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Journal ArticleDOI

Human rights violations and associated factors of the Hijras in Bangladesh—A cross-sectional study

07 Jul 2022-PLOS ONE (PLOS ONE)-Vol. 17, Iss: 7, pp e0269375-e0269375
TL;DR: In this article , a questionnaire was administered to 346 study participants aged 15 years and older, living in five urban cities of Bangladesh who self-identified as Hijra, in 2019 and six human rights violation indicators (Economic, Employment, Health, Education, Social and Civic and Political Right) assessed were categorized as binary.
Abstract: Background Hijras in Bangladesh face considerable discrimination, stigma, and violence despite the 2013 legislation that recognized Hijras as a third gender. There is a dearth of published literature describing the extent of human rights violations among this population and their associated factors. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 346 study participants aged 15 years and older, living in five urban cities of Bangladesh who self-identified as Hijra, in 2019. The six human rights violation indicators (Economic, Employment, Health, Education, Social and Civic and Political Right) assessed were categorized as binary. Associations between sociodemographic characteristics and the six human rights violations were tested using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Human right violations including economic, educational, political, employment, health and social/civil right violations were reported in 73.3%, 59.3%, 58.5%, 46.4%, 42.7%, and 34.4% of the participants, respectively. Economic rights violations were associated with bisexuality (Adjusted odds ratios [AOR] 3.60, 95%CI: 1.57, 8.26) and not living with family (AOR 2.71, 95%CI: 1.21, 6.09), while Hijras who earned more than 10,000 Bangladesh Taka experienced higher odds of educational (AOR 2.77, 95%CI: 1.06, 7.19) and political rights violations (AOR 4.30, 95%CI: 1.06, 7.44). Living in Dhaka city was associated with a reduced odds for economic and political rights violation while experiencing violations of one human right could lead to violation of another in the Hijra community. Conclusion Human rights violations were common in Bangladesh Hijras, particularly the Bisexual Hijras. Media and educational awareness campaigns are needed to address the underlying roots of a violation. Programs focused on the families, young people and high-income earners of this community are needed in Bangladesh.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2022-Heliyon
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors have highlighted the magnitudes of social exclusion that the Hijra minority group in Bangladesh experiences and highlighted the importance of social recognition and financial independence for marginalized minority groups.

4 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Before safer sex interventions can be effective in a broader scale, hijra need to be recognized as having a space on society's gender continuum, focusing on the pathway between exclusion and sexual health.
Abstract: The transgender people (hijra), who claim to be neither male nor female, are socially excluded in Bangladesh. This paper describes social exclusion of hijra [The term is used in this abstract both in singular and plural sense] focusing on the pathway between exclusion and sexual health. In an ethnographic study, 50 in-depth interviews with hijra, 20 key-informant interviews, and 10 focus-group discussions (FGDs), along with extensive field observations, were conducted. The findings revealed that hijra are located at the extreme margin of exclusion having no sociopolitical space where a hijra can lead life of a human being with dignity. Their deprivations are grounded in non-recognition as a separate gendered human being beyond the male-female dichotomy. Being outside this norm has prevented them from positioning themselves in greater society with human potential and security. They are physically, verbally, and sexually abused. Extreme social exclusion diminishes self-esteem and sense of social responsibility. Before safer sex interventions can be effective in a broader scale, hijra need to be recognized as having a space on society's gender continuum. Hijra , as the citizens of Bangladesh and part of society's diversity, have gender, sexual and citizenship rights, that need to be protected. Key words: Hijra ; HIV; Social exclusion; Bangladesh doi: 10.3329/jhpn.v27i4.3388 J Health Popul Nutr 2009 Aug;27(4):441-451

127 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
M. Alipour1
TL;DR: The attitude of Islamic scholars and law with regard to the issue of transgender sex-reassignment surgery is still an important subject for Muslim transgender people as discussed by the authors, and this operation was mostly performed by women.
Abstract: The attitude of Islamic scholarship and law with regard to the issue of transgender sex-reassignment surgery is still an important subject for Muslim transgender people. This operation was mostly r...

