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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10668926.2019.1666063

"I Can Math!": Reducing Math Anxiety and Increasing Math Self-Efficacy Using a Mindfulness and Growth Mindset-Based Intervention in First-Year Students.

04 Mar 2021-Community College Journal of Research and Practice (Routledge)-Vol. 45, Iss: 3, pp 205-222
Abstract: Math anxiety is a debilitating problem that affects many community college students. Neuropsychological research suggests that negative rumination when anticipating math situations substantially ex...

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Topics: Mathematical anxiety (60%), Anxiety (59%), Rumination (55%) ... read more
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7 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/BJEP.12364
Ronghuan Jiang1, Ru-De Liu1, Jon R. Star2, Rui Zhen3  +5 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Background Too many students persevere in relying upon one (sometimes suboptimal) strategy for solving a wide range of problems, even when they know more efficient strategies Although many studies have mentioned such phenomena, few studies have examined how emotional factors could affect this type of inflexible perseverance in strategy use Aims To examine whether mathematics anxiety could affect students' inflexible perseverance in strategy use and whether this effect could be mediated by cognitive reflection, which is the ability to engage in deliberate reasoning Sample and method In Study 1, 164 undergraduate students' (18-22 years) mathematics anxiety, cognitive reflection, and performance in overcoming inflexible perseverance were measured by a questionnaire battery Structural equation models were used to examine the correlations between these variables In Study 2, 98 undergraduate freshmen (17-18 years) were assigned to two groups, where one group's mathematics anxiety was temporarily induced by task instructions, while the other group served as a control group Cognitive reflection and inflexible perseverance of the two groups were compared Results Study 1 showed that mathematics anxiety was negatively correlated with students' performance on overcoming inflexible perseverance, while cognitive reflection mediated such an effect Study 2 showed that compared to the control group, the experimental group showed lower cognitive reflection, which led to lower performance in overcoming inflexible perseverance Conclusions Mathematics anxiety was showed to impair students' ability to engage in deliberate reasoning and was associated with inflexible use of strategies Alleviating students' mathematics anxiety should be considered when promoting students' strategic flexibility

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6 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.5812/IJHLS.117368
27 Jul 2021-
Abstract: Background: Math anxiety (MA) emerges as a state of discomfort and anxiety when a student is faced with a math problem. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the association between self-esteem and classroom environment perceptions with math anxiety through the mediating role of mathematics self-concept (MSC) in female high school students. Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was conducted on all the female high school students in Ahvaz, Iran in the academic year 2020 - 2021. In total, 237 students were selected as the sample population via single-stage cluster sampling. Data were collected using the Math Anxiety questionnaire (MAQ), Self-esteem questionnaire (SEQ), Dundee Ready Educational Environment measure (DREEM), and Mathematical Self-concept questionnaire (MSCQ). The proposed research model was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Results: With the exception of self-esteem and classroom environment perceptions (CEPs), all the direct paths were significantly correlated with MA (P = 0.001). Moreover, the indirect paths of self-esteem were significantly correlated with MA considering the mediating role of MSC (β = -0.240; P = 0.002). Furthermore, a significant association was observed between CEP and MA, mediated by MSC (β = -0.129; P = 0.001). Conclusions: According to the results, the proposed model had a good fit and could be an important step in identifying the influential factors in the MA of students.

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Topics: Mathematical anxiety (57%), Anxiety (53%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.LINDIF.2021.102047
Abstract: One consistent impediment to college students' performance in statistics courses is statistics anxiety. However, people who endorse intelligence growth mindsets report lower statistics anxiety and achieve higher grades. We examined whether adopting a self-compassion growth mindset was an antecedent to an intelligence growth mindset, reduced statistics anxiety, and ultimately, lead to better grades. Ninety undergraduate students who took an Introductory Research Methods and Statistics course at a mid-south university reported their implicit theories of self-compassion and intelligence, statistics anxiety, and demographic information twice during the semester. Final grade percentages were obtained directly from the course instructor after the semester concluded. The results demonstrated a serial indirect effect of self-compassion growth mindset affecting the final grade received, first through intelligence growth mindset and then through statistics anxiety. Alternative serial indirect effect models were conducted, but none were significant. Implications of these results for the broader implicit theories, statistics anxiety literature, and education were discussed.

