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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACS.ANALCHEM.0C05348

Identification and Detection of Volatile Aldehydes as Lung Cancer Biomarkers by Vapor Generation Combined with Paper-Based Thin-Film Microextraction

02 Mar 2021-Analytical Chemistry (Anal Chem)-Vol. 93, Iss: 11, pp 4924-4931
Abstract: Accurate, sensitive, and selective on-spot screening of volatile aldehydes as lung cancer biomarkers is of vital significance for preclinical diagnosis and treatment guidance of cancers. However, the common methods of sensing biomarkers are limited by the fact that they are time-consuming, require professional personnel, and have complex matrixes. Here, we developed a smart vapor generation paper-based thin-film microextraction system capable of both sensitive on-field fluorescence detection and accurate surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) quantification of volatile benzaldehyde (BA) by utilizing stimuli-responsive core-shell gold nanorod (GNR) quantum dot (QD)-embedded metal-organic framework (MOF) structures. The amino-modified GNRs and carboxyl-capped QDs can directly assemble with each other by electrostatic interaction, which leads to an almost complete emission quenching of QDs. The addition of BA molecules destroys the GNRs-QD assemblies due to the Schiff base reactions between the amine group of 4-mercaptonoaniline and the aldehyde moiety of BA, resulting in the increase of the fluorescence and Raman signal of hybrid systems, which enables the visualization of BA with the naked eye. Moreover, the "cavity-diffusion" effect of porous MOF shells validates the selective concentration of gaseous BA molecules on the GNR surface, allowing the discrimination of BA in exhaled breath rapidly and precisely even at the sub-ppb level with excellent specificity against other volatile organic compounds. This study not only offers a versatile sensing platform for accurate discrimination of lung cancer from controls but also opens an avenue for the design of smart sensors for point-of-care applications.

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9 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.APSUSC.2021.150936
Abstract: Sensitive SERS substrates specified for sensing is highly desired owing to their increasing demand for environment monitoring, disease diagnosis, and chemical analysis. Here, we fabricate amorphous WO3/polyacrylonitrile (WO3/PAN) nanofiber membranes through electrospinning. The photo-reduced NFM show a free carrier concentration up to 1.46 × 1021 cm−3, which is 5 times increased compared with the oxidized NFM and approaching that of the noble metals (2.5 × 1022 cm−3). The detection limit concentration was as low as 10-9 M and SERS enhancement factor can be obtained 0.6 × 105 for the photo-reduced NFM. With in-situ Ag deposition on the surface of the NFM, the SERS enhancement factor can be further increased to 2.9 × 105. More interestingly, since the open structure and high utility of the pores of nanofiber membranes and allow rapid airflow through the membranes, the modified Ag deposited NFMs can be used as SERS substrates for gas sensing with rapid response time (tens of seconds) and low detection limit (10 ppb). Such a simple, low-cost fabrication method to prepare SERS substrate for detecting pollutants in water and gas sensing is promising for future applications.

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Topics: Membrane (51%)

1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SNB.2021.130736
Yu Zhang1, Haifeng Lu2, Bing Yan1Institutions (2)
Abstract: In this work, a boric acid covalently functionalized lanthanide MOF (Ln-MOF) sensor was constructed for the first time to monitor of urinary N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) to early diagnose of lung cancer, NANA can be used as biomarker of lung cancer. Considering that the specific binding affinity between boronic acid group and cis-diol can probably cause special influence towards the fluorescence of Ln-MOF, a boric-acid-functionalized Ln-MOF (B-EuMOF) sensor was first designed by covalent modification, which is proved to be an effective ratiometric fluorescent sensor of NANA, a urinary biomarker of lung cancer containing cis-diol. This designed NANA sensor shows special enrichment capacity, high selectivity and sensitivity, fast response, excellent reusability and more important, the ratiometric sensing result can be clearly distinguished by naked eye. Based on the luminescent sensing property of B-EuMOF towards NANA and the capture function of boric acid group, a molecular robot system which can monitor lung cancer at early stage is constructed. In this molecular robot system, boronic acid group serves as the actuator using ‘functional-hand’ to grasp NANA for the molecular robots. The fluorescence of B-EuMOF (I470 nm/I614 nm) act as the sensor of the molecular robots. And the processor is constructed by combinational logic gates (INHIBIT and AND) which can control the molecular robots by logical operation of fluorescence response of B-EuMOF towards NANA. This work proposes first example of Ln-MOFs based molecular robot and what’s more, paves new way for the combination of fluorescent sensor and intelligent molecular devices.