65 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Transgender people's experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement.
Abstract: Introduction : The rights of trans people are protected by a range of international and regional mechanisms. Yet, punitive national laws, policies and practices targeting transgender people, including complex procedures for changing identification documents, strip transgender people of their rights and limit access to justice. This results in gross violations of human rights on the part of state perpetrators and society at large. Transgender people’s experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement. In addition, hatred and aggression towards a group of individuals who do not conform to social norms around gender manifest in frequent episodes of extreme violence towards transgender people. This violence often goes unpunished. Discussion : The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) views its work in the area of HIV through the lens of human rights and advances a range of development solutions such as poverty reduction, improved governance, active citizenship, and access to justice. This work directly relates to advancing the rights of transgender people. This manuscript lays out the various aspects of health, human rights, and development that frame transgender people’s issues and outlines best practice solutions from transgender communities and governments around the globe on how to address these complex concerns. The examples provided in the manuscript can help guide UN agencies, governments, and transgender activists in achieving better standards of health, access to justice, and social inclusion for transgender communities everywhere. Conclusions : The manuscript provides a call to action for countries to urgently address the violations of human rights of transgender people in order to honour international obligations, stem HIV epidemics, promote gender equality, strengthen social and economic development, and put a stop to untrammelled violence. Keywords: Trans people health; trans people rights; sustainable development; HIV & development; SDGs; transgender. (Published: 17 July 2016) Citation: Divan V et al. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2016, 19(Suppl 2) :20803 http://www.jiasociety.org/index.php/jias/article/view/20803 | http://dx.doi.org/10.7448/IAS.19.3.20803

55 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: What was previously a trope of disfigurement based on putative genital status has now been transformed into a discourse of disability, a corollary to which several interest groups, namely the civil society, the state, international community and hijra themselves, have all been party.
Abstract: Hijra, the iconic figure of South Asian gender and sexual difference, comprise a publicly institutionalised subculture of male-bodied feminine-identified people. Although they have existed as a culturally recognised third gender for a very long time, it is only recently that hijra have been legally recognised as a third gender in several South Asian countries. This paper focuses on the transformation of this long-running cultural category of third gender into a legal category of third gender in Bangladesh, showing that the process of legal recognition has necessitated a simultaneous mobilisation of a discourse of disability in the constitution of hijra as citizens worthy of rights. While the international community views the recognition of a third gender as a progressive socio-legal advance in the obtaining of sexual rights in a Muslim majority Bangladesh, locally, hijra are understood as a special group of people born with ‘missing’ or ambiguous genitals delinked from desire. Furthermore, what wa...

51 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a parallel examination of the debates around the sex-gender distinction, anthropologists' discovery of multiple gender systems, and the gendered dimensions of colonialism in the Indian context is presented.
Abstract: This essay is concerned with issues arising out of an intersection of several academic debates which have followed more or less independent trajectories in the past, but have now begun to be seen in relation with each other. I attempt a parallel examination of the debates around the sex-gender distinction, the anthropologists' discovery of multiple gender systems, and the gendered dimensions of colonialism in the Indian context. One of the common grounds for these debates is the hijra community of India. I concentrate here on the colonial and anthropological accounts of this community in order to arrive at a meaningful understanding of gender.

45 citations

Trending Questions (3)
What are the specific social regulations that impact LGBTQ individuals' health seeking behavior in Bangladesh?

The provided paper does not specifically mention the social regulations that impact LGBTQ individuals' health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. The paper focuses on human rights violations and associated factors among Hijras in Bangladesh.

How do social regulations impact the health seeking behavior of the LGBTQ community in Bangladesh?

The provided paper does not specifically discuss the impact of social regulations on the health seeking behavior of the LGBTQ community in Bangladesh. The paper focuses on human rights violations and associated factors among the Hijra community in Bangladesh.

What are the disparities experienced by the third gender/hijra community in Bangladesh?

The paper states that the Hijra community in Bangladesh faces human rights violations including economic, educational, political, employment, health, and social/civil rights violations.