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Topics: Mindset (55%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYG.2021.640349
Aoxue Su1, Shuya Wan1, Wei He1, Lianchun Dong1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This study examined the relationship of intelligence mindsets to math achievement for primary school students in the Chinese educational context, as well as the mediating function of math self-efficacy and failure beliefs in this relationship. Participants included 466 fifth graders (231 boys and 235 girls) from two Chinese primary schools. Results indicated that boys had significantly higher mean levels of growth mindsets and math self-efficacy than girls, whereas boys had no statistically significant differences to girls on failure beliefs and math grade. Further, intelligence mindsets had a significant positive effect on math achievement, and failure beliefs and math self-efficacy played a full mediating role in the relationship between intelligence mindsets and math achievement. Moreover, intelligence mindsets affected math achievement through the chain mediating role of failure beliefs and math self-efficacy. These above findings contribute to advance our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms through which intelligence mindsets affect math achievement, which are of great significance to students' growth and current educational practice.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.23951/2307-6127-2021-2-189-198
14 Apr 2021-
Abstract: Представлен феномен математической тревожности и рассмотрены методы, позволяющие регулировать данный вид тревожности, способы их реализации, а также потенциальное применение с точки зрения их эффективности и надежности. Описанные методы практически не проверялись на российских выборках, в связи с этим требуется их дальнейшее изучение и экспериментальная верификация, а также апробация в условиях образовательного процесса. Новая реальность смешанного и онлайн-обучения может способствовать развитию математической тревожности и привести к увеличению количества школьников, испытывающих дискомфорт при работе с числовой информацией. Это требует переосмысления и усовершенствования методов ее регуляции. Math anxiety (MA) is a feeling of fear, worry and discomfort when working with numerical information. Students with a high level of math anxiety tend to avoid mathematics and further study in areas where mathematical knowledge is required. This leads to a shortage of applicants for technical and natural sciences. The development of MA can be caused by: poor mathematical skills, genetic predisposition, socio-environmental factors. In fact, some of the same genetic and environmental reasons affect both math ability and math anxiety. This paper discusses such methods of MA regulation as: expressive writing, reappraisal, relaxation, meditation, mindfulness, art therapy, bibliography, music therapy, and psychophysiological methods (i.e. transcranial stimulation). The effects obtained by these methods, its implementation, as well as potential applications in terms of their effectiveness and reliability have been covered. The studied methods have practically not been tested on Russian samples. Therefore, their further study and experimental verification are required. Regulation methods also require testing in real conditions of the educational process. The new reality of blended and online learning could trigger math and academic anxiety. It is important that some of the proposed methods can be indirectly applied to other types of “academic anxiety” (anxiety caused and experienced by students for other specific discipline).

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Topics: Mathematical anxiety (59%)

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61 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191
Albert Bandura1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The present article presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from four principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. The more dependable the experiential sources, the greater are the changes in perceived selfefficacy. A number of factors are identified as influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arising from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. Possible directions for further research are discussed.

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Topics: Emotive (52%)

36,878 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822
Kirk Warren Brown1, Richard M. Ryan1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Mindfulness is an attribute of consciousness long believed to promote well-being. This research provides a theoretical and empirical examination of the role of mindfulness in psychological well-being. The development and psychometric properties of the dispositional Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) are described. Correlational, quasi-experimental, and laboratory studies then show that the MAAS measures a unique quality of consciousness that is related to a variety of well-being constructs, that differentiates mindfulness practitioners from others, and that is associated with enhanced selfawareness. An experience-sampling study shows that both dispositional and state mindfulness predict self-regulated behavior and positive emotional states. Finally, a clinical intervention study with cancer patients demonstrates that increases in mindfulness over time relate to declines in mood disturbance and stress. Many philosophical, spiritual, and psychological traditions emphasize the importance of the quality of consciousness for the maintenance and enhancement of well-being (Wilber, 2000). Despite this, it is easy to overlook the importance of consciousness in human well-being because almost everyone exercises its primary capacities, that is, attention and awareness. Indeed, the relation between qualities of consciousness and well-being has received little empirical attention. One attribute of consciousness that has been much-discussed in relation to well-being is mindfulness. The concept of mindfulness has roots in Buddhist and other contemplative traditions where conscious attention and awareness are actively cultivated. It is most commonly defined as the state of being attentive to and aware of what is taking place in the present. For example, Nyanaponika Thera (1972) called mindfulness “the clear and single-minded awareness of what actually happens to us and in us at the successive moments of perception” (p. 5). Hanh (1976) similarly defined mindfulness as “keeping one’s consciousness alive to the present reality” (p. 11). Recent research has shown that the enhancement of mindfulness through training facilitates a variety of well-being outcomes (e.g., Kabat-Zinn, 1990). To date, however, there has been little work examining this attribute as a naturally occurring characteristic. Recognizing that most everyone has the capacity to attend and to be aware, we nonetheless assume (a) that individuals differ in their propensity or willingness to be aware and to sustain attention to what is occurring in the present and (b) that this mindful capacity varies within persons, because it can be sharpened or dulled by a variety of factors. The intent of the present research is to reliably identify these inter- and intrapersonal variations in mindfulness, establish their relations to other relevant psychological constructs, and demonstrate their importance to a variety of forms of psychological well-being.

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8,335 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037//0003-066X.52.6.613
Claude M. Steele1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A general theory of domain identification is used to describe achievement barriers still faced by women in advanced quantitative areas and by African Americans in school. The theory assumes that sustained school success requires identification with school and its subdomains; that societal pressures on these groups (e.g., economic disadvantage, gender roles) can frustrate this identification; and that in school domains where these groups are negatively stereotyped, those who have become domain identified face the further barrier of stereotype threat, the threat that others' judgments or their own actions will negatively stereotype them in the domain. Research shows that this threat dramatically depresses the standardized test performance of women and African Americans who are in the academic vanguard of their groups (offering a new interpretation of group differences in standardized test performance), that it causes disidentification with school, and that practices that reduce this threat can reduce these negative effects.

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Topics: Stereotype threat (70%), Stereotype (54%)

5,889 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/CLIPSY.BPG016
Abstract: studies from the Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society not reviewed by Baer but which raise a number of key questions about clinical applicability, study design, and mechanism of action, and (7) current opportunities for professional training and development in mindfulness and its clinical applications.

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5,018 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/1609406917733847
Abstract: As qualitative research becomes increasingly recognized and valued, it is imperative that it is conducted in a rigorous and methodical manner to yield meaningful and useful results. To be accepted ...

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Topics: Thematic analysis (55%)

4,958 Citations


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