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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.621706

Immunoinformatics Design of Multi-Epitope Peptide-Based Vaccine Against Schistosoma mansoni Using Transmembrane Proteins as a Target.

02 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Immunology (Frontiers Media S.A.)-Vol. 12, pp 621706-621706
Abstract: Schistosomiasis remains a serious health issue nowadays for an estimated one billion people in 79 countries around the world. Great efforts have been made to identify good vaccine candidates during the last decades, but only three molecules reached clinical trials so far. The reverse vaccinology approach has become an attractive option for vaccine design, especially regarding parasites like Schistosoma spp. that present limitations for culture maintenance. This strategy also has prompted the construction of multi-epitope based vaccines, with great immunological foreseen properties as well as being less prone to contamination, autoimmunity, and allergenic responses. Therefore, in this study we applied a robust immunoinformatics approach, targeting S. mansoni transmembrane proteins, in order to construct a chimeric antigen. Initially, the search for all hypothetical transmembrane proteins in GeneDB provided a total of 584 sequences. Using the PSORT II and CCTOP servers we reduced this to 37 plasma membrane proteins, from which extracellular domains were used for epitope prediction. Nineteen common MHC-I and MHC-II binding epitopes, from eight proteins, comprised the final multi-epitope construct, along with suitable adjuvants. The final chimeric multi-epitope vaccine was predicted as prone to induce B-cell and IFN-γ based immunity, as well as presented itself as stable and non-allergenic molecule. Finally, molecular docking and molecular dynamics foresee stable interactions between the putative antigen and the immune receptor TLR 4. Our results indicate that the multi-epitope vaccine might stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses and could be a potential vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis.

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Topics: Reverse vaccinology (55%), Epitope (52%)

9 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/VACCINES9060658
Abdur Rehman1, Sajjad Ahmad2, Farah Shahid1, Aqel Albutti3  +6 moreInstitutions (4)
16 Jun 2021-Vaccine
Abstract: Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. Infections of parasitic blood flukes, known as schistosomes, cause the disease. No vaccine is available yet and thus there is a need to design an effective vaccine against schistosomiasis. Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma haematobium are the main pathogenic species that infect humans. In this research, core proteomics was combined with a subtractive proteomics pipeline to identify suitable antigenic proteins for the construction of a multi-epitope vaccine (MEV) against human-infecting Schistosoma species. The pipeline revealed two antigenic proteins—calcium binding and mycosubtilin synthase subunit C—as promising vaccine targets. T and B cell epitopes from the targeted proteins were predicted using multiple bioinformatics and immunoinformatics databases. Seven cytotoxic T cell lymphocytes (CTL), three helper T cell lymphocytes (HTL), and four linear B cell lymphocytes (LBL) epitopes were fused with a suitable adjuvant and linkers to design a 217 amino-acid-long MEV. The vaccine was coupled with a TLR-4 agonist (RS-09; Sequence: APPHALS) adjuvant to enhance the immune responses. The designed MEV was stable, highly antigenic, and non-allergenic to human use. Molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area (MMGBSA) analysis were performed to study the binding affinity and molecular interactions of the MEV with human immune receptors (TLR2 and TLR4) and MHC molecules (MHC I and MHC II). The MEV expression capability was tested in an Escherichia coli (strain-K12) plasmid vector pET-28a(+). Findings of these computer assays proved the MEV as highly promising in establishing protective immunity against the pathogens; nevertheless, additional validation by in vivo and in vitro experiments is required to discuss its real immune-protective efficacy.

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Topics: Epitope (55%), Schistosoma mansoni (54%), Mycosubtilin (53%) ... show more

9 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.711650
Abstract: Helminths contribute a larger global burden of disease than both malaria and tuberculosis. These eukaryotes have caused human infections since before our earliest recorded history (i.e.: earlier than 1200 B.C. for Schistosoma spp.). Despite the prevalence and importance of these infections, helminths are considered a neglected tropical disease for which there are no vaccines approved for human use. Similar to other parasites, helminths are complex organisms which employ a plethora of features such as: complex life cycles, chronic infections, and antigenic mimicry to name a few, making them difficult to target by conventional vaccine strategies. With novel vaccine strategies such as viral vectors and genetic elements, numerous constructs are being defined for a wide range of helminth parasites; however, it has yet to be discussed which of these approaches may be the most effective. With human trials being conducted, and a pipeline of potential anti-helminthic antigens, greater understanding of helminth vaccine-induced immunity is necessary for the development of potent vaccine platforms and their optimal design. This review outlines the conventional and the most promising approaches in clinical and preclinical helminth vaccinology.

