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Journal ArticleDOI

Human monocytes and macrophages differ in their mechanisms of adaptation to hypoxia

07 Aug 2012-Arthritis Research & Therapy (BioMed Central)-Vol. 14, Iss: 4, pp 1-12

TL;DR: It is demonstrated that during differentiation of monocytes into macrophages, crucial cellular adaptation mechanisms are decisively changed, apparently as an adaptation to a low oxygen environment.

AbstractInflammatory arthritis is a progressive disease with chronic inflammation of joints, which is mainly characterized by the infiltration of immune cells and synovial hyperproliferation. Monocytes migrate towards inflamed areas and differentiate into macrophages. In inflamed tissues, much lower oxygen levels (hypoxia) are present in comparison to the peripheral blood. Hence, a metabolic adaptation process must take place. Other studies suggest that Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) may regulate this process, but the mechanism involved for human monocytes is not yet clear. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression and function of HIF-1α in monocytes and macrophages, but also considered alternative pathways involving nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells (NFκB). Isolated human CD14+ monocytes were incubated under normoxia and hypoxia conditions with or without phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulation, respectively. Nuclear and cytosolic fractions were prepared in order to detect HIF-1α and NFκB by immunoblot. For the experiments with macrophages, primary human monocytes were differentiated into human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDM) using human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hM-CSF). The effects of normoxia and hypoxia on gene expression were compared between monocytes and hMDMs using quantitative PCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). We demonstrate, using primary human monocytes and hMDM, that the localization of transcription factor HIF-1α during the differentiation process is shifted from the cytosol (in monocytes) into the nucleus (in macrophages), apparently as an adaptation to a low oxygen environment. For this localization change, protein kinase C alpha/beta 1 (PKC-α/β1 ) plays an important role. In monocytes, it is NFκB1, and not HIF-1α, which is of central importance for the expression of hypoxia-adjusted genes. These data demonstrate that during differentiation of monocytes into macrophages, crucial cellular adaptation mechanisms are decisively changed.

Topics: CD14 (66%), U937 cell (63%), Inflammation (52%), Hypoxia-inducible factors (51%), Transcription factor (51%)

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The crosstalk between HIF and NF‐κB in the control of the immune response in different immune cell types including macrophages, neutrophils and B and T cells is reviewed.
Abstract: Hypoxia and inflammation have been associated with a number of pathological conditions, in particular inflammatory diseases. While hypoxia is mainly associated with the activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), inflammation activates the family of transcription factor called nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). An extensive crosstalk between these two main molecular players involved in hypoxia and inflammation has been demonstrated. This crosstalk includes common activating stimuli, shared regulators and targets. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the role of NF-κB and HIF in the context of the immune response. We review the crosstalk between HIF and NF-κB in the control of the immune response in different immune cell types including macrophages, neutrophils and B and T cells. Furthermore the importance of the molecular crosstalk between HIFs and NF-κB for a variety of medical conditions will be discussed.

170 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review gives a comprehensive overview on the taxonomy of the currently known macrophage subtypes, with a lack on a good summary on the current taxonomy, functions and phenotypes of macrophages in my recent projects on the biocompatibility of biomaterials in the mouse model.
Abstract: The foreign body reaction (FBR) is a response of the host tissue against more or less degradation-resistant foreign macromolecular material. The reaction is divided into five different phases which involve most aspects of the innate and the adaptive immune system: protein adsorption, acute and chronic inflammation, foreign body giant cell formation and fibrosis. It is long known, that macrophages play a central role in all of these phases except for protein adsorption. Initially it was believed that the macrophage driven FBR has a complete negative effect on biocompatibility. Recent progress in biomaterial and macrophage research however describe macrophages as more than pure antigen phagocytosing and presenting cells and thus pro-inflammatory cells involved in biomaterial encapsulation and failure. Quite contrary, both, pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, the diverse regulatory M2 macrophage subtypes and even foreign body giant cells (FBGC) are after necessary for integration of non-degradable biomaterials and degradation and replacement of degradable biomaterials. This review gives a comprehensive overview on the taxonomy of the currently known macrophage subtypes. Their diverging functions, metabolism and markers are summarized and the relevance of this more diverse macrophage picture for the design of biomaterials is shortly discussed. Statement of Significance The view on role of macrophages in the foreign body reaction against biomaterials is rapidly changing. Despite the initial idea that macrophage are mainly involved in undesired degradation and biomaterial rejection it becomes now clear that they are nevertheless necessary for proper integration of non-degradable biomaterials and degradation of placeholder, degradable biomaterials. As a pathologist I experienced a lack on a good summary on the current taxonomy, functions and phenotypes of macrophages in my recent projects on the biocompatibility of biomaterials in the mouse model. The submitted review therefore intends to gives a comprehensive overview on the taxonomy of the currently known macrophage subtypes. Their diverging functions, metabolism and markers are summarized and the relevance of this more diverse macrophage picture for the design of biomaterials is shortly discussed.

