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Journal ArticleDOI

Identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes

01 Nov 2012-Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 67, Iss: 11, pp 2640-2644

TL;DR: A web server providing a convenient way of identifying acquired antimicrobial resistance genes in completely sequenced isolates was created, and the method was evaluated on WGS chromosomes and plasmids of 30 isolates.
Abstract: Objectives Identification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current challenge is to extract the relevant information from the large amount of generated data.
Topics: Drug resistance (54%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two easy-to-use Web tools for in silico detection and characterization of whole-genome sequence (WGS) and whole-plasmid sequence data from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae are designed and developed.
Abstract: In the work presented here, we designed and developed two easy-to-use Web tools for in silico detection and characterization of whole-genome sequence (WGS) and whole-plasmid sequence data from members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. These tools will facilitate bacterial typing based on draft genomes of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae species by the rapid detection of known plasmid types. Replicon sequences from 559 fully sequenced plasmids associated with the family Enterobacteriaceae in the NCBI nucleotide database were collected to build a consensus database for integration into a Web tool called PlasmidFinder that can be used for replicon sequence analysis of raw, contig group, or completely assembled and closed plasmid sequencing data. The PlasmidFinder database currently consists of 116 replicon sequences that match with at least at 80% nucleotide identity all replicon sequences identified in the 559 fully sequenced plasmids. For plasmid multilocus sequence typing (pMLST) analysis, a database that is updated weekly was generated from www.pubmlst.org and integrated into a Web tool called pMLST. Both databases were evaluated using draft genomes from a collection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates. PlasmidFinder identified a total of 103 replicons and between zero and five different plasmid replicons within each of 49 S . Typhimurium draft genomes tested. The pMLST Web tool was able to subtype genomic sequencing data of plasmids, revealing both known plasmid sequence types (STs) and new alleles and ST variants. In conclusion, testing of the two Web tools using both fully assembled plasmid sequences and WGS-generated draft genomes showed them to be able to detect a broad variety of plasmids that are often associated with antimicrobial resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens.

1,918 citations


Cites methods from "Identification of acquired antimicr..."

  • ...To extract the relevant information from the large amount of data generated, a Web-based tool, ResFinder, for the identification of acquired or intrinsically present antimicrobial resistance genes in whole-genome data was recently developed (15)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD) is a manually curated resource containing high quality reference data on the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), with an emphasis on the genes, proteins and mutations involved in AMR.
Abstract: The Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD; http://arpcardmcmasterca) is a manually curated resource containing high quality reference data on the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), with an emphasis on the genes, proteins and mutations involved in AMR CARD is ontologically structured, model centric, and spans the breadth of AMR drug classes and resistance mechanisms, including intrinsic, mutation-driven and acquired resistance It is built upon the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO), a custom built, interconnected and hierarchical controlled vocabulary allowing advanced data sharing and organization Its design allows the development of novel genome analysis tools, such as the Resistance Gene Identifier (RGI) for resistome prediction from raw genome sequence Recent improvements include extensive curation of additional reference sequences and mutations, development of a unique Model Ontology and accompanying AMR detection models to power sequence analysis, new visualization tools, and expansion of the RGI for detection of emergent AMR threats CARD curation is updated monthly based on an interplay of manual literature curation, computational text mining, and genome analysis

1,264 citations


Cites background from "Identification of acquired antimicr..."

  • ...Overall, CARD (6) and ARG-ANNOT (12) are currently the two most extensive AMR sequence databases, with ResFinder (14) similarly so for the acquired AMR subset....

