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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM10050983

Immunohistochemical Detection of Potential Microbial Antigens in Granulomas in the Diagnosis of Sarcoidosis.

02 Mar 2021-Journal of Clinical Medicine (MDPI AG)-Vol. 10, Iss: 5, pp 983
Abstract: Sarcoidosis may have more than a single causative agent, including infectious and non-infectious agents. Among the potential infectious causes of sarcoidosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Propionibacterium acnes are the most likely microorganisms. Potential latent infection by both microorganisms complicates the findings of molecular and immunologic studies. Immune responses to potential infectious agents of sarcoidosis should be considered together with the microorganisms detected in sarcoid granulomas, because immunologic reactivities to infectious agents reflect current and past infection, including latent infection unrelated to the cause of the granuloma formation. Histopathologic data more readily support P. acnes as a cause of sarcoidosis compared with M. tuberculosis, suggesting that normally symbiotic P. acnes leads to granuloma formation in some predisposed individuals with Th1 hypersensitivity against intracellular proliferation of latent P. acnes, which may be triggered by certain host or drug-induced conditions. Detection of bacterial nucleic acids in granulomas does not necessarily indicate co-localization of the bacterial proteins in the granulomas. In the histopathologic diagnosis of sarcoidosis, M. tuberculosis-associated and P. acnes-associated sarcoidosis will possibly be differentiated in some patients by immunohistochemistry with appropriate antibodies that specifically react with mycobacterial and propionibacterial antigens, respectively, for each etiology-based diagnosis and potential antimicrobial intervention against sarcoidosis.

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Topics: Propionibacterium acnes (57%), Tuberculosis (50%)

5 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FMICB.2021.673845
Abstract: The bacterial species Cutibacterium acnes (formerly known as Propionibacterium acnes) is tightly associated with humans. It is the dominant bacterium in sebaceous regions of the human skin, where it preferentially colonizes the pilosebaceous unit. Multiple strains of C. acnes that belong to phylogenetically distinct types can co-exist. In this review we summarize and discuss the current knowledge of C. acnes regarding bacterial properties and traits that allow host colonization and play major roles in host-bacterium interactions and also regarding the host responses that C. acnes can trigger. These responses can have beneficial or detrimental consequences for the host. In the first part of the review, we highlight and critically review disease associations of C. acnes, in particular acne vulgaris, implant-associated infections and native infections. Here, we also analyse the current evidence for a direct or indirect role of a C. acnes-related dysbiosis in disease development or progression, i.e., reduced C. acnes strain diversity and/or the predominance of a certain phylotype. In the second part of the review, we highlight historical and recent findings demonstrating beneficial aspects of colonization by C. acnes such as colonization resistance, immune system interactions, and oxidant protection, and discuss the molecular mechanisms behind these effects. This new insight led to efforts in skin microbiota manipulation, such as the use of C. acnes strains as probiotic options to treat skin disorders.

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4 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ANAEROBE.2021.102411
12 Jul 2021-Anaerobe
Abstract: In 2016, a new species name Cutibacterium acnes was coined for the well-documented species, Propionibacterium acnes, one of the most successful and clinically important skin commensals. The nomenclatural changes were brought about through creation of the genus Cutibacterium, when a group of propionibacteria isolates from the skin were transferred from the genus Propionibacterium and placed in the phylum Actinobacteria. Almost simultaneously, the discovery of two novel species of Cutibacterium occurred and the proposal of three subspecies of C. acnes were reported. These dramatic changes that occurred in a long-established taxon made it challenging for the non-specialist to correlate the huge volume of hitherto published work with current findings. In this review, we aim to correlate the eco-specificity and pathophysiological properties of these newly circumscribed taxa. We envisage that this information will shed light on the pathogenic potential of new isolates and enable better assessment of their clinical importance in the foreseeable future. Currently, five species are recognized within the genus: Cutibacterium acnes, Cutibacterium avidum, Cutibacterium granulosum, Cutibacterium modestum (previously, “Propionibacterium humerusii”), and Cutibacterium namnetense. These reside in different niches reflecting their uniqueness in their genetic makeup. Their pathogenicity includes acne inflammation, sarcoidosis, progressive macular hypomelanosis, prostate cancer, and infections (bone, lumbar disc, and heart). This is also the case for the three newly described subspecies of C. acnes, which are C. acnes subspecies acnes (C. acnes type I), subspecies defendens (C. acnes type II), and subspecies elongatum (C. acnes type III). C. acnes subspecies acnes is related to inflamed acne and sarcoidosis, while subspecies defendens to prostate cancer and subspecies elongatum to progressive macular hypomelanosis. Because the current nomenclature is based upon polyphasic analyses of the biochemical and pathogenic characteristics and comparative genomics, it provides a sound basis studying the pathophysiological roles of these species.