140 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The reprogramming of hypoxia-mediated pathways in synovial cells, such as fibroblasts, dendritic cells, macrophages and T cells, is implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions, and might therefore provide an opportunity for therapeutic intervention.
Abstract: Synovial proliferation, neovascularization and leukocyte extravasation transform the normally acellular synovium into an invasive tumour-like 'pannus'. The highly dysregulated architecture of the microvasculature creates a poor oxygen supply to the synovium, which, along with the increased metabolic turnover of the expanding synovial pannus, creates a hypoxic microenvironment. Abnormal cellular metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction thus ensue and, in turn, through the increased production of reactive oxygen species, actively induce inflammation. When exposed to hypoxia in the inflamed joint, immune-inflammatory cells show adaptive survival reactions by activating key proinflammatory signalling pathways, including those mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) and Notch, which contribute to synovial invasiveness. The reprogramming of hypoxia-mediated pathways in synovial cells, such as fibroblasts, dendritic cells, macrophages and T cells, is implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions, and might therefore provide an opportunity for therapeutic intervention.

138 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Understanding the complex interplay between hypoxia-induced signaling pathways, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function will provide better insight into the underlying mechanisms of disease pathogenesis.
Abstract: Inflammatory Arthritis is characterized by synovial proliferation, neovascularization and leukocyte extravasation leading to joint destruction and functional disability. Efficiency of oxygen supply to the synovium is poor due to the highly dysregulated synovial microvasculature. This along with the increased energy demands of activated infiltrating immune cells and inflamed resident cells leads to an hypoxic microenvironment and mitochondrial dysfunction. This favors an increase of reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative damage which further promotes inflammation. In this adverse microenvironment synovial cells adapt to generate energy and switch their cell metabolism from a resting regulatory state to a highly metabolically active state which allows them to produce essential building blocks to support their proliferation. This metabolic shift results in the accumulation of metabolic intermediates which act as signaling molecules that further dictate the inflammatory response. Understanding the complex interplay between hypoxia-induced signaling pathways, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function will provide better insight into the underlying mechanisms of disease pathogenesis.

117 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings indicate that whenever possible the original haematoma formed upon injury should be conserved during clinical fracture treatment to benefit from the inherent healing potential.
Abstract: Fracture treatment is an old endeavour intended to promote bone healing and to also enable early loading and regain of function in the injured limb. However, in today’s clinical routine the healing potential of the initial fracture haematoma is still not fully recognized. The Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Osteosynthesefragen (AO) formed in Switzerland in 1956 formulated four AO principles of fracture treatment which are still valid today. Fracture treatment strategies have continued to evolve further, as for example the relatively new concept of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). This MIPO treatment strategy harbours the benefit of an undisturbed original fracture haematoma that supports the healing process. The extent of the supportive effect of this haematoma for the bone healing process has not been considered in clinical practice so far. The rising importance of osteoimmunological aspects in bone healing supports the essential role of the initial haematoma as a source for inflammatory cells that release the cytokine pattern that directs cell recruitment towards the injured tissue. In reviewing the potential benefits of the fracture haematoma, the early development of angiogenic and osteogenic potentials within the haematoma are striking. Removing the haematoma during surgery could negatively influence the fracture healing process. In an ovine open tibial fracture model the haematoma was removed 4 or 7 days after injury and the bone that formed during the first two weeks of healing was significantly reduced in comparison with an undisturbed control. These findings indicate that whenever possible the original haematoma formed upon injury should be conserved during clinical fracture treatment to benefit from the inherent healing potential.