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  • ...There are currently a number of knowledge resources in the field of antimicrobial resistance, such as the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD) (6), Antibiotic Resistance Genes Online (ARGO) (7), Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB) (8), Antimicrobial Peptide Database (APD3) (9), Collection of Anti-Microbial Peptides (CAMP) (10), Database of Antimicrobial Activity and Structure of Peptides (DBAASP) (11), Antibiotic Resistance Gene-ANNOTation (ARG-ANNOT) (12), BacMet (13) and ResFinder (14)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The CARD integrates disparate molecular and sequence data, provides a unique organizing principle in the form of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO), and can quickly identify putative antibiotic resistance genes in new unannotated genome sequences.
Abstract: The field of antibiotic drug discovery and the monitoring of new antibiotic resistance elements have yet to fully exploit the power of the genome revolution. Despite the fact that the first genomes sequenced of free living organisms were those of bacteria, there have been few specialized bioinformatic tools developed to mine the growing amount of genomic data associated with pathogens. In particular, there are few tools to study the genetics and genomics of antibiotic resistance and how it impacts bacterial populations, ecology, and the clinic. We have initiated development of such tools in the form of the Comprehensive Antibiotic Research Database (CARD; http://arpcard.mcmaster.ca). The CARD integrates disparate molecular and sequence data, provides a unique organizing principle in the form of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO), and can quickly identify putative antibiotic resistance genes in new unannotated genome sequences. This unique platform provides an informatic tool that bridges antibiotic resistance concerns in health care, agriculture, and the environment.

1,139 citations


Cites background from "Identification of acquired antimicr..."

  • ...dk/services/ResFinder/) (25) is limited to BLAST analysis of a subset of antibiotic resistance genes and lacks a unifying ontology, and ARDB (ardb....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A concise database for BLAST using a Bio-Edit interface that can detect AR genetic determinants in bacterial genomes and can rapidly and easily discover putative new AR geneticeterminants is created.
Abstract: ARG-ANNOT (Antibiotic Resistance Gene-ANNOTation) is a new bioinformatic tool that was created to detect existing and putative new antibiotic resistance (AR) genes in bacterial genomes. ARG-ANNOT uses a local BLAST program in Bio-Edit software that allows the user to analyze sequences without a Web interface. All AR genetic determinants were collected from published works and online resources; nucleotide and protein sequences were retrieved from the NCBI GenBank database. After building a database that includes 1,689 antibiotic resistance genes, the software was tested in a blind manner using 100 random sequences selected from the database to verify that the sensitivity and specificity were at 100% even when partial sequences were queried. Notably, BLAST analysis results obtained using the rmtF gene sequence (a new aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene sequence that is not included in the database) as a query revealed that the tool was able to link this sequence to short sequences (17 to 40 bp) found in other genes of the rmt family with significant E values. Finally, the analysis of 178 Acinetobacter baumannii and 20 Staphylococcus aureus genomes allowed the detection of a significantly higher number of AR genes than the Resfinder gene analyzer and 11 point mutations in target genes known to be associated with AR. The average time for the analysis of a genome was 3.35 ± 0.13 min. We have created a concise database for BLAST using a Bio-Edit interface that can detect AR genetic determinants in bacterial genomes and can rapidly and easily discover putative new AR genetic determinants.

788 citations


Cites background or methods or result from "Identification of acquired antimicr..."

  • ...aureus genomes for ARG using ARGANNOT and Resfinder (10)....

    [...]

  • ...aureus strains performed using ARG-ANNOT and Resfinder (10) revealed a significantly higher number of AR genes detected by ARG-ANNOT....

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  • ...Some of the genes with low percentages of similarity were not detected by Resfinder (10) because of the restricted search criteria ( 50%)....

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  • ...Several AR gene databases already exist, including Antibiotic Resistance Genes Online (ARGO), which was published in 2005 (7); the microbial database of protein toxins, virulence factors, and antibiotic resistance genes MvirDB, released in 2007 (8); Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB), published in 2009 (9); Resfinder, recently released in 2012 (10), and the Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD) (11)....

