scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Journal ArticleDOI

Imaging tumour heterogeneity of the consequences of a PKCα-substrate interaction in breast cancer patients.

TL;DR: It is demonstrated that tissue imaging-derived parameters that pertain to or are a consequence of the PKC-ezrin interaction can be used for breast cancer prognostication, with inter-cohort reproducibility.
Abstract: Breast cancer heterogeneity demands that prognostic models must be biologically driven and recent clinical evidence indicates that future prognostic signatures need evaluation in the context of early compared with late metastatic risk prediction. In pre-clinical studies, we and others have shown that various protein–protein interactions, pertaining to the actin microfilament-associated proteins, ezrin and cofilin, mediate breast cancer cell migration, a prerequisite for cancer metastasis. Moreover, as a direct substrate for protein kinase Cα, ezrin has been shown to be a determinant of cancer metastasis for a variety of tumour types, besides breast cancer; and has been described as a pivotal regulator of metastasis by linking the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton. In the present article, we demonstrate that our tissue imaging-derived parameters that pertain to or are a consequence of the PKC–ezrin interaction can be used for breast cancer prognostication, with inter-cohort reproducibility. The application of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded patient samples to probe protein proximity within the typically

Content maybe subject to copyright    Report

Citations
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel role for Notch1 signaling in the regulation of MenaINV expression and transendothelial migration is indicated and mechanistic information essential to the use of therapeutic inhibitors of metastasis is provided.
Abstract: The process of intravasation involving transendothelial migration is a key step in metastatic spread. How the triple cell complex composed of a macrophage, Mena over-expressing tumor cell and endothelial cell, called the tumor microenvironment of metastasis (TMEM), facilitates tumor cell transendothelial migration is not completely understood. Previous work has shown that the physical contact between a macrophage and tumor cell results in the formation of invadopodia, actin-rich matrix degrading protrusions, important for tumor cell invasion and transendothelial migration and tumor cell dissemination. Herein, we show that the macrophage-induced invadopodium is formed through a Notch1/MenaINV signaling pathway in the tumor cell upon macrophage contact. This heterotypic tumor cell - macrophage interaction results in the upregulation of MenaINV through the activation of MENA transcription. Notch1 and MenaINV expression are required for tumor cell transendothelial migration, a necessary step during intravasation. Inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway blocked macrophage-induced invadopodium formation in vitro and the dissemination of tumor cells from the primary tumor in vivo. Our findings indicate a novel role for Notch1 signaling in the regulation of MenaINV expression and transendothelial migration and provide mechanistic information essential to the use of therapeutic inhibitors of metastasis.

79 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Prognostic assays based on proliferation based on Oncotype DX, MammaPrint DX and TMEM score combined with a prognostic derived from a signature of dissemination could provide a complementary and more personalized prognostic information for breast cancer patients.
Abstract: Gene expression profiling has yielded expression signatures from which prognostic tests can be derived to facilitate clinical decision making in breast cancer patients. Some of these signatures are based on profiling of whole tumor tissue (tissue signatures), which includes all tumor and stromal cells. Prognostic markers have also been derived from the profiling of metastasizing tumor cells, including circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and migratory-disseminating tumor cells within the primary tumor. The metastasis signatures based on CTCs and migratory-disseminating tumor cells have greater potential for unraveling cell biology insights and mechanistic underpinnings of tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. Of clinical interest is the promise that stratification of patients into high or low metastatic risk, as well as assessing the need for cytotoxic therapy, might be improved if prognostics derived from these two types of signatures are used in a combined way. The aim of this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster is to navigate through both types of signatures and their derived prognostics, as well as to highlight biological insights and clinical applications that could be derived from them, especially when they are used in combination.

56 citations


Cites background from "Imaging tumour heterogeneity of the..."

  • ...Although the HIS contains additional prognostic markers that are currently being explored (Weitsman et al., 2014), the few that have already been investigated have provided an in-depth understanding of the process of tumor cell intravasation and dissemination, and more importantly have resulted in…...

    [...]

  • ...Although the HIS contains additional prognostic markers that are currently being explored (Weitsman et al., 2014), the few that have already been investigated have provided an in-depth understanding of the process of tumor cell intravasation and dissemination, and more importantly have resulted in the development of clinically useful predictive markers of metastasis called TMEM and Mena....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current available methodologies to measure HER family receptors are presented and the clinical implications of target quantification are discussed.
Abstract: The clinical success of trastuzumab in breast cancer taught us that appropriate tumor evaluation is mandatory for the correct identification of patients eligible for targeted therapies. Although HER2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays are routinely used to select patients to receive trastuzumab, both assays only partially predict response to the drug. In the case of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the link between the presence of the receptor or its amplification and response to anti-EGFR therapies could not be demonstrated. Even less is known for HER3 and HER4, mainly due to lack of robust and validated assays detecting these proteins. It is becoming evident that, besides FISH and IHC, we need better assays to quantify HER receptors and categorize the patients for individualized treatments. Here, we present the current available methodologies to measure HER family receptors and discuss the clinical implications of target quantification.

