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Journal ArticleDOI

Immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease invading the trachea and superior vena cava in mediastinum

01 Mar 2014-European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (Oxford University Press)-Vol. 45, Iss: 3, pp 573-575
Topics: Superior vena cava (60%), Mediastinum (56%), Plasma cell granuloma (54%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The IgG4-related IPTs diagnosed on biopsies with requisite features showed prompt response to steroids indicating specificity of histopathological findings in predicting treatment response.
Abstract: Objectives: There is marked inconsistency in reporting the key features of IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) cases. We aimed to analyze the various aspects of IgG4-related IPTs and to test the performance of the consensus criteria for their diagnosis.Methods: PubMed database was searched for IgG4-related IPT cases. The data regarding patient demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, histopathological features, and treatment response are extracted and are presented here in a descriptive manner.Results: The study included 40 papers describing the clinicopathological features of 83 IPTs in 80 patients. Seventeen cases were diagnosed on biopsies; while remaining were diagnosed on excision specimens. Among these, 50 cases were categorized as highly suggestive and 24 cases as probable for IgG4RD; while nine cases had insufficient histopathological evidence of IgG4RD. Two cases diagnosed on biopsies having insufficient evidence of IgG4RD showed partial or no response to steroids...

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Jay H. Ryu1, Eunhee S. Yi1
TL;DR: It has, however, become clear that IgG4-RD can cause an immune-mediated fibroinflammatory process, commonly manifesting as mass-like lesions, in various regions of the body including the thorax where any compartment can be involved.
Abstract: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic fibroinflammatory disease with protean manifestations involving virtually any organ in the body. At initial clinical presentation, 1 or multiple organs may be involved. Initial descriptions focused on pancreatic disease. It has, however, become clear that IgG4-RD can cause an immune-mediated fibroinflammatory process, commonly manifesting as mass-like lesions, in various regions of the body including the thorax where any compartment can be involved. This pathologic process is characterized by infiltration of IgG4+ plasma cells and a propensity to fibrosis leading to organ dysfunction which can be prevented by early diagnosis and corticosteroid therapy.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This case reported the first case of IgG4-RD presenting with miliary nodules on the tracheal and bronchial tube walls combined with asthma, and exhibited three important clinical indication: first, tracheobronchial miliary nodsules could be the presentation of Igg4-related disease, second, IgG 4- related disease with pulmonary involvement has close connection with asthma.
Abstract: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic autoimmune disease that can affect multiple organs of the body. Pulmonary manifestations of IgG4-RD include pulmonary solid nodules, thickening of bronchovascular bundles, interstitial involvement, and ground glass opacities. Here we present a rare case of IgG4-RD with tracheobronchial nodules and review the relevant literature. A 52-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a history of intermittent cough for 27 months and recurrent wheezing for 17 months. He had been diagnosed with asthma prior to admission and was responsive to oral prednisone (30 mg/day, with gradual tapering). Bronchoscopy performed 2 years prior to admission showed tracheal and bronchial mucosal hyperemia, edema, and miliary nodules. Pathological tests showed chronic inflammation with focal lymphocytic infiltration in the bronchial mucosa. The patient had recurrent cough and wheezing after prednisone was stopped or the dose reduced. At the time of admission to our hospital, his serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) level had increased to 7.35 g/L. Following bronchoscopy, the IgG4 expression in the bronchial mucosa was compared with that observed during the last two bronchoscopies. Bronchoscopy performed 7 months prior to admission revealed IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration in the bronchial tissue, with > 10 IgG4+ plasma cells per high power field and an IgG4+/IgG+ cell ratio of > 40%. The current bronchoscopy revealed a decrease in IgG4 expression in the bronchial tissue, probably because of the intermittent prednisone treatment. The case fulfilled the comprehensive clinical diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD. He received prednisone and azathioprine, and he has never developed recurrence. Our case exhibited three important clinical indication: First, tracheobronchial miliary nodules could be the presentation of IgG4-related disease. Second, IgG4-related disease with pulmonary involvement has close connection with asthma. Last, IgG4-related disease can be very sensitive to prednisone, the infiltration of IgG4 positive plasma cells decreased after prednisone treatment and symptoms significantly improved in our case. In conclusion, we reported the first case of IgG4-RD presenting with miliary nodules on the tracheal and bronchial tube walls combined with asthma. The findings will further our understanding of the characteristics of IgG4-RD.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 Nov 2017-Tumori
TL;DR: The case of a 49-year-old man displaying an anterior mediastinic, hilar, and intramyocardial mass simulating a sarcoidosis, with a definitive diagnosis of IgG4-related thymic fibrosis extending to the mediastinum and the heart is described.
Abstract: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multi-organ immune-mediated chronic fibroinflammatory condition, with unclear certain etiology. It is morphologically characterized by storiform fibrosis, dense IgG4-positive lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, and obliterative phlebitis. It was recognized as a systemic condition as recently as 2003. IgG4-RD has been described in virtually every organ, forming sclerosing masses, and often mimicking tumors. Clinically, patients present unspecific symptoms and this condition is often recognized incidentally. The epidemiology remains poorly studied, but it has been noted that in the majority of recorded instances, patients are middle-aged men. IgG4-RD could mimic conditions other than tumors, such as infection, inflammation, or other systemic disorders. To ensure accuracy of diagnosis, an exhaustive histopathological analysis is required, together with clinical, radiological, and serological data. Thymic fibrosis in the absence of other primary thymic lesions is a very rare occurrence; in English literature only 1 case has been reported with scattered IgG4 plasma cells infiltrate and focal obliterative phlebitis. We will describe, for the first time, the case of a 49-year-old man displaying an anterior mediastinic, hilar, and intramyocardial mass simulating a sarcoidosis, with a definitive diagnosis of IgG4-related thymic fibrosis extending to the mediastinum and the heart. At the histological examination, we found many features of IgG4-RD in the thymic tissue, such as diffused storiform fibrosis, dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with abundant plasma cells IgG4 positive (ratio IgG/IgG4: 40%), obliterative phlebitis, eosinophilic infiltrate, and Castleman-like lymphoid follicles. We discussed the differential diagnosis and reviewed the literature and the other cases of IgG4-related diseases that had been diagnosed in our department.