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1 Citations


Open accessDOI: 10.3390/CHEMOSENSORS9110326
21 Nov 2021-
Abstract: Lung cancer is the most common and deadliest cancer type globally. Its early diagnosis can guarantee a five-year survival rate. Unfortunately, application of the available diagnosis methods such as computed tomography, chest radiograph, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, low-dose CT scan, bone scans, positron emission tomography (PET), and biopsy is hindered due to one or more problems, such as phenotypic properties of tumours that prevent early detection, invasiveness, expensiveness, and time consumption. Detection of lung cancer biomarkers using a biosensor is reported to solve the problems. Among biosensors, optical biosensors attract greater attention due to being ultra-sensitive, free from electromagnetic interference, capable of wide dynamic range detection, free from the requirement of a reference electrode, free from electrical hazards, highly stable, capable of multiplexing detection, and having the potential for more information content than electrical transducers. Inspired by promising features of plasmonic sensors, including surface plasmon resonance (SPR), localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) such as ultra-sensitivity, single particle/molecular level detection capability, multiplexing capability, photostability, real-time measurement, label-free measurement, room temperature operation, naked-eye readability, and the ease of miniaturisation without sophisticated sensor chip fabrication and instrumentation, numerous plasmonic sensors for the detection of lung cancer biomarkers have been investigated. In this review, the principle plasmonic sensor is explained. In addition, novel strategies and modifications adopted for the detection of lung cancer biomarkers such as miRNA, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratins, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using plasmonic sensors are also reported. Furthermore, the challenges and prospects of the plasmonic biosensors for the detection of lung cancer biomarkers are highlighted.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.TRAC.2021.116488
Abstract: Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) owns high sensitivity, excellent selectivity and strong resistance to water and air, and can be used for nondestructive detection by portable equipment without tedious sample pretreatment. These merits make SERS an attractive choice for on-site analysis. Nowadays, more and more SERS-based sensing strategies have been established to increase the sensitivity and selectivity, as well as simplify operation processes and reduce testing cost for field analysis. These lead to the rapid development in research and commercialization. However, SERS-based on-site analysis is still in the early stage and needs to be further exploited. In this review, we summarize and evaluate the related works in recent five years from the aspect of analytical work flow, which consists of three parts: target signal collection, target signal amplification and target signal readout. Then, five different application scenes of these sensing strategies including medical diagnosis, environmental protection, food safety, forensic analysis and cultural relics protection are introduced, followed by the discussion of challenges and development tendency for future works. This comprehensive review will provide the design guidelines for researchers and engineers to explore novel testing strategies on field, which may eventually promote the launch of commercial products for our daily life.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ACSSENSORS.1C00473
28 Jun 2021-ACS Sensors
Abstract: Sensors and biosensors play a key role as an analytical tool for the rapid, reliable, and early diagnosis of human diseases. Such devices can also be employed for monitoring environmental pollutants in air and water in an expedited way. More recently, nanomaterials have been proposed as an alternative in sensor fabrication to achieve gains in performance in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, and portability. In this direction, the use of cellulose nanomaterials (CNM), such as cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), and bacterial cellulose (BC), has experienced rapid growth in the fabrication of varied types of sensors. The advantageous properties are related to the supramolecular structures that form the distinct CNM, their biocompatibility, and highly reactive functional groups that enable surface functionalization. The CNM can be applied as hydrogels and xerogels, thin films, nanopapers and other structures interesting for sensor design. Besides, CNM can be combined with other materials (e.g., nanoparticles, enzymes, carbon nanomaterials, etc.) and varied substrates to advanced sensors and biosensors fabrication. This review explores recent advances on CNM and composites applied in the fabrication of optical, electrical, electrochemical, and piezoelectric sensors for detecting analytes ranging from environmental pollutants to human physiological parameters. Emphasis is given to how cellulose nanomaterials can contribute to enhance the performance of varied sensors as well as expand novel sensing applications, which could not be easily achieved using standard materials. Finally, challenges and future trends on the use of cellulose-based materials in sensors and biosensors are also discussed.