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Topics: Subspecies (56%), Propionibacterium acnes (55%), Genus (51%)

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MICROORGANISMS9081668
Takuma Isshiki1, Sakae Homma1, Yoshinobu Eishi2, Matsuko Yabe1  +11 moreInstitutions (4)
04 Aug 2021-
Abstract: Propionibacterium acnes is implicated in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. We investigated the usefulness of immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a commercially available P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody (PAB antibody) for differentiating sarcoidosis from other granulomatous diseases. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 94 sarcoidosis patients and 30 control patients with other granulomatous diseases were examined by the original manual IHC method. We also compared the detection frequency of P. acnes in sarcoid granulomas between manual and automated IHC methods. P. acnes was detected in sarcoid granulomas of samples obtained by transbronchial lung biopsy (64%), video-associated thoracic surgery (67%), endobronchial-ultrasound-guided transbronchial-needle aspiration (32%), lymph node biopsy (80%), and skin biopsy (80%) from sarcoidosis patients, but not in any non-sarcoid granulomas of the samples obtained from control patients. P. acnes outside granulomas, however, was frequently detected in both groups. The detection status of P. acnes in granulomas did not correlate with the clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis patients. The automated Leica system exhibited the best detection sensitivity (72%) and almost an identical localization for P. acnes in sarcoid granulomas compared with the manual method. IHC with a PAB antibody is useful for differentiating sarcoidosis from other granulomatous diseases by detecting P. acnes in granulomas. An automated method by the Leica system can be used in pathology laboratories for differential diagnosis of granulomas by IHC with the PAB antibody.

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Topics: Propionibacterium acnes (55%), Granuloma (53%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JCM10132780
Claudio Tana, Cosima Schiavone1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease that raises several diagnostic difficulties in routine clinical practice due to its multisystemic involvement and the presence of nonspecific clinical pictures, except in some isolated cases [...]

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPHYS.2021.715852
Yanping Zheng1, Ying Ran1, Hongxia Zhang1, Bangmao Wang1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Recent studies have identified the critical role of microbiota in the pathophysiology of autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs), including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Metagenomic studies reveal significant decrease of gut bacterial diversity in AILDs. Although profiles of metagenomic vary widely, Veillonella is commonly enriched in AIH, PBC, and PSC. Apart from gut microbiome, the oral and bile microbiome seem to be associated with these diseases as well. The functional analysis of metagenomics suggests that metabolic pathways changed in the gut microbiome of the patients. Microbial metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and microbial bile acid metabolites, have been shown to modulate innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and inflammation. Taken together, the evidence of host-microbiome interactions and in-depth mechanistic studies needs further accumulation, which will offer more possibilities to clarify the mechanisms of AILDs and provide potential molecular targets for the prevention and treatment in the future.

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86 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/IAI.67.8.3703-3713.1999
Abstract: While preparing to teach the Microbial Pathogenesis graduate course at our institution, we found ourselves struggling to find basic definitions of virulence and pathogenicity that incorporated the contributions of both the host and the pathogen. The generally used definition of a pathogen as a microbe that causes disease in a host (Table 1) seemed inadequate, because some microbes do not cause clinically evident disease in all hosts. As we investigated the origins of the modern concepts of microbial pathogenesis, we found that while the importance of a host’s susceptibility for a microbe’s virulence was often recognized, the existing definitions did not account for the contributions of both pathogen and host. Historical definitions of pathogens were based on their ability to cause disease as an invariant trait. An integrated view of microbial pathogenesis accounting for the contributions of both host and pathogen has not been developed. In this article, we review historical concepts of microbial pathogenicity and virulence, propose new definitions, and suggest a classification system for microbial pathogens based on their ability to cause damage as a function of the host’s immune response.

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Topics: Virulence (55%)

621 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03493-0
23 Dec 2000-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background A third of the world's population has latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and in areas of low endemicity, most cases of active tuberculosis arise as a result of reactivation of latent bacilli. We sought to establish the cellular location of these latent organisms to facilitate their elimination. Methods We applied in-situ PCR to sections of macroscopically normal lung tissue from 13 individuals from Ethiopia and 34 from Mexico who had died from causes other than tuberculosis. Sections of lung tissue from six Norwegian individuals (ie, individuals from a non-endemic population) acted as negative controls, and six Ethiopian tuberculosis cases acted as positive controls. Findings Control necropsy samples from the Norwegian individuals were all negative by in-situ PCR and conventional PCR, whereas all samples from known Ethiopian tuberculosis cases were positive by both methods. However, in macroscopically normal lung tissue from Ethiopian and Mexican individuals without tuberculous lesions, the in-situ PCR revealed five of 13 and ten of 34 positive individuals, respectively. These results were confirmed by conventional PCR with extracted DNA. Positive cells included alveolar and interstitial macrophages, type II pneumocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. Interpretation M tuberculosis can persist intracellularly in lung tissue without histological evidence of tuberculous lesions. M tuberculosis DNA is situated not only in macrophages but also in other non-professional phagocytic cells. These findings contradict the dominant view that latent organisms exist in old classic tuberculous lesions, and have important implications for strategies aimed at the elimination of latent and persistent bacilli.