41 citations


Cites methods from "Imaging tumour heterogeneity of the..."

  • ...extended this method to measure endogenous proteinprotein interactions in archived pathological material [71]....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Analysis of 131 tissue microarray cores demonstrated that the extent of HER2-HER3 dimer formation as measured by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer determined through FLIM predicts the likelihood of metastatic relapse up to 10 years after surgery, and Interestingly there was no correlation between the level of Her2 protein expressed and Her2- HER3 heterodimer formation.
Abstract: Overexpression of HER2 is an important prognostic marker, and the only predictive biomarker of response to HER2-targeted therapies in invasive breast cancer. HER2-HER3 dimer has been shown to drive proliferation and tumor progression, and targeting of this dimer with pertuzumab alongside chemotherapy and trastuzumab, has shown significant clinical utility. The purpose of this study was to accurately quantify HER2-HER3 dimerisation in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tissue as a novel prognostic biomarker.FFPE tissues were obtained from patients included in the METABRIC (Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium) study. HER2-HER3 dimerisation was quantified using an improved fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) histology-based analysis. Analysis of 131 tissue microarray cores demonstrated that the extent of HER2-HER3 dimer formation as measured by Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) determined through FLIM predicts the likelihood of metastatic relapse up to 10 years after surgery (hazard ratio 3.91 (1.61-9.5), p = 0.003) independently of HER2 expression, in a multivariate model. Interestingly there was no correlation between the level of HER2 protein expressed and HER2-HER3 heterodimer formation. We used a mathematical model that takes into account the complex interactions in a network of all four HER proteins to explain this counterintuitive finding.Future utility of this technique may highlight a group of patients who do not overexpress HER2 protein but are nevertheless dependent on the HER2-HER3 heterodimer as driver of proliferation. This assay could, if validated in a group of patients treated with, for instance pertuzumab, be used as a predictive biomarker to predict for response to such targeted therapies.

28 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The combined use of HER dimer imaging and conventional mutation analyses will be able to identify a small subclass of patients (>10%) who will have better prognosis following chemotherapy and confirm its utility in predicting the outcome of anti-EGFR treatment.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The phase 3 MRC COIN trial showed no statistically significant benefit from adding the EGFR-target cetuximab to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. This study exploits additional information on HER2-HER3 dimerization to achieve patient stratification and reveal previously hidden subgroups of patients who had differing disease progression and treatment response. METHODS: HER2-HER3 dimerization was quantified by 'FLIM Histology' in primary tumor samples from 550 COIN trial patients receiving oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy +/-cetuximab. Bayesian latent class analysis (LCA) and covariate reduction was performed to analyze the effects of HER2-HER3 dimer, RAS mutation and cetuximab on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: LCA on a cohort of 398 patients revealed two patient subclasses with differing prognoses (median OS: 1624 days [95%CI=1466-1816] vs 461 [95%CI=431-504]): Class 1 (15.6%) showed a benefit from cetuximab in OS (HR = 0.43 [95%CI=0.25-0.76]; p = 0.004). Class 2 showed an association of increased HER2-HER3 with better OS (HR = 0.64 [95%CI=0.44-0.94]; p = 0.02). A class prediction signature was formed and tested on an independent validation cohort (N = 152) validating the prognostic utility of the dimer assay. Similar subclasses were also discovered in full trial dataset (N = 1,630) based on 10 baseline clinicopathological and genetic covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Our work suggests that the combined use of HER dimer imaging and conventional mutation analyses will be able to identify a small subclass of patients (>10%) who will have better prognosis following chemotherapy. A larger prospective cohort will be required to confirm its utility in predicting the outcome of anti-EGFR treatment.

13 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
31 Jan 2002-Nature
TL;DR: DNA microarray analysis on primary breast tumours of 117 young patients is used and supervised classification is applied to identify a gene expression signature strongly predictive of a short interval to distant metastases (‘poor prognosis’ signature) in patients without tumour cells in local lymph nodes at diagnosis, providing a strategy to select patients who would benefit from adjuvant therapy.
Abstract: Breast cancer patients with the same stage of disease can have markedly different treatment responses and overall outcome. The strongest predictors for metastases (for example, lymph node status and histological grade) fail to classify accurately breast tumours according to their clinical behaviour. Chemotherapy or hormonal therapy reduces the risk of distant metastases by approximately one-third; however, 70-80% of patients receiving this treatment would have survived without it. None of the signatures of breast cancer gene expression reported to date allow for patient-tailored therapy strategies. Here we used DNA microarray analysis on primary breast tumours of 117 young patients, and applied supervised classification to identify a gene expression signature strongly predictive of a short interval to distant metastases ('poor prognosis' signature) in patients without tumour cells in local lymph nodes at diagnosis (lymph node negative). In addition, we established a signature that identifies tumours of BRCA1 carriers. The poor prognosis signature consists of genes regulating cell cycle, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. This gene expression profile will outperform all currently used clinical parameters in predicting disease outcome. Our findings provide a strategy to select patients who would benefit from adjuvant therapy.

