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Journal ArticleDOI

Identifying the criterion for discrete flame spread over single-row birch rods

01 Mar 2021-Fire Safety Journal (Elsevier)-Vol. 120, pp 103116
TL;DR: In this paper, a group of birch rods with different lengths (denoted by l within 60-100mm) and spacings (S, 1-9mm) were analyzed experimentally and theoretically.
About: This article is published in Fire Safety Journal.The article was published on 2021-03-01. It has received 17 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Flame spread.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of fuel bed width and spacing on the combustion and flame spread behaviors of discrete fuels were investigated. And a prediction model of the mass loss rate was developed, which agreed reasonably well with the experimental data.

24 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2021-Fuel
TL;DR: In this paper, the combined effect of inclination angle and array fuel bed width on flame spread over discrete fuel arrays was investigated. But, the authors did not consider the effect of the angle of inclination on the upward flame spread.

18 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the combustion characteristics and temperature distribution of two pool fires with different transverse locations in a model tunnel under natural ventilation, and propose a prediction model of maximum temperature rise under the tunnel ceiling, which matches the experimental results well.

9 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the effect of air gap and thickness of wood chips in the fire propagation mechanism by experimental investigating the mass loss rate (MLR), flame spread rate (FSR), total burning duration (TBD), and the flame characteristic length (MFL).
Abstract: The fire hazard has frequently destroyed wooden cultural heritages. The discrete wood chips allow fire propagation quickly in practice. This study aims to clarify the effect of air–gap and thickness of wood chips in the fire propagation mechanism by experimental investigating the mass loss rate (MLR), flame spread rate (FSR), total burning duration (TBD) and the flame characteristic length (MFL). The 2 cm long and 10 cm wide wood chips were uniformly installed on a vertical sample holder. The air–gap distance and the thickness of wood chips changed from 1.0 cm to 3.0 cm and 1 mm to 4 mm, respectively. The flame spreads across with the wood grain orientation. The experimental result shows that FSR and MFL are sensitive to the air–gap distance. It is concluded that, TBD versus thickness of the sample is linear with an equation TBD (s) = 7.7 × thickness (mm) + 18.6. Concerning the fixed thickness of the sample, the TBD varies a little from the air–gap distance. The MFL increases to a peak then decreases to a low value as the thickness differing from 1 mm to 4 mm. It is observed that the air–gap makes little contribution to the TBD. The MLF history as the air–gap distance changing from 1.0 cm to 3.0 cm indicates that the distance of air–gap imposed little effect on the MFL. The a-MLR profiles mainly depend on the thickness of the sample.

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors studied the temperature profile and critical ventilation velocity under different longitudinal ventilation conditions in a branched tunnel and found that when dimensionless ventilation velocity is lower than 0.19, the maximum temperature was lower than that of traditional single tube tunnel.

8 citations

References
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Book
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TL;DR: This paper introduced the physical effects underlying heat and mass transfer phenomena and developed methodologies for solving a variety of real-world problems, such as energy minimization, mass transfer, and energy maximization.
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TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive discussion of heat transfer by thermal radiation is presented, including the radiative behavior of materials, radiation between surfaces, and gas radiation, and the use of the Monte Carlo technique in solving radiant exchange problems and problems of radiative transfer through absorbing-emitting media.
Abstract: A comprehensive discussion of heat transfer by thermal radiation is presented, including the radiative behavior of materials, radiation between surfaces, and gas radiation. Among the topics considered are property prediction by electromagnetic theory, the observed properties of solid materials, radiation in the presence of other modes of energy transfer, the equations of transfer for an absorbing-emitting gas, and radiative transfer in scattering and absorbing media. Also considered are radiation exchange between black isothermal surfaces, radiation exchange in enclosures composed of diffuse gray surfaces and in enclosures having some specularly reflecting surfaces, and radiation exchange between nondiffuse nongray surfaces. The use of the Monte Carlo technique in solving radiant-exchange problems and problems of radiative transfer through absorbing-emitting media is explained.

5,879 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a comprehensive discussion of heat transfer by thermal radiation is presented, including the radiative behavior of materials, radiation between surfaces, and gas radiation, and the use of the Monte Carlo technique in solving radiant exchange problems and problems of radiative transfer through absorbing-emitting media.
Abstract: A comprehensive discussion of heat transfer by thermal radiation is presented, including the radiative behavior of materials, radiation between surfaces, and gas radiation. Among the topics considered are property prediction by electromagnetic theory, the observed properties of solid materials, radiation in the presence of other modes of energy transfer, the equations of transfer for an absorbing-emitting gas, and radiative transfer in scattering and absorbing media. Also considered are radiation exchange between black isothermal surfaces, radiation exchange in enclosures composed of diffuse gray surfaces and in enclosures having some specularly reflecting surfaces, and radiation exchange between nondiffuse nongray surfaces. The use of the Monte Carlo technique in solving radiant-exchange problems and problems of radiative transfer through absorbing-emitting media is explained.

5,420 citations