87 citations


Cites background from "Human monocytes and macrophages dif..."

  • ...Among them the M1 macorphages which instantly switch to an anaerobic energy supply and remain active (Fangradt et al. 2012)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that Hif-1 DNA binding activity is also induced by hypoxia in a variety of mammalian cell lines in which the EPO gene is not transcribed, providing evidence that HIF-1 and its recognition sequence are common components of a general mammalian cellular response to Hypoxia.
Abstract: Transcription of the human erythropoietin (EPO) gene is activated in Hep3B cells exposed to hypoxia. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a nuclear factor whose DNA binding activity is induced by hypoxia in Hep3B cells, and HIF-1 binds at a site in the EPO gene enhancer that is required for hypoxic activation of transcription. In this paper, we demonstrate that HIF-1 DNA binding activity is also induced by hypoxia in a variety of mammalian cell lines in which the EPO gene is not transcribed. The composition of the HIF-1 DNA binding complex and its isolated DNA binding subunit and the mechanism of HIF-1 activation appear to be similar or identical in EPO-producing and non-EPO-producing cells. Transcription of reporter genes containing the EPO gene enhancer is induced by hypoxia in non-EPO-producing cells and mutations that eliminate HIF-1 binding eliminate inducibility. These results provide evidence that HIF-1 and its recognition sequence are common components of a general mammalian cellular response to hypoxia.

1,326 citations


"Human monocytes and macrophages dif..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In other cells (for example, T-cells), it is known that the transcription factor HIF-1 under hypoxic conditions is translocated into the nucleus and binds to promoter regions of target genes to enable the necessary adaptation and maintenance of basic functions like motion, activation and effector cell function [12,13]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that induction of both Hif-1 and erythropoietin RNA is inhibited by the protein kinase inhibitor 2-aminopurine, consistent with the proposed function of HIF-1 as a physiologic regulator of gene expression that responds to changes in cellular oxygen tension.
Abstract: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a DNA binding activity detected in nuclear extracts from Hep3B cells cultured in 1% O2 but not in extracts from cells cultured in 20% O2. HIF-1 binds to a sequence within the human erythropoietin gene enhancer that is required for hypoxic activation of transcription. Induction of HIF-1 is inhibited by cycloheximide, which also inhibits induction of erythropoietin RNA. We now demonstrate that induction of both HIF-1 and erythropoietin RNA is inhibited by the protein kinase inhibitor 2-aminopurine. HIF-1 binding to DNA was eliminated by phosphatase treatment of nuclear extracts. Actinomycin D also inhibited HIF-1 induction, suggesting that de novo transcription is required. The kinetics of HIF-1 induction by hypoxia paralleled the kinetics of erythropoietin gene transcriptional induction. HIF-1 DNA binding activity decayed rapidly when hypoxic cells were exposed to increased oxygen tension. In vitro, the kinetics of HIF-1 association with, and dissociation from, its binding site were extremely rapid, with a t1/2 for both processes of

849 citations


"Human monocytes and macrophages dif..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In the literature, it has been reported that adaptive responses to hypoxia are regulated by several transcription factors, including HIF-1, HIF-2, ETS-1, cAMP response element binding protein, activator protein-1 and nuclear factor- B [26-33]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is described that oxygen availability is a determinant parameter in the setting of chemotactic responsiveness to stromal-derived factor 1 (CXCL12), and the Hyp–Hyp-inducible factor 1 α–CXCR4 pathway may regulate trafficking in and out of hypoxic tissue microenvironments.
Abstract: Cell adaptation to hypoxia (Hyp) requires activation of transcriptional programs that coordinate expression of genes involved in oxygen delivery (via angiogenesis) and metabolic adaptation (via glycolysis). Here, we describe that oxygen availability is a determinant parameter in the setting of chemotactic responsiveness to stromal-derived factor 1 (CXCL12). Low oxygen concentration induces high expression of the CXCL12 receptor, CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4), in different cell types (monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages, tumor-associated macrophages, endothelial cells, and cancer cells), which is paralleled by increased chemotactic responsiveness to its specific ligand. CXCR4 induction by Hyp is dependent on both activation of the Hyp-inducible factor 1 alpha and transcript stabilization. In a relay multistep navigation process, the Hyp-Hyp-inducible factor 1 alpha-CXCR4 pathway may regulate trafficking in and out of hypoxic tissue microenvironments.