3 citations


Cites background from "Immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosin..."

  • ...In the mediastinum, IgG4-RD has been described in lymph nodes, pleura, pericardium, lung, esophagus, trachea, aorta, or vena cava (7)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Patients with sclerosing pancreatitis have high serum IgG4 concentrations, providing a useful means of distinguishing this disorder from other diseases of the pancreas or biliary tract.
Abstract: Background Sclerosing pancreatitis is a unique form of pancreatitis that is characterized by irregular narrowing of the main pancreatic duct, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the pancreas, and hypergammaglobulinemia and that responds to glucocorticoid treatment. Preliminary studies suggested that serum IgG4 concentrations are elevated in this disease but not in other diseases of the pancreas or biliary tract. Methods We measured serum IgG4 concentrations using single radial immunodiffusion and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 patients with sclerosing pancreatitis, 20 age- and sex-matched normal subjects, and 154 patients with pancreatic cancer, ordinary chronic pancreatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, or Sjogren's syndrome. Serum concentrations of immune complexes and the IgG4 subclass of immune complexes were determined by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal rheumatoid factor. Results The median serum IgG4 concentration in the patients ...

2,168 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Several authors have reported a case of chronic pancreatitis associated with Sjogren's syndrome in which an autoimmune mechanism may have been involved in the etiology and in which steroid therapy was effective. We recently encountered a patient with pancreatitis who had hyperglobulinemia, was autoantibody-positive, and responded to steroid therapy. This patient, however, failed to show any evidence of association with Sjogren's syndrome or other collagen diseases. Although the concept of autoimmune hepatitis and the criteria for diagnosing it have been established, autoimmune pancreatitis has not yet been defined as a clinical entity. We report a case of chronic pancreatitis in which an autoimmune mechanism is involved in the etiology and summarize the cases of pancreatitis suspected of being caused by an autoimmune mechanism in the Japanese and English literature.

1,245 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An elevated serum titer of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), the least common of the 4 subclasses of IgG, is a surrogate marker for the recently characterized IgG4-related sclerosing disease, which affects predominantly middle-aged and elderly patients, with male predominance.
Abstract: An elevated serum titer of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), the least common (3% to 6%) of the 4 subclasses of IgG, is a surrogate marker for the recently characterized IgG4-related sclerosing disease. The syndrome affects predominantly middle-aged and elderly patients, with male predominance. The patients present with symptoms referable to the involvement of 1 or more sites, usually in the form of mass lesions. The prototype is IgG4-related sclerosing pancreatitis (also known as autoimmune pancreatitis), most commonly presenting as painless obstructive jaundice with or without a pancreatic mass. Other common sites of involvement are the hepatobiliary tract, salivary gland, orbit, and lymph node, but practically any organ-site can be affected, such as retroperitoneum, aorta, mediastinum, soft tissue, skin, central nervous system, breast, kidney, prostate, upper aerodigestive tract, and lung. The patients usually have a good general condition, with no fever or constitutional symptoms. Common laboratory findings include raised serum globulin, IgG, IgG4, and IgE, whereas lactate dehydrogenase is usually not raised. Some patients have low titers of autoantibodies (such as antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor). The disease often shows excellent response to steroid therapy. The natural history is characterized by the development of multiple sites of involvement with time, sometimes after many years. However, the disease can remain localized to 1 site in occasional patients. The main pathologic findings in various extranodal sites include lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, lymphoid follicle formation, sclerosis and obliterative phlebitis, accompanied by atrophy and loss of the specialized structures of the involved tissue (such as secretory acini in pancreas, salivary gland, or lacrimal gland). The relative predominance of the lymphoplasmacytic and sclerotic components results in 3 histologic patterns: pseudolymphomatous, mixed, and sclerosing. Immunostaining shows increased IgG4+ cells in the involved tissues (>50 per high-power field, with IgG4/IgG ratio >40%). The lymph nodes show multicentric Castleman disease-like features, reactive follicular hyperplasia, interfollicular expansion, or progressive transformation of germinal centers, with the unifying feature being an increase in IgG4+ plasma cells on immunostaining. The nature and pathogenesis of IgG4-related sclerosing disease are still elusive. Occasionally, the disease can be complicated by the development of malignant lymphoma and possibly carcinoma.

388 citations


"Immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosin..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In addition, the clinically characteristic finding of this disease is high serum IgG4 concentrations [2]....

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  • ...This elevated serum IgG4 level is related to disease activity and the involved organs [2]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: IgG4-related diseases show a greater variety of pulmonary and pleural lesions than previously thought, and it is important to know the morphologic variety and clinicopathologic characteristics of this disorder.
Abstract: Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disorders can occur in the respiratory system. However, the clinicopathologic characteristics have not been well clarified. In this study, we examined clinical and pathologic features of, and follow-up data on, IgG4-related lung and pleural lesions. The patients group consisted of 17 males and 4 females with an average age of 69 years (range: 42 to 76). Pulmonary lesions in 16 patients and pleural lesions in 5 patients were examined. Histologically, all lesions showed diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Irregular fibrosis and obliterative vascular changes were more common in solid areas. Nine cases (43%) had eosinophilic infiltration with more than 5 cells per high-power field. Immunostaining revealed numerous IgG4-positive plasma cells in inflamed areas. Sclerosing inflammation was distributed with intrapulmonary connective tissue. Pulmonary lesions showed a variety of morphologic changes according to the predominant area of inflammation. Serum IgG4 concentrations were elevated in 9 of 11 patients tested (average 6.9 g/L; range 0.3 to 18.0 g/L; normal range <1.35 g/L). Extra-pulmonary and extra-pleural IgG4-related lesions were identified in 9 patients (43%), and developed simultaneously or asynchronously during follow up. All patients treated with steroids responded, but some radiologic abnormalities remained in 3 patients. Interestingly, 1 patient was found to have a primary adenocarcinoma against a background of IgG4-related lung disease during follow up. In conclusion, IgG4-related diseases show a greater variety of pulmonary and pleural lesions than previously thought. It is important, therefore, to know the morphologic variety and clinicopathologic characteristics of this disorder.

289 citations


"Immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosin..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In addition, this disease resembles Castleman disease, but interleukin-6 or IgG4 would be useful for a different diagnosis [4]....

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