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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/263/6/062074

Impact and modal analysis for different alloy wheel compositions

01 Nov 2017-Vol. 263, Iss: 6, pp 062074
Abstract: Wheels are an important component in the vehicle. The strength of the Alloy wheel rim is an important property of the Alloy wheel, which plays an important part in determining the overall performance of the vehicle, the structural integrity of the rim and the life of the Alloy wheel rim. With the advent of new Alloy wheel materials, new options are available to replace the conventional Aluminium Alloy wheels with new ones. The new Alloy wheel rim material and design need to be tested virtually for optimizing the appropriate design and material and the optimised wheel in virtual mode can be tested experimentally for the performance in real-time conditions before they can be used in the vehicles. The work in this project includes doing the impact and modal analysis for different alloy wheel compositions. From the results obtained, the optimum alloy wheel is suggested, which can be considered with further experimental validation.

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Topics: Alloy wheel (69%)
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1177/0954408920930634
19 Jun 2020-
Abstract: In this study, an attempt was made to utilize waste products from industries to develop composite materials. In the present study, car scrap aluminium alloy wheels (SAAWs) was used as matrix materi...

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Topics: Scrap (59%), Hazardous waste (50%)

16 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.24018/EJERS.2020.5.11.2224
Abstract: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24018/ejers.2020.5.11.2224 Vol 5 | Issue 11 | November 2020 1 Abstract — In this paper, an efficient, affordable, and portable manual automobile tyre changing tool was designed. The tool operates on the principle of second-class levers, where the load to be overcome is situated between the fulcrum and the effort point. The mechanical advantage (MA) of the bead breaker arm and pry bar assembly of the tool was determined to be 11.5. The standard tube size of the bead breaker arm that can withstand stress due to bending moment was determined to be a 2” (50mm) diameter Schedule 80 steel tube. Also, the dimensions of the standard hexagonal bolts to be used at the fulcrum and load point of the bead breaker arm are M12 × 1.5 × 75 mm, while the standard size of hexagonal nuts to be used with the bolts is M12 × 1.5 mm with a height of 10mm. Moreover, the mechanical advantage (MA) of the mount/demount arm and pry bar assembly of the tool was determined to be 5.22. Also, by comparing the angles of twist of two sizes of the mount/demount arm when the tool is used in mounting or demounting a tyre on a 16” × 7” wheel rim, the standard size of the mount/demount arm that can withstand stresses due to bending moment and torsional moment was determined to be a 60mm × 60mm × 5mm square tube. The cost of materials needed to fabricate the tyre changer summed up to ₦21,000. Ergo, the design provides an alternative portable and relatively affordable tyre changing tool that can be afforded by tyre technicians across Nigeria, and other developing or underdeveloped countries.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.33130/AJCT.2021V07I01.015
05 Apr 2021-
Abstract: Due to many unexpected harsh environmental conditions of the road, automotive wheel is a vital part to ensure the vehicle safety and performance. ISO-3006 provides a comprehensive fatigue life experiment to validate proper wheels. This article is investigating a car wheel under the dynamic radial fatigue test of the ISO standard. This study aims to compare five different commercially available materials of the wheel concerning the ISO test conditions. As the wheel rim weight has a great impact on the performance of the vehicle, this comparison is considering the weight of the wheel made of various materials. The test is simulated via ANSYS software with a dens mesh to ensure the highest possible accuracy of results. Among selected materials, the CFRP is demonstrating the best fatigue strength to weight ratio in ISO radial fatigue test.

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Topics: Fatigue limit (54%)


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.14419/IJET.V9I4.31206
Abstract: With the technological advancement in the automotive sector, the vehicles are crossing their limits in every aspect. Hence, the subsequent improvement related to the wheel and braking of the vehicle is very crucial as the wheel carries the whole weight of the vehicle in dynamic and harsh environmental conditions. ISO-3006 is a comprehensive test for wheel standardization, and the dynamic cornering fatigue test is a part of this standard. This test investigates the wheel fatigue under bending torque. When a car turns, the bending moment is applied to the wheel via drive axle. In this paper, we investigate the test on a designed wheel with five different materials via ANSYS software. As the wheel weight has a direct impact on vehicle performance, selecting lighter materials is extremely important. The result of this research indi-cates the area of maximum fatigue stresses, and also it provides a comparison between five popular materials for the wheel rim considering the fatigue life and weight of the wheel. Finally, it is shown that carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) has the most fatigue strength con-cerning its lightweight.

