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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13051102

Hypoxia-Induced Cancer Cell Responses Driving Radioresistance of Hypoxic Tumors: Approaches to Targeting and Radiosensitizing.

04 Mar 2021-Cancers (MDPI AG)-Vol. 13, Iss: 5, pp 1102
Abstract: Within aggressive malignancies, there usually are the “hypoxic zones”—poorly vascularized regions where tumor cells undergo oxygen deficiency through inadequate blood supply. Besides, hypoxia may arise in tumors as a result of antiangiogenic therapy or transarterial embolization. Adapting to hypoxia, tumor cells acquire a hypoxia-resistant phenotype with the characteristic alterations in signaling, gene expression and metabolism. Both the lack of oxygen by itself and the hypoxia-responsive phenotypic modulations render tumor cells more radioresistant, so that hypoxic tumors are a serious challenge for radiotherapy. An understanding of causes of the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors would help to develop novel ways for overcoming this challenge. Molecular targets for and various approaches to radiosensitizing hypoxic tumors are considered in the present review. It is here analyzed how the hypoxia-induced cellular responses involving hypoxia-inducible factor-1, heat shock transcription factor 1, heat shock proteins, glucose-regulated proteins, epigenetic regulators, autophagy, energy metabolism reprogramming, epithelial–mesenchymal transition and exosome generation contribute to the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors or may be inhibited for attenuating this radioresistance. The pretreatments with a multitarget inhibition of the cancer cell adaptation to hypoxia seem to be a promising approach to sensitizing hypoxic carcinomas, gliomas, lymphomas, sarcomas to radiotherapy and, also, liver tumors to radioembolization.

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Topics: Radioresistance (58%), Cancer stem cell (56%), Cancer cell (53%) ... read more
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8 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CANLET.2021.04.019
Dennis J.J. Poon, Li Min Tay1, Dean Ho, Melvin L.K. Chua1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
29 Apr 2021-Cancer Letters
Abstract: Despite numerous advances in cancer radiotherapy, tumor radioresistance remain one of the major challenges limiting treatment efficacy of radiotherapy. Conventional strategies to overcome radioresistance involve understanding the underpinning molecular mechanisms, and subsequently using combinatorial treatment strategies involving radiation and targeted drug combinations against these radioresistant tumors. These strategies exploit and target the molecular fingerprint and vulnerability of the radioresistant clones to achieve improved efficacy in tumor eradication. However, conventional drug-screening approaches for the discovery of new drug combinations have been proven to be inefficient, limited and laborious. With the increasing availability of computational resources in recent years, novel approaches such as Quadratic Phenotypic Optimization Platform (QPOP), CURATE.AI and Drug Combination and Prediction and Testing (DCPT) platform have emerged to aid in drug combination discovery and the longitudinally optimized modulation of combination therapy dosing. These platforms could overcome the limitations of conventional screening approaches, thereby facilitating the discovery of more optimal drug combinations to improve the therapeutic ratio of combinatorial treatment. The use of better and more accurate models and methods with rapid turnover can thus facilitate a rapid translation in the clinic, hence, resulting in a better patient outcome. Here, we reviewed the clinical observations, molecular mechanisms and proposed treatment strategies for tumor radioresistance and discussed how novel approaches may be applied to enhance drug combination discovery, with the aim to further improve the therapeutic ratio and treatment efficacy of radiotherapy against radioresistant cancers.

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Topics: Drug development (57%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22147261
Seung Wan Son1, Ba Da Yun1, Mun Gyu Song1, Jin Kyeong Lee1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Hypoxia is one of the representative microenvironment features in cancer and is considered to be associated with the dismal prognosis of patients. Hypoxia-driven cellular pathways are largely regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and notably exert influence on the hallmarks of cancer, such as stemness, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and the resistance towards apoptotic cell death and therapeutic resistance; therefore, hypoxia has been considered as a potential hurdle for cancer therapy. Growing evidence has demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are dysregulated in cancer and take part in gene regulatory networks owing to their various modes of action through interacting with proteins and microRNAs. In this review, we focus attention on the relationship between hypoxia/HIFs and lncRNAs, in company with the possibility of lncRNAs as candidate molecules for controlling cancer.