9,664 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The recurrence score has been validated as quantifying the likelihood of distant recurrence in tamoxifen-treated patients with node-negative, estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer and could be used as a continuous function to predict distant recurrent in individual patients.
Abstract: background The likelihood of distant recurrence in patients with breast cancer who have no involved lymph nodes and estrogen-receptor–positive tumors is poorly defined by clinical and histopathological measures. methods We tested whether the results of a reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay of 21 prospectively selected genes in paraffin-embedded tumor tissue would correlate with the likelihood of distant recurrence in patients with node-negative, tamoxifen-treated breast cancer who were enrolled in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project clinical trial B-14. The levels of expression of 16 cancerrelated genes and 5 reference genes were used in a prospectively defined algorithm to calculate a recurrence score and to determine a risk group (low, intermediate, or high) for each patient. results Adequate RT-PCR profiles were obtained in 668 of 675 tumor blocks. The proportions of patients categorized as having a low, intermediate, or high risk by the RT-PCR assay were 51, 22, and 27 percent, respectively. The Kaplan–Meier estimates of the rates of distant recurrence at 10 years in the low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups were 6.8 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 4.0 to 9.6), 14.3 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 8.3 to 20.3), and 30.5 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 23.6 to 37.4). The rate in the low-risk group was significantly lower than that in the high-risk group (P<0.001). In a multivariate Cox model, the recurrence score provided significant predictive power that was independent of age and tumor size (P<0.001). The recurrence score was also predictive of overall survival (P<0.001) and could be used as a continuous function to predict distant recurrence in individual patients. conclusions The recurrence score has been validated as quantifying the likelihood of distant recurrence in tamoxifen-treated patients with node-negative, estrogen-receptor–positive breast cancer.

5,685 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Jun 2012-Nature
TL;DR: The results provide a novel molecular stratification of the breast cancer population, derived from the impact of somatic CNAs on the transcriptome, and identify novel subgroups with distinct clinical outcomes, which reproduced in the validation cohort.
Abstract: The elucidation of breast cancer subgroups and their molecular drivers requires integrated views of the genome and transcriptome from representative numbers of patients. We present an integrated analysis of copy number and gene expression in a discovery and validation set of 997 and 995 primary breast tumours, respectively, with long-term clinical follow-up. Inherited variants (copy number variants and single nucleotide polymorphisms) and acquired somatic copy number aberrations (CNAs) were associated with expression in 40% of genes, with the landscape dominated by cisand trans-acting CNAs. By delineating expression outlier genes driven in cis by CNAs, we identified putative cancer genes, including deletions in PPP2R2A, MTAP and MAP2K4. Unsupervised analysis of paired DNA–RNA profiles revealed novel subgroups with distinct clinical outcomes, which reproduced in the validation cohort. These include a high-risk, oestrogen-receptor-positive 11q13/14 cis-acting subgroup and a favourable prognosis subgroup devoid of CNAs. Trans-acting aberration hotspots were found to modulate subgroup-specific gene networks, including a TCR deletion-mediated adaptive immune response in the ‘CNA-devoid’ subgroup and a basal-specific chromosome 5 deletion-associated mitotic network. Our results provide a novel molecular stratification of the breast cancer population, derived from the impact of somatic CNAs on the transcriptome.

4,722 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Kinetic analysis indicates that TPA can substitute for diacylglycerol and greatly increases the affinity of the enzyme for Ca2+ as well as for phospholipid, and various phorbol derivatives which have been shown to be active in tumor promotion are also capable of activating this protein kinase in in vitro systems.

4,562 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Sep 2013-Nature
TL;DR: Insight is gained into the common pathways of tumour evolution that could support the development of future therapeutic strategies and shape the evolution of the cancer genome through a plethora of mechanisms.
Abstract: Recent studies have revealed extensive genetic diversity both between and within tumours. This heterogeneity affects key cancer pathways, driving phenotypic variation, and poses a significant challenge to personalized cancer medicine. A major cause of genetic heterogeneity in cancer is genomic instability. This instability leads to an increased mutation rate and can shape the evolution of the cancer genome through a plethora of mechanisms. By understanding these mechanisms we can gain insight into the common pathways of tumour evolution that could support the development of future therapeutic strategies.

1,922 citations