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1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FVETS.2021.721061
Abstract: Avian mycoplasma is a bacterial disease causing chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in poultry industries with high economic losses. The eradication of this disease still remains as a challenge. A multi-epitope prophylactic vaccine aiming the antigenic proteins of Mycoplasma gallisepticum can be a capable candidate to eradicate this infection. The present study is focused to design a multi-epitope vaccine candidate consisting of cytotoxic T-cell (CTL), helper T-cell (HTL), and B-cell epitopes of antigenic proteins, using immunoinformatics strategies. The multi-epitopic vaccine was designed, and its tertiary model was predcited, which was further refined and validated by computational tools. After initial validation, molecular docking was performed between multi-epitope vaccine construct and chicken TLR-2 and 5 receptors, which predicted effective binding. The in silico results specify the structural stability, precise specificity, and immunogenic response of the designed multi-epitope vaccine, and it could be an appropriate vaccine candidate for the M. gallisepticum infection.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.SJBS.2021.09.061
Samavia Zafar1, Huma Ajab1, Zaib-un-nisa Mughal2, Jawaid Ahmed zai2  +7 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Salmonella enteric serovar Typhimurium is the most common enteric pathogen in humans and animals. Consumption of contaminated food or water triggers inflammation that allows Salmonella to spread into the gut and causes gastrointestinal diseases. The infection spreads by intestinal invasion, phagocyte internalization and subsequent dissemination in many other patients. This research used TolA, a Salmonella typhimurium membrane protein, to computationally design a multi-epitope vaccine against the pathogen. Complete consistency of the candidate vaccine was checked In silico, and molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the vaccine's stability. According to docking report, the vaccine has a good affinity with toll-like receptors. In silico cloning and codon optimization techniques improved the vaccine's efficacy in Salmonella typhimurium manifestation process. The candidate vaccine induced an efficient immune response, as determined by In silico immune simulation. Computational studies revealed that the engineered multi-epitope vaccine is structurally stable, capable of eliciting particular immunological reactions, and therefore a candidate for a latent Salmonella typhimurium vaccine. However, wet lab studies and further investigations are required to confirm the results.

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Topics: Salmonella (54%)

Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.09.24.461620
24 Sep 2021-bioRxiv
Abstract: Background Common warts and flat warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Peak incidence of wart infection occurs in schoolchildren aged 12-16, where prevalence can be as high as 20%. Traditional treatments aimed at destruction of wart tissue have low clearance rates and high recurrence rates. Occasional reports have even shown warts becoming malignant and progressing into verrucous carcinoma. Current licensed HPV vaccines largely target higher-risk oncogenic HPV types, but do not provide coverage of low-risk types associated with warts. To date, little attention has been given to the development of effective, anti-viral wart treatments. Objective This study aims to identify immunodominant T-lymphocyte epitopes from the L1 major capsid protein of HPV 1, 2 and 3, a foundational step in bioengineering a peptide-based vaccine for warts. Methods Cytotoxic T-cell and helper T-cell epitopes were predicted using an array of immunoinformatic tools against a reference panel of frequently observed MHC-I and MHC-II alleles. Predicted peptides were ranked based on IC50 and IFN-γ Inducer Scores, respectively, and top performing epitopes were synthesized and subjected to in vitro screening by IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot). Independent trials were conducted using PBMCs of healthy volunteers. Final chosen peptides were fused with flexible GS linkers in silico to design a novel polypeptide vaccine. Results Seven immunodominant peptides screened from 44 predicted peptides were included in the vaccine design, selected to elicit specific immune responses across MHC class I and class II, and across HPV types. Evaluation of the vaccine’s properties suggest that the vaccine is stable, non-allergenic, and provides near complete global population coverage (>99%). Solubility prediction and rare codon analysis indicate that the DNA sequence encoding the vaccine is suitable for high level expression in Escherichia coli. Conclusions In sum, this study demonstrates the potential and lays the framework for the development of a peptide-based vaccine against warts.

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Topics: Common warts (59%), Epitope (52%), HPV vaccines (50%)


84 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/JCC.20291
David van der Spoel1, Erik Lindahl2, Berk Hess3, Gerrit Groenhof4  +2 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: This article describes the software suite GROMACS (Groningen MAchine for Chemical Simulation) that was developed at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in the early 1990s. The software, written in ANSI C, originates from a parallel hardware project, and is well suited for parallelization on processor clusters. By careful optimization of neighbor searching and of inner loop performance, GROMACS is a very fast program for molecular dynamics simulation. It does not have a force field of its own, but is compatible with GROMOS, OPLS, AMBER, and ENCAD force fields. In addition, it can handle polarizable shell models and flexible constraints. The program is versatile, as force routines can be added by the user, tabulated functions can be specified, and analyses can be easily customized. Nonequilibrium dynamics and free energy determinations are incorporated. Interfaces with popular quantum-chemical packages (MOPAC, GAMES-UK, GAUSSIAN) are provided to perform mixed MM/QM simulations. The package includes about 100 utility and analysis programs. GROMACS is in the public domain and distributed (with source code and documentation) under the GNU General Public License. It is maintained by a group of developers from the Universities of Groningen, Uppsala, and Stockholm, and the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz. Its Web site is

