedow o di una tiroidite focale autoimmune, risultavano positivi per anticorpi anti-TPO (TPOAb), anti-Tg (TgAb) o anti-TSH-R (TRAb). Dei 182 soggetti, 151 erano di sesso femminile e 31 di sesso maschile; l’eta media era di 39,7±13,7 anni, con un range da 6 a 81 anni. Tutti i pazienti sono stati sottoposti a tiroidectomia totale e a trattamento con iodio radioattivo allo scopo di ablare il tessuto tiroideo residuo o metastatico. Il follow-up e stato effettuato mediante scintigrafie corporee totali con radioiodio e dosaggio della Tg circolante. La media del follow-up era di 10,1±4,1 anni, con un range di 4–20 anni. A seguito del trattamento con tiroidectomia totale e iodio radioattivo, si e verificata la scomparsa dei TgAb, TPOAb e TRAb. La mediana di scomparsa e stata di 6,3 anni per iTPOAb e di 3,0 anni per i TgAb. La scomparsa del tessuto tiroideo e quella degli anticorpi antitiroide erano correlate in modo statisticamente significativo. La persistenza di TPOAb e TgAb non veniva influenzata dal sesso, dall’eta e dalla concomitanza della tiroidite autoimmune o del morbo di Basedow.

295 citations


Related Papers (5)