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Topics: Cancer (53%), Long non-coding RNA (53%), Metastasis (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13143421
Julien Ancel1, Jeanne-Marie Perotin1, Maxime Dewolf, C. Launois  +7 moreInstitutions (2)
08 Jul 2021-Cancers
Abstract: Lung cancer represents the first cause of death by cancer worldwide and remains a challenging public health issue. Hypoxia, as a relevant biomarker, has raised high expectations for clinical practice. Here, we review clinical and pathological features related to hypoxic lung tumours. Secondly, we expound on the main current techniques to evaluate hypoxic status in NSCLC focusing on positive emission tomography. We present existing alternative experimental approaches such as the examination of circulating markers and highlight the interest in non-invasive markers. Finally, we evaluate the relevance of investigating hypoxia in lung cancer management as a companion biomarker at various lung cancer stages. Hypoxia could support the identification of patients with higher risks of NSCLC. Moreover, the presence of hypoxia in treated tumours could help clinicians predict a worse prognosis for patients with resected NSCLC and may help identify patients who would benefit potentially from adjuvant therapies. Globally, the large quantity of translational data incites experimental and clinical studies to implement the characterisation of hypoxia in clinical NSCLC management.

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Topics: Cancer (54%), Lung cancer (53%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10637-021-01144-Z
Min Xie1, Dong-Sheng Pei1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Serine and glycine are the primary sources of one-carbon units that are vital for cell proliferation. Their abnormal metabolism is known to be associated with cancer progression. As the key enzyme of serine metabolism, Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2) has been a research hotspot in recent years. SHMT2 is a PLP-dependent tetrameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transition from serine to glycine, thus promoting the production of one-carbon units that are indispensable for cell growth and regulation of the redox and epigenetic states of cells. Under a hypoxic environment, SHMT2 can be upregulated and could promote the generation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione for maintaining the redox balance. Accumulating evidence confirmed that SHMT2 facilitates cell proliferation and tumor growth and is tightly associated with poor prognosis. In this review, we present insights into the function and research development of SHMT2 and summarize the possible molecular mechanisms of SHMT2 in promoting tumor growth, in the hope that it could provide clues to more effective clinical treatment of cancer.

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Topics: Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (62%), Serine (60%), Glycine (52%) ... read more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/1061186X.2021.1999961
Xiangtian Deng1, Xiangtian Deng2, Qingcheng Song1, Yiran Zhang1  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: BACKGROUND Existing therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT) is always affected by some resistance factors from tumour environment (TME), such as hypoxia and the antioxidant defense system. PURPOSE This study aims at developing a cascaded intelligent multifunctional nanoplatforms to modulate the TME resistance for synergistically enhanced chemo- and photodynamic therapies. METHODS In this study, we synthesised hollow manganese dioxide nanoparticles (HMDNs) loaded with the hydrophilic chemotherapeutic drug (acriflavine, ACF) and the hydrophobic photosensitizer (chlorine6, Ce6), which was further encapsulated by pH-sensitive liposome to form core-shell nanocomposite, with surface modified with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide to achieve tumour targeting. RESULTS After uptake by tumour cells, the liposome shell was rapidly degraded by the low pH, and the inner core could be released from the liposome. Then, the released HMDNs/ACF/Ce6 would be dissociated by low pH and high levels of intracellular GSH within TME to release encapsulated drugs, thereby resulting in synergistic effects of chemotherapy and PDT. Meanwhile, the released ACF could bind with HIF-1a and then inhibit the expression levels of HIF-1's downstream signalling molecules P-gp and VEGF, which could further strengthen the antitumor effects. As a result, HMDNs/ACF/Ce6@Lipo-RGD NPs with laser irradiation exhibited superior anti-tumour therapeutic efficiency.

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Topics: Liposome (53%), Photodynamic therapy (50%)

References
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350 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRM.2017.95
Sébastien Herzig1, Reuben J. Shaw1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Cells constantly adapt their metabolism to meet their energy needs and respond to nutrient availability. Eukaryotes have evolved a very sophisticated system to sense low cellular ATP levels via the serine/threonine kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) complex. Under conditions of low energy, AMPK phosphorylates specific enzymes and growth control nodes to increase ATP generation and decrease ATP consumption. In the past decade, the discovery of numerous new AMPK substrates has led to a more complete understanding of the minimal number of steps required to reprogramme cellular metabolism from anabolism to catabolism. This energy switch controls cell growth and several other cellular processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism and autophagy. Recent studies have revealed that one ancestral function of AMPK is to promote mitochondrial health, and multiple newly discovered targets of AMPK are involved in various aspects of mitochondrial homeostasis, including mitophagy. This Review discusses how AMPK functions as a central mediator of the cellular response to energetic stress and mitochondrial insults and coordinates multiple features of autophagy and mitochondrial biology.

