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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10615-021-00795-Y

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Posttraumatic Stress, Grief, Burnout, and Secondary Trauma of Social Workers in the United St ates .

02 Mar 2021-Clinical Social Work Journal (Springer US)-Vol. 49, Iss: 4, pp 1-10
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to measure posttraumatic stress, grief, burnout, and secondary trauma experienced by employed social workers in the United States and to describe organizational support provided to social workers during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study used data from the first wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic and Emotional Well-Being Study, a prospective panel study examining the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and includes a sample of 181 social workers. We conducted univariate analyses. Over a quarter (26.21%) of social workers met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD and 16.22% reported severe grief symptoms. While 99.19% of the sample reported average to high compassion satisfaction, 63.71% reported average burnout and 49.59% reported average secondary trauma. Findings indicate that social workers are reporting higher than national estimates of PTSD, indicating a greater need for more emotional support during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the significance and severity of the pandemic, it is essential that organizations provide resources for both immediate and ongoing support for the emotional well-being of their employees.

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Topics: Compassion fatigue (59%), Grief (55%), Burnout (54%)
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/BJSW/BCAB198
Paula McFadden1, Ruth D. Neill1, John Mallett1, Jill Manthorpe2  +7 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: During the COVID-19 pandemic interest into its potential impact on mental wellbeing has intensified. Within the social care sector, the pandemic has increased job demands and prolonged stress taking a disