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Journal ArticleDOI

Identidades em crise: imigrantes, emoções e saúde mental em Portugal

01 Mar 2010-Saude E Sociedade (Saúde e Sociedade)-Vol. 19, Iss: 1, pp 94-113

AbstractEste artigo, baseado em 4 anos de pesquisa de terreno num servico de saude mental especifico para imigrantes em Portugal, discute criticamente o caracter da experiencia migratoria enquanto factor de risco e patologia psiquica. As condicoes particularmente duras da migracao contemporânea sao consideradas como propicias a um aumento exponencial de psicopatologias. A ideia de que a emigracao esteja indissoluvelmente ligada a formas especificas de sofrimento psicologico acabou para promover uma progressiva medicalizacao da experiencia migratoria. Esta leitura patologizante da experiencia migratoria funda as suas conclusoes sobre o modelo de "seleccao negativa", isto e: seriam os sujeitos fracos, pouco integrados na sociedade de origem, com escassas ligacoes afectivas e estrutura familiar instavel a optar pela emigracao, levando a que os seus disturbios latentes se manifestassem particularmente no pais de acolhimento. A representacao da vulnerabilidade psicologica como caracteristica intrinseca dos migrantes nao toma todavia em conta a relacao mais ampla entre sofrimento individual e experiencia de exclusao, marginalizacao social, discriminacao e precariedade das condicoes habitacionais e laborais, entre outros factores. O estereotipo do imigrante como pessoa fragil do ponto de vista mental, com um elevado risco de desenvolvimento de patologias psiquiatricas, permite transformar os problemas sociais, economicos e politicos de grupos desfavorecidos em elementos potencialmente patologicos que podem ser controlados e monitorizados farmacologicamente. more

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Abstract: ‘Woundscapes’ is an exhibition collaboratively produced by 11 anthropologists and artists from different countries, whose work focuses on the reproduction of particular gazes, stereotypes and individual memories that are all connected to respective diasporic dynamics. The works presented at the exhibition attempted to map different forms of dealing with, understanding and expressing ‘suffering’. The works examined individual and collective trajectories of ‘suffering’ and related ‘cure’ strategies in the healthcare market of Greater Lisbon, and different forms and tactics of legitimisation, resistance or reconceptualisation of social positions. The aim of this article is to 1) present the conceptual design of the research underpinning the exhibition; 2) explore the curatorial process of attempting to elude the very distance between object and representation, between ‘inside’ and ‘outside’, and, thus, to elude the ever-encompassing metaphor of the north–south divide, to give visitors the opportunity...

20 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The terms on which the integration of new generations of immigrants into Portuguese and Spanish societies happens will have a decisive influence in the future of both countries. Therefore, promoting their health, well-being, and psychosocial adaptation is a matter of strategic interest. This paper analyses psychosocial factors associated with well-being and psychological adjustment on a sample of 108 adolescents (55 males and 53 females), children of immigrants from Huelva (Spain) and Algarve (Portugal), aged between 10 and 17 years. Adolescents were assessed for demographic characteristics and perceived well-being. We used the "KIDSCREEN-5", a self-report questionnaire that yields detailed profile information for children aged 8 to 18 years for the following ten dimensions: Physical well-being, Psychological well-being, Moods and emotions, Self-perception, Autonomy, Parental relationships and home life, Financial resources, Social support and peers, School environment, and Social acceptance (Bullying). Overall, significant differences were found between the Spanish and Portuguese samples on physical well-being, psychological well-being, mood, financial resources and social acceptance (bullying). Boys perceived themselves as having a better physical well-being than girls. Mothers' educational level was associated with psychological well-being and mood. Also, results suggested that residence location and other socio-demographical variables were not associated with the adolescents' well-being and psychological adjustment.

14 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Questoes sobre atendimento a saude sao, atualmente, a porta de entrada dos direitos humanos e dos dispositivos de reconhecimento dos migrantes e refugiados. Entretanto, dependendo de como se entende a assistencia a esse grupo pode ser gerado um "desreconhecimento" do sujeito. Impasses surgem ao se naturalizar a experiencia migratoria como fator de risco que leva a patologia psiquica. Quando o discurso sobre imigracao e vinculado a formas especificas de sofrimento psiquico, corre-se o risco de medicalizacao da experiencia migratoria e controle farmacologico de problemas que podem ser sociais, politicos ou economicos. Um desafio e a formacao de trabalhadores no atendimento a saude fisica e mental dos migrantes para dar suporte ao encontro: e necessario compreender a representacao da saude e da doenca no contexto de origem e as especificidades atuais de vida dessas pessoas sem estereotipar a condicao de migrante ou refugiado nem silenciar a singularidade do sujeito.

11 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
24 Aug 2018
Abstract: This paper presents ethnographic reflections from my fieldwork in a mental health assistance program for refugees in the city of Sao Paulo, and in other contexts I point to how the notion of trauma, which entails a kind of suffering that takes place in a past time, is mobilized by the mental health service, but not by the subjects assisted by them, that mobilize present and future temporalities when requesting this kind of aid, demonstrating how these approaches and interventions are reformulated or not when facing these distinct temporalities of suffering

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 2017
Abstract: RESUMO O artigo teve como objetivo avaliar a Qualidade de Vida (QV) de brasileiras vivendo em Portugal. O 'Medical Outcomes Study: 36-Item Short Form Survey' (SF-36) e um questionario sociodemografico foram aplicados a amostra de 682 brasileiras maiores de 18 anos. Verificou-se que a media dos preditores de QV foi superior para a dimensao 'capacidade funcional'; enquanto as dimensoes 'aspectos emocionais', 'saude mental' e 'vitalidade' apresentaram valores menores. Constatou-se que os processos da migracao e da QV constituem pauta de investigacao continua para a promocao da saude no pais de acolhimento.

2 citations

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Abstract: Conceptions of the body are central not only to substantive work in medical anthropology, but also to the philosophical underpinnings of the entire discipline of anthropology, where Western assumptions about the mind and body, the individual and society, affect both theoretical viewpoints and research paradigms. These same conceptions also influence ways in which health care is planned and delivered in Western societies. In this article we advocate the deconstruction of received concepts about the body and begin this process by examining three perspectives from which the body may be viewed: (1) as a phenomenally experienced individual body-self; (2) as a social body, a natural symbol for thinking about relationships among nature, society, and culture; and (3) as a body politic, an artifact of social and political control. After discussing ways in which anthropologists, other social scientists, and people from various cultures have conceptualized the body, we propose the study of emotions as an area of inquiry that holds promise for providing a new approach to the subject.

1,968 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results show that perceived discrimination is common in the total population, and given its high prevalence, wide distribution, and strong associations with mental health, perceived discrimination needs to be treated much more seriously than in the past in future studies of stress and mental health.
Abstract: The survey data presented here are on the national prevalences of major life-time perceived discrimination and day-to-day perceived discrimination; the associations between perceived discrimination and mental health; and the extent to which differential exposure and differential emotional reactivity to perceived discrimination account for the well-known associations between disadvantaged social status and mental health. Although more prevalent among people with disadvantaged social status, results show that perceived discrimination is common in the total population, with 33.5 percent of respondents in the total sample reporting exposure to major lifetime discrimination and 60.9 percent reporting exposure to day-to-day discrimination. The associations of perceived discrimination with mental health are comparable in magnitude to those of other more commonly studied stressors, and these associations do not vary consistently across subsamples defined on the basis of social status. Even though perceived discrimination explains only a small part of the observed associations between disadvantaged social status and mental health, given its high prevalence, wide distribution, and strong associations with mental health, perceived discrimination needs to be treated much more seriously than in the past in future studies of stress and mental health.

1,909 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings of previous studies implicating migration as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and a quantitative index of the associated effect size are synthesized to suggest a role for psychosocial adversity in the etiology of schizophrenia.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The authors synthesize findings of previous studies implicating migration as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia and provide a quantitative index of the associated effect size. METHOD: MEDLINE was searched for population-based incidence studies concerning migrants in English-language publications appearing between the years 1977 and 2003. Article bibliographies and an Australian database were cross-referenced. Studies were included if incidence reports provided numerators and denominators and if age correction was performed or could be performed by the authors. Relative risks for migrant groups were extracted or calculated for each study. Significant heterogeneity across studies indicated the need for a mixed-effects meta-analytic model. RESULTS: The mean weighted relative risk for developing schizophrenia among first-generation migrants (40 effect sizes) was 2.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]=2.3–3.2). A separate analysis performed for second-generation migrants (seven effect siz...

1,077 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings support the effectiveness of forbearance in diminishing the strength of the association between discrimination and depression and the moderating effect of forbearances was conditioned by the level of ethnic identity.
Abstract: Using data obtained from personal interviews with 647 Southeast Asian refugees in Canada, this study tests hypotheses regarding both the association between perceived racial discrimination and depression, and the roles of coping and ethnic identity in conditioning the nature of the discrimination-depression relation. Refugees who reported that they had experienced racial discrimination had higher depression levels than their counterparts who reported no such experiences. Responding to discrimination through confrontation was not significantly associated with depression. Study findings support the effectiveness of forbearance in diminishing the strength of the association between discrimination and depression. The moderating effect of forbearance was conditioned by the level of ethnic identity: The beneficial effect of forbearance was significantly greater among those holding stronger ethnic identification. Cultural and situational interpretations of the findings are presented.

691 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The unique risk factors and mental health needs of the authors' new immigrant populations, as well as treatment and services approaches to address their unique needs are reviewed.
Abstract: The United States is a country of immigrants. With the exception of Native-Americans, every other American is, or descends from, an immigrant. First and second generation immigrant children are the most rapidly growing segment of the American population, with the great majority of this population being of non-European origin. This paper reviews the unique risk factors and mental health needs of our new immigrant populations, as well as treatment and services approaches to address their unique needs.

517 citations