793 citations


"Human monocytes and macrophages dif..." refers background in this paper

  • ...CXCR4 transcript levels have been shown to increase in monocytes facing hypoxia, which suggests HIF is crucially involved in regulating the trafficking [15]....

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  • ...showed that in human monocytes and human MDMs, hypoxia induced expression of CXCR4 at the protein level [15]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The intracellular signaling mechanism that leads to induction of COx-2 by hypoxia includes binding of p65 to the relatively 3′ NF-κB consensus element in the COX-2 upstream promoter region in human vascular endothelial cells.
Abstract: The inducible cyclooxygenase, COX-2, has been associated with vascular inflammation and cellular proliferation. We have discovered that hypoxia increases expression of the COX-2 gene in human vascular endothelial cells in culture independent of other stimuli. Western analysis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) revealed a greater than 4-fold induction of protein by hypoxia (1% O2). The steady-state level of COX-2 mRNA was correspondingly elevated by both Northern blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays with antibody supershifting, we also found that hypoxia causes increased binding of NF-κB p65 (Rel A) to the one out of the two NF-κB consensus elements in the COX-2 promoter which is closest to the transcription start site of the COX-2 gene. Transfection of an immortalized human microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) with mutation reporter gene constructs and HUVEC with both mutation and deletion reporter gene constructs suggested that transcription of the COX-2 gene was enhanced by hypoxia. In transcription factor decoy experiments, hypoxic HUVEC were exposed in culture to 20 μM of the same NF-κB element found to bind NF-κB protein. The wild type transcription factor decoy prevented hypoxic induction of COX-2, presumably by binding with cytoplasmic p65; however, mutated or scrambled oligonucleotides did not prevent the increase in COX-2 protein expression by hypoxia. Thus, the intracellular signaling mechanism that leads to induction of COX-2 by hypoxia includes binding of p65 to the relatively 3′ NF-κB consensus element in the COX-2 upstream promoter region in human vascular endothelial cells.

675 citations


"Human monocytes and macrophages dif..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In the literature, it has been reported that adaptive responses to hypoxia are regulated by several transcription factors, including HIF-1, HIF-2, ETS-1, cAMP response element binding protein, activator protein-1 and nuclear factor- B [26-33]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1998-Blood
TL;DR: Functional studies in a mutant cell line expressing neither HIF-1alpha nor EPAS-1 confirmed that both proteins interact with hypoxically responsive targets, but suggest target specificity with greater EPas-1 transactivation of the VEGF promoter than the LDH-A promoter.
Abstract: Hypoxia results in adaptive changes in the transcription of a range of genes including erythropoietin. An important mediator is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a DNA binding complex shown to contain at least two basic helix-loop-helix PAS-domain (bHLH-PAS) proteins, HIF-1α and aryl hydrocarbon nuclear receptor translocator (ARNT). In response to hypoxia, HIF-1α is activated and accumulates rapidly in the cell. Endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS-1) is a recently identified bHLH-PAS protein with 48% identity to HIF-1α, raising the question of its role in responses to hypoxia. We developed specific antibodies and studied expression and regulation of EPAS-1 mRNA and protein across a range of human cell lines. EPAS-1 was widely expressed, and strongly induced by hypoxia at the level of protein but not mRNA. Comparison of the effect of a range of activating and inhibitory stimuli showed striking similarities in the EPAS-1 and HIF-1α responses. Although major differences were observed in the abundance of EPAS-1 and HIF-1α in different cell types, differences in the inducible response were subtle with EPAS-1 protein being slightly more evident in normoxic and mildly hypoxic cells. Functional studies in a mutant cell line (Ka13) expressing neither HIF-1α nor EPAS-1 confirmed that both proteins interact with hypoxically responsive targets, but suggest target specificity with greater EPAS-1 transactivation (relative to HIF-1α transactivation) of the VEGF promoter than the LDH-A promoter.

646 citations


"Human monocytes and macrophages dif..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In the literature, it has been reported that adaptive responses to hypoxia are regulated by several transcription factors, including HIF-1, HIF-2, ETS-1, cAMP response element binding protein, activator protein-1 and nuclear factor- B [26-33]....

    [...]


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