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Topics: Tuberculosis (58%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (56%), Population (53%)

372 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1128/JCM.40.1.198-204.2002
Yoshinobu Eishi1, Moritaka Suga2, Ikuo Ishige1, Daisuke Kobayashi1  +13 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: The cause(s) of sarcoidosis is unknown. Mycobacterium spp. are suspected in Europe and Propionibacterium spp. are suspected in Japan. The present international collaboration evaluated the possible etiological links between sarcoidosis and the suspected bacterial species. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded sections of biopsy samples of lymph nodes, one from each of 108 patients with sarcoidosis and 65 patients with tuberculosis, together with 86 control samples, were collected from two institutes in Japan and three institutes in Italy, Germany, and England. Genomes of Propionibacterium acnes, Propionibacterium granulosum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and Escherichia coli (as the control) were counted by quantitative real-time PCR. Either P. acnes or P. granulosum was found in all but two of the sarcoid samples. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was found in no sarcoid sample. M. tuberculosis was found in 0 to 9% of the sarcoid samples but in 65 to 100% of the tuberculosis samples. In sarcoid lymph nodes, the total numbers of genomes of P. acnes or P. granulosum were far more than those of M. tuberculosis. P. acnes or P. granulosum was found in 0 to 60% of the tuberculosis and control samples, but the total numbers of genomes of P. acnes or P. granulosum in such samples were less than those in sarcoid samples. Propionibacterium spp. are more likely than Mycobacteria spp. to be involved in the etiology of sarcoidosis, not only in Japanese but also in European patients with sarcoidosis.

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Topics: Propionibacterium acnes (55%), Paratuberculosis (53%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (52%) ... read more

355 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1084/JEM.20040429
Abstract: Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by noncaseating epithelioid granulomas, oligoclonal CD4+ T cell infiltrates, and immune complex formation. To identify pathogenic antigens relevant to immune-mediated granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis, we used a limited proteomics approach to detect tissue antigens that were poorly soluble in neutral detergent and resistant to protease digestion, consistent with the known biochemical properties of granuloma-inducing sarcoidosis tissue extracts. Tissue antigens with these characteristics were detected with immunoglobulin (Ig)G or F(ab′)2 fragments from the sera of sarcoidosis patients in 9 of 12 (75%) sarcoidosis tissues (150–160, 80, or 60–64 kD) but only 3 of 22 (14%) control tissues (all 62–64 kD; P = 0.0006). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase–peroxidase (mKatG) as one of these tissue antigens. Protein immunoblotting using anti-mKatG monoclonal antibodies independently confirmed the presence of mKatG in 5 of 9 (55%) sarcoidosis tissues but in none of 14 control tissues (P = 0.0037). IgG antibodies to recombinant mKatG were detected in the sera of 12 of 25 (48%) sarcoidosis patients compared with 0 of 11 (0%) purified protein derivative (PPD)− (P = 0.0059) and 4 of 10 (40%) PPD+ (P = 0.7233) control subjects, suggesting that remnant mycobacterial catalase–peroxidase is one target of the adaptive immune response driving granulomatous inflammation in sarcoidosis.

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Topics: Immune complex formation (55%), Antigen (54%), Antibody (51%) ... read more

293 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IMMUNI.2015.10.016
17 Nov 2015-Immunity
Abstract: The skin is a site of constant dialog between the immune system and commensal bacteria. However, the molecular mechanisms that allow us to tolerate the presence of skin commensals without eliciting destructive inflammation are unknown. Using a model system to study the antigen-specific response to S. epidermidis, we demonstrated that skin colonization during a defined period of neonatal life was required for establishing immune tolerance to commensal microbes. This crucial window was characterized by an abrupt influx of highly activated regulatory T (Treg) cells into neonatal skin. Selective inhibition of this Treg cell wave completely abrogated tolerance. Thus, the host-commensal relationship in the skin relied on a unique Treg cell population that mediated tolerance to bacterial antigens during a defined developmental window. This suggests that the cutaneous microbiome composition in neonatal life is crucial in shaping adaptive immune responses to commensals, and disrupting these interactions might have enduring health implications.

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Topics: Immune tolerance (59%), Microbiome (54%), Immune system (52%) ... read more

286 Citations