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Topics: Software suite (50%)

10,642 Citations

Book ChapterDOI: 10.1385/1-59259-584-7:531
Abstract: Protein identification and analysis software performs a central role in the investigation of proteins from two-dimensional (2-D) gels and mass spectrometry. For protein identification, the user matches certain empirically acquired information against a protein database to define a protein as already known or as novel. For protein analysis, information in protein databases can be used to predict certain properties about a protein, which can be useful for its empirical investigation. The two processes are thus complementary. Although there are numerous programs available for those applications, we have developed a set of original tools with a few main goals in mind. Specifically, these are: 1. To utilize the extensive annotation available in the Swiss-Prot database wherever possible, in particular the position-specific annotation in the Swiss-Prot feature tables to take into account posttranslational modifications and protein processing. 2. To develop tools specifically, but not exclusively, applicable to proteins prepared by two dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting experiments. 3. To make all tools available on the World-Wide Web (WWW), and freely usable by the scientific community. In this chapter we give details about protein identification and analysis software that is available through the ExPASy World Wide Web server.

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Topics: Protein structure database (61%), ExPASy (54%)

6,688 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NPROT.2010.5
25 Mar 2010-Nature Protocols
Abstract: The iterative threading assembly refinement (I-TASSER) server is an integrated platform for automated protein structure and function prediction based on the sequence-to-structure-to-function paradigm. Starting from an amino acid sequence, I-TASSER first generates three-dimensional (3D) atomic models from multiple threading alignments and iterative structural assembly simulations. The function of the protein is then inferred by structurally matching the 3D models with other known proteins. The output from a typical server run contains full-length secondary and tertiary structure predictions, and functional annotations on ligand-binding sites, Enzyme Commission numbers and Gene Ontology terms. An estimate of accuracy of the predictions is provided based on the confidence score of the modeling. This protocol provides new insights and guidelines for designing of online server systems for the state-of-the-art protein structure and function predictions. The server is available at

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5,124 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/PROT.10286
15 Feb 2003-Proteins
Abstract: Geometrical validation around the Calpha is described, with a new Cbeta measure and updated Ramachandran plot. Deviation of the observed Cbeta atom from ideal position provides a single measure encapsulating the major structure-validation information contained in bond angle distortions. Cbeta deviation is sensitive to incompatibilities between sidechain and backbone caused by misfit conformations or inappropriate refinement restraints. A new phi,psi plot using density-dependent smoothing for 81,234 non-Gly, non-Pro, and non-prePro residues with B < 30 from 500 high-resolution proteins shows sharp boundaries at critical edges and clear delineation between large empty areas and regions that are allowed but disfavored. One such region is the gamma-turn conformation near +75 degrees,-60 degrees, counted as forbidden by common structure-validation programs; however, it occurs in well-ordered parts of good structures, it is overrepresented near functional sites, and strain is partly compensated by the gamma-turn H-bond. Favored and allowed phi,psi regions are also defined for Pro, pre-Pro, and Gly (important because Gly phi,psi angles are more permissive but less accurately determined). Details of these accurate empirical distributions are poorly predicted by previous theoretical calculations, including a region left of alpha-helix, which rates as favorable in energy yet rarely occurs. A proposed factor explaining this discrepancy is that crowding of the two-peptide NHs permits donating only a single H-bond. New calculations by Hu et al. [Proteins 2002 (this issue)] for Ala and Gly dipeptides, using mixed quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics, fit our nonrepetitive data in excellent detail. To run our geometrical evaluations on a user-uploaded file, see MOLPROBITY ( or RAMPAGE (

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Topics: Ramachandran plot (52%)

3,666 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60692-4
Theo Vos1, Ryan M Barber1, Brad Bell1, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa1  +686 moreInstitutions (287)
22 Aug 2015-The Lancet
Abstract: Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. Methods Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries. Findings Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2.4 billion and 1.6 billion, respectively. The distribution of the number of sequelae in populations varied widely across regions, with an expected relation between age and disease prevalence. YLDs for both sexes increased from 537.6 million in 1990 to 764.8 million in 2013 due to population growth and ageing, whereas the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114.87 per 1000 people to 110.31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated the main drivers of increases were due to musculoskeletal, mental, and substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases; however HIV/AIDS was a notable driver of increasing YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the proportion of disability-adjusted life years due to YLDs increased globally from 21.1% in 1990 to 31.2% in 2013. Interpretation Ageing of the world's population is leading to a substantial increase in the numbers of individuals with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Rates of YLDs are declining much more slowly than mortality rates. The non-fatal dimensions of disease and injury will require more and more attention from health systems. The transition to non-fatal outcomes as the dominant source of burden of disease is occurring rapidly outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results can guide future health initiatives through examination of epidemiological trends and a better understanding of variation across countries.

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Topics: Mortality rate (55%), Population (53%), Comorbidity (52%) ... show more

3,627 Citations

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