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Topics: Bacterial cellulose (53%)

References
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36 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/CR300174A
Marwan Hakim1, Yoav Y. Broza1, Orna Barash1, Nir Peled2  +4 moreInstitutions (4)
19 Sep 2012-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: Biochemical Pathways Meggie Hakim,† Yoav Y. Broza,† Orna Barash,† Nir Peled,‡ Michael Phillips, Anton Amann, and Hossam Haick*,† †The Department of Chemical Engineering and Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, TechnionIsrael Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel ‡The Thoracic Cancer Research and Detection Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 52621, Israel Menssana Research, Inc., Fort Lee, New Jersey 07024, United States Breath Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 6850 Dornbirn, Austria University-Clinic for Anesthesia, Innsbruck Medical University, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria

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540 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/IJC.24970
Abstract: There is experimental evidence that volatile substances in human breath can reflect presence of neoplasma. Volatile aldehydes were determined in exhaled breath of 12 lung cancer patients, 12 smokers and 12 healthy volunteers. Alveolar breath samples were collected under control of expired CO(2). Reactive aldehydes were transformed into stable oximes by means of on-fiber-derivatization (SPME-OFD). Aldehyde concentrations in the ppt and ppb level were determined by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Exhaled concentrations were corrected for inspired values. Exhaled C(1)-C(10) aldehydes could be detected in all healthy volunteers, smokers and lung cancer patients. Concentrations ranged from 7 pmol/l (161 pptV) for butanal to 71 nmol/l (1,582 ppbV) for formaldehyde. Highest inspired concentrations were found for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde (0-55 nmol/l and 0-13 nmol/l, respectively). Acetaldehyde, propanal, butanal, heptanal and decanal concentrations showed no significant differences for cancer patients, smokers and healthy volunteers. Exhaled pentanal, hexanal, octanal and nonanal concentrations were significantly higher in lung cancer patients than in smokers and healthy controls (p(pentanal) = 0.001; p(hexanal) = 0.006; p(octanal) = 0.014; p(nonanal) = 0.025). Sensitivity and specificity of this method were comparable to the diagnostic certitude of conventional serum markers and CT imaging. Lung cancer patients could be identified by means of exhaled pentanal, hexanal, octanal and nonanal concentrations. Exhaled aldehydes reflect aspects of oxidative stress and tumor-specific tissue composition and metabolism. Noninvasive recognition of lung malignancies may be realized if analytical skills, biochemical knowledge and medical expertise are combined into a joint effort.

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336 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CCA.2008.02.021
Abstract: Background A combination of biomarkers in a multivariate model may predict disease with greater accuracy than a single biomarker employed alone. We developed a non-linear method of multivariate analysis, weighted digital analysis (WDA), and evaluated its ability to predict lung cancer employing volatile biomarkers in the breath.

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Topics: Breath test (52%)

204 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.LUNGCAN.2009.03.029
Geng Song1, Tao Qin1, Hu Liu1, Guo-Bing Xu  +5 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Feb 2010-Lung Cancer
Abstract: Due to state-of-art analytical techniques, non-invasive exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis has become a potential method for early diagnosis of lung cancer. We collected breath samples from 43 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 41 normal controls using Tedlar gas bags. The VOCs were extracted with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS). The number of VOCs detected in each breath sample ranged from 68 to 114. Among the VOCs 1-butanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone were found at significantly higher concentrations in breath of the lung cancer patients compared to the controls. VOCs levels were not significantly different between early stage lung cancer patients and late stage lung cancer patients. Lung adenocarcinoma was significantly related to higher VOCs concentrations in the breath. Our data showed that 1-butanol and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone in breath could possibly be taken as useful breath biomarkers for discerning potential lung cancer patients and VOCs analysis could be used as a complementary test for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

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Topics: Breath gas analysis (66%), Breath test (60%), Lung cancer (52%)

192 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ADMA.201702275
Xuezhi Qiao1, Bensheng Su2, Cong Liu1, Qian Song1  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Feb 2018-Advanced Materials
Abstract: Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a trace detection technique that extends even to single molecule detection. Its potential application to the noninvasive recognition of lung malignancies by detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that serve as biomarkers would be a breakthrough in early cancer diagnostics. This application, however, is currently limited by two main factors: (1) most VOC biomarkers exhibit only weak Raman scattering; and (2) the high mobility of gaseous molecules results in a low adsorptivity on solid substrates. To enhance the adsorption of gaseous molecules, a ZIF-8 layer is coated onto a self-assembly of gold superparticles (GSPs) in order to slow the flow rate of gaseous biomarkers and depress the exponential decay of the electromagnetic field around the GSP surfaces. Gaseous aldehydes that are released as a result of tumor-specific tissue composition and metabolism, thereby acting as indicators of lung cancer, are guided onto SERS-active GSPs substrates through a ZIF-8 channel. Through a Schiff base reaction with 4-aminothiophenol pregrafted onto gold GSPs, gaseous aldehydes are captured with a 10 ppb limit of detection, demonstrating tremendous prospects for in vitro diagnoses of early stage lung cancer.

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152 Citations