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Topics: AMPK (74%), Mitophagy (54%), Autophagy (53%) ... read more

1,007 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41580-018-0080-4
Anushka Dongre1, Robert A. Weinberg1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular programme that is known to be crucial for embryogenesis, wound healing and malignant progression. During EMT, cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions are remodelled, which leads to the detachment of epithelial cells from each other and the underlying basement membrane, and a new transcriptional programme is activated to promote the mesenchymal fate. In the context of neoplasias, EMT confers on cancer cells increased tumour-initiating and metastatic potential and a greater resistance to elimination by several therapeutic regimens. In this Review, we discuss recent findings on the mechanisms and roles of EMT in normal and neoplastic tissues, and the cell-intrinsic signals that sustain expression of this programme. We also highlight how EMT gives rise to a variety of intermediate cell states between the epithelial and the mesenchymal state, which could function as cancer stem cells. In addition, we describe the contributions of the tumour microenvironment in inducing EMT and the effects of EMT on the immunobiology of carcinomas. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is crucial for embryogenesis, wound healing and cancer development, and confers greater resistance to cancer therapies. This Review discusses the mechanisms of EMT and its roles in normal and neoplastic tissues, the contribution of cell-intrinsic signals and the microenvironment to inducing EMT, and its effects on the immunobiology of carcinomas.

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1,000 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1535-6108(04)00115-1
01 May 2004-Cancer Cell
Abstract: Through a poorly understood mechanism, tumors respond to radiation by secreting cytokines capable of inhibiting apoptosis in endothelial cells, thereby diminishing treatment response by minimizing vascular damage. We reveal here that this pathway is governed by a major angiogenesis regulator, HIF-1. Following radiotherapy, tumor reoxygenation leads to: (1) nuclear accumulation of HIF-1 in response to reactive oxygen, and (2) enhanced translation of HIF-1-regulated transcripts secondary to stress granule depolymerization. The resulting increase in HIF-1-regulated cytokines enhances endothelial cell radioresistance. Inhibiting postradiation HIF-1 activation significantly increases tumor radiosensitivity as a result of enhanced vascular destruction. These data describe novel pathways contributing significantly to our understanding of HIF-1 regulation which may be major determinants of tumor radiosensitivity, potentially having high clinical relevance.

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Topics: Radiosensitivity (55%), Angiogenesis (55%), Radioresistance (52%) ... read more

865 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRC2397
Abstract: Hypoxia and free radicals, such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, can alter the function and/or activity of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1). Interplay between free radicals, hypoxia and HIF1 activity is complex and can influence the earliest stages of tumour development. The hypoxic environment of tumours is heterogeneous, both spatially and temporally, and can change in response to cytotoxic therapy. Free radicals created by hypoxia, hypoxia-reoxygenation cycling and immune cell infiltration after cytotoxic therapy strongly influence HIF1 activity. HIF1 can then promote endothelial and tumour cell survival. As discussed here, a constant theme emerges: inhibition of HIF1 activity will have therapeutic benefit.

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Topics: Hypoxia (medical) (51%)

856 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRM.2017.20
Abstract: The heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone machinery is a key regulator of proteostasis under both physiological and stress conditions in eukaryotic cells. As HSP90 has several hundred protein substrates (or 'clients'), it is involved in many cellular processes beyond protein folding, which include DNA repair, development, the immune response and neurodegenerative disease. A large number of co-chaperones interact with HSP90 and regulate the ATPase-associated conformational changes of the HSP90 dimer that occur during the processing of clients. Recent progress has allowed the interactions of clients with HSP90 and its co-chaperones to be defined. Owing to the importance of HSP90 in the regulation of many cellular proteins, it has become a promising drug target for the treatment of several diseases, which include cancer and diseases associated with protein misfolding.

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Topics: Proteostasis (62%), Chaperone (protein) (56%), Heat shock protein (52%)

683 Citations


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20218