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1046/J.1460-2695.2000.00239.X
Gall1, Yang1, Horstemeyer1, McDowell2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: r Mechanical fatigue tests were conducted on uniaxial specimens machined from a cast A356-T6 aluminium alloy plate at total strain amplitudes ranging from 0.1 to 0.8% (R = - 1). The cast alloy contains strontium-modified silicon particles (vol. fract. ∼6%) within an Al-Si eutectic, dispersed a intermetallic particles, Al 15 (Fe,Mn) 3 Si 2 (vol. fract. ∼1%), and an extremely low overall volume fraction of porosity (0.01%). During the initial stages of the fatigue process, we observed that a small semicircular fatigue crack propagated almost exclusively through the Al-1% Si dendrite cells. The small crack avoided the modified silicon particles in the Al-Si eutectic and only propagated along the a intermetallics if they were directly in line with the crack plane. These growth characteristics were observed up to a maximum stress intensity factor of ∼K tr max = 7.0 MPa m 1/2 (maximum plastic zone size of 96 μm). When the fatigue crack propagated with a maximum crack tip driving force above 7.0 MPa m 1/2 the larger fatigue crack tip process zone fractured an increased number of silicon particles and a intermetallics ahead of the crack tip, and the crack subsequently propagated preferentially through the damaged regions. As the crack tip driving force further increased, the area fraction of damaged a intermetallics and silicon particles on the fatigue fracture surfaces also increased. The final stage of failure (fast fracture) was observed to occur almost exclusively through the Al-Si eutectic regions and the a intermetallics.

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Topics: Crack closure (69%), Crack growth resistance curve (63%), Fracture mechanics (57%) ...read more

73 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MATDES.2015.12.096
Dongfang Zeng1, Liantao Lu1, Yanhua Gong, Ning Zhang1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
15 Feb 2016-Materials & Design
Abstract: For the purpose of developing a railway wheel steel with a good combination of strength and toughness, an improved wheel steel containing high contents of Si and Mn and a low content of Cr was developed. Microstructures and mechanical properties of the improved wheel steel at different depths in the wheel rim were evaluated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, tensile, hardness and Charpy impact tests, with a comparison to two traditional wheel steels. The results indicate that the improved wheel steel has a higher strength without impairing its impact toughness. The improved steel is hardened by solid solution strengthening and refinement of pearlite interlamellar spacing, while the impact absorbed energy is raised by increasing the proeutectoid ferrite fraction. The hardness of materials reduces with an increase in the depth in the wheel rim due to the increasing of proeutectoid ferrite fraction and interlamellar spacing. Materials deeper in the wheel rim exhibit a lower impact absorbed energy because of their larger interlamellar spacing and pearlite colony size. The thickness of complex layer is successfully reduced by alloy design in this study.

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Topics: Pearlite (55%), Toughness (55%), Ferrite (iron) (55%) ...read more

45 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MSEA.2007.05.068
A. Eliezer1, O. Medlinsky2, J. Haddad1, G. Ben-Hamu3Institutions (3)
Abstract: The fatigue and mechanochemical behavior of die-cast AZ91D (Mg–9% Al–l% Zn) and AM50 (Mg–5% Al–0.4% Mn) alloys in air, transmission oil and natural mineral oil at 25 °C were studied. New methods were developed in this research in order to achieve better understanding of the mechanochemical effects in Mg alloys during exposure to different oil environments. It is found that the mineral oil environment causes an increase in the lifetime of both alloys in comparison with the gear oil. AM50 alloy shows excellent fatigue lifetime in oil in comparison with other environments. AZ91 shows a significantly higher sensitivity to the environment in comparison with AM50 alloy.

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Topics: Corrosion fatigue (59%), Gear oil (57%), Mineral oil (56%)

14 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Thanks to the potential weight saving, aluminium castings are good candidates for automotive, electronic, aeronautic, sport equipments and other high performance products At present, one of the main limits to a wide use of aluminium alloys for these applications is a lack of complete understanding of their fatigue behaviour and of the relationships to microstructural features, particularly as far as casting alloys are concerned In this paper, the rotating bending fatigue behaviour of a cast Al-10Si-06Cu alloy has been investigated The specimens for both the fatigue tests and the microstructural analyses have been drawn directly from the rims of car wheels The wheel design influences the microstructure of the alloy, conditioning the cooling rate during solidification and, of consequence, may have important effects on the wheel fatigue performances Measurements of the sizes of the microstructural constituents, such as secondary dendrite arm spacing and of porosity, have been also carried out by means of optical microscopy, supported by an image analysis software Rotating bending fatigue tests have been performed on specimens with different types of notches In this way, after the fatigue tests, it was possible to study the effect of the wheel design and so, of stress concentrations, on the fatigue life

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Topics: Aluminium alloy (58%), Stress concentration (54%), Aluminium (50%)

7 Citations



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