Abstract: The hunt for new materials exhibiting high-temperature superconductivity is on again. A complex iron-based oxide, containing lanthanum and arsenic, was recently found to exhibit a transition temperature (Tc) of about 26 K when doped with fluoride ions. That's respectable, but far from the heights achieved in copper oxide superconductors. Now Takahashi et al. show that the application of around 40,000 atmospheres of pressure can raise the Tc of this material substantially, to about 43 K. This is the highest tc yet reported for a non-copper-based material. What is more, this record is unlikely to last for long: the complexity of 'iron oxypnictides' of this type offers considerable flexibility for chemical modification, and we can expect to hear of yet higher transition temperatures. This paper — and the prospect of a new wave of superconductor fever — is the subject of an Editorial in the 24 April issue of Nature (452, 914; 2008). The application of pressure can raise the superconducting transition temperature of oxypnictide (a pnicogen being a group V element) substantially, to a maximum value of about 43 K. This is the highest transition temperature yet reported for a non-copper-based material, but this record is unlikely to last for long: the material system offers considerable flexibility for chemical modification, and we can reasonably anticipate that this record will soon be superseded. The iron- and nickel-based layered compounds LaOFeP (refs 1, 2) and LaONiP (ref. 3) have recently been reported to exhibit low-temperature superconducting phases with transition temperatures Tc of 3 and 5 K, respectively. Furthermore, a large increase in the midpoint Tc of up to ∼26 K has been realized4 in the isocrystalline compound LaOFeAs on doping of fluoride ions at the O2- sites (LaO1-xFxFeAs). Experimental observations5,6 and theoretical studies7,8,9 suggest that these transitions are related to a magnetic instability, as is the case for most superconductors based on transition metals. In the copper-based high-temperature superconductors, as well as in LaOFeAs, an increase in Tc is often observed as a result of carrier doping in the two-dimensional electronic structure through ion substitution in the surrounding insulating layers, suggesting that the application of external pressure should further increase Tc by enhancing charge transfer between the insulating and conducting layers. The effects of pressure on these iron oxypnictide superconductors may be more prominent than those in the copper-based systems, because the As ion has a greater electronic polarizability, owing to the covalency of the Fe–As chemical bond, and, thus, is more compressible than the divalent O2- ion. Here we report that increasing the pressure causes a steep increase in the onset Tc of F-doped LaOFeAs, to a maximum of ∼43 K at ∼4 GPa. With the exception of the copper-based high-Tc superconductors, this is the highest Tc reported to date. The present result, together with the great freedom available in selecting the constituents of isocrystalline materials with the general formula LnOTMPn (Ln, Y or rare-earth metal; TM, transition metal; Pn, group-V, ‘pnicogen’, element), indicates that the layered iron oxypnictides are promising as a new material platform for further exploration of high-temperature superconductivity.