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  • ...aureus strains and compared the results with Resfinder (10)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A real-time evaluation of WGS for routine typing and surveillance of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli found whole-genome sequencing typing is a superior alternative to conventional typing strategies and may also be applied to typing and Surveillance of other pathogens.
Abstract: Fast and accurate identification and typing of pathogens are essential for effective surveillance and outbreak detection. The current routine procedure is based on a variety of techniques, making the procedure laborious, time-consuming, and expensive. With whole-genome sequencing (WGS) becoming cheaper, it has huge potential in both diagnostics and routine surveillance. The aim of this study was to perform a real-time evaluation of WGS for routine typing and surveillance of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). In Denmark, the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) routinely receives all suspected VTEC isolates. During a 7-week period in the fall of 2012, all incoming isolates were concurrently subjected to WGS using IonTorrent PGM. Real-time bioinformatics analysis was performed using web-tools (www.genomicepidemiology.org) for species determination, multilocus sequence type (MLST) typing, and determination of phylogenetic relationship, and a specific VirulenceFinder for detection of E. coli virulence genes was developed as part of this study. In total, 46 suspected VTEC isolates were characterized in parallel during the study. VirulenceFinder proved successful in detecting virulence genes included in routine typing, explicitly verocytotoxin 1 (vtx1), verocytotoxin 2 (vtx2), and intimin (eae), and also detected additional virulence genes. VirulenceFinder is also a robust method for assigning verocytotoxin (vtx) subtypes. A real-time clustering of isolates in agreement with the epidemiology was established from WGS, enabling discrimination between sporadic and outbreak isolates. Overall, WGS typing produced results faster and at a lower cost than the current routine. Therefore, WGS typing is a superior alternative to conventional typing strategies. This approach may also be applied to typing and surveillance of other pathogens.

737 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A Web-based method for MLST of 66 bacterial species based on whole-genome sequencing data that enables investigators to determine the sequence types of their isolates on the basis of WGS data.
Abstract: Accurate strain identification is essential for anyone working with bacteria. For many species, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is considered the “gold standard” of typing, but it is traditionally performed in an expensive and time-consuming manner. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available to scientists and routine diagnostic laboratories. Currently, the cost is below that of traditional MLST. The new challenges will be how to extract the relevant information from the large amount of data so as to allow for comparison over time and between laboratories. Ideally, this information should also allow for comparison to historical data. We developed a Web-based method for MLST of 66 bacterial species based on WGS data. As input, the method uses short sequence reads from four sequencing platforms or preassembled genomes. Updates from the MLST databases are downloaded monthly, and the best-matching MLST alleles of the specified MLST scheme are found using a BLAST-based ranking method. The sequence type is then determined by the combination of alleles identified. The method was tested on preassembled genomes from 336 isolates covering 56 MLST schemes, on short sequence reads from 387 isolates covering 10 schemes, and on a small test set of short sequence reads from 29 isolates for which the sequence type had been determined by traditional methods. The method presented here enables investigators to determine the sequence types of their isolates on the basis of WGS data. This method is publicly available at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/MLST.

1,253 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A preliminary assessment of the amino acids which may be important in binding aminoglycosides was obtained from data and from the results of mutational analysis of several of the genes encoding am inoglycoside-modifying enzymes.
Abstract: The three classes of enzymes which inactivate aminoglycosides and lead to bacterial resistance are reviewed. DNA hybridization studies have shown that different genes can encode aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes with identical resistance profiles. Comparisons of the amino acid sequences of 49 aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes have revealed new insights into the evolution and relatedness of these proteins. A preliminary assessment of the amino acids which may be important in binding aminoglycosides was obtained from these data and from the results of mutational analysis of several of the genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Recent studies have demonstrated that aminoglycoside resistance can emerge as a result of alterations in the regulation of normally quiescent cellular genes or as a result of acquiring genes which may have originated from aminoglycoside-producing organisms or from other resistant organisms. Dissemination of these genes is aided by a variety of genetic elements including integrons, transposons, and broad-host-range plasmids. As knowledge of the molecular structure of these enzymes increases, progress can be made in our understanding of how resistance to new aminoglycosides emerges.

1,043 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Angela H.A.M. van Hoek, Dik Mevius1, Dik Mevius2, Beatriz Guerra3  +3 moreInstitutions (4)
TL;DR: Attention is paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which are associated with AR genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between different bacteria.
Abstract: In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance (AR) mechanisms with special attentions to the AR genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is also paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which are associated with AR genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between different bacteria.

855 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Lance B. Price1, Marc Stegger2, Henrik Hasman3, Maliha Aziz1  +31 moreInstitutions (14)
01 Mar 2012-Mbio
TL;DR: The results strongly suggest that livestock-associated MRSA CC398 originated in humans as MSSA, which appears to have undergone a rapid radiation in conjunction with the jump from humans to livestock, where it subsequently acquired tetracycline and methicillin resistance.
Abstract: Since its discovery in the early 2000s, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) has become a rapidly emerging cause of human infections, most often associated with livestock exposure. We applied whole-genome sequence typing to characterize a diverse collection of CC398 isolates (n = 89), including MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from animals and humans spanning 19 countries and four continents. We identified 4,238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the 89 core genomes. Minimal homoplasy (consistency index = 0.9591) was detected among parsimony-informative SNPs, allowing for the generation of a highly accurate phylogenetic reconstruction of the CC398 clonal lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that MSSA from humans formed the most ancestral clades. The most derived lineages were composed predominantly of livestock-associated MRSA possessing three different staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) types (IV, V, and VII-like) including nine subtypes. The human-associated isolates from the basal clades carried phages encoding human innate immune modulators that were largely missing among the livestock-associated isolates. Our results strongly suggest that livestock-associated MRSA CC398 originated in humans as MSSA. The lineage appears to have undergone a rapid radiation in conjunction with the jump from humans to livestock, where it subsequently acquired tetracycline and methicillin resistance. Further analyses are required to estimate the number of independent genetic events leading to the methicillin-resistant sublineages, but the diversity of SCCmec subtypes is suggestive of strong and diverse antimicrobial selection associated with food animal production. IMPORTANCE Modern food animal production is characterized by densely concentrated animals and routine antibiotic use, which may facilitate the emergence of novel antibiotic-resistant zoonotic pathogens. Our findings strongly support the idea that livestock-associated MRSA CC398 originated as MSSA in humans. The jump of CC398 from humans to livestock was accompanied by the loss of phage-carried human virulence genes, which likely attenuated its zoonotic potential, but it was also accompanied by the acquisition of tetracycline and methicillin resistance. Our findings exemplify a bidirectional zoonotic exchange and underscore the potential public health risks of widespread antibiotic use in food animal production.

719 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Differences in the occurrence of resistance and tetracycline resistance genes were observed among isolates from the different sources, however, similar resistance patterns and resistant genes were detected frequently indicating that transmission of resistant enterococci or resistance genes takes place between humans, broilers, and pigs.
Abstract: Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolated from humans in the community (98 and 65 isolates), broilers (126 and 122), and pigs (102 and 88) during 1998 were tested for susceptibility to 12 different antimicrobial agents and for the presence of selected genes encoding resistance using PCR. Furthermore, the presence of vancomycin resistant enterococci was examined in 38 human stool samples using selective enrichment. Widespread resistance to chloramphenicol, macrolides, kanamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline was found among isolates from all three sources. All E. faecium isolates from humans and pigs were susceptible to avilamycin, whereas 35% of isolates from broilers were resistant. All E. faecium isolates from humans were susceptible to vancomycin, whereas 10% and 17% of isolates from broilers and pigs, respectively, were resistant. A vancomycin resistant E. faecium isolate was found in one of the 38 human fecal samples examined using selective enrichment. All vancomycin resistant isolates contained the vanA gene, all chloramphenicol resistant isolates the cat(pIP501) gene, and all five gentamicin resistant isolates the aac6-aph2 gene. Sixty-one (85%) of 72 erythromycin resistant E. faecalis examined and 57 (90%) of 63 erythromycin resistant E. faecium isolates examined contained ermB. Forty (91%) of the kanamycin resistant E. faecalis and 18 (72%) of the kanamycin resistant E. faecium isolates contained aphA3. The tet(M) gene was found in 95% of the tetracycline resistant E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates of human and animal origin, examined. tet(K) was not observed, whereas tet(L) was detected in 17% of tetracycline resistant E. faecalis isolates and in 16% of the E. faecium isolates. tet(O) was not detected in any of the isolates from pigs, but was observed in 38% of E. faecalis isolates from broilers, in two E. faecalis isolates from humans and in three E. faecium isolates from broilers. tet(S) was not detected among isolates from animals, but was observed in 31% of E. faecalis and one E. faecium isolate from humans. This study showed a frequent occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and the presence of selected resistance genes in E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from humans, broilers and pigs. Differences in the occurrence of resistance and tetracycline resistance genes were observed among isolates from the different sources. However, similar resistance patterns and resistance genes were detected frequently indicating that transmission of resistant enterococci or resistance genes takes place between humans, broilers, and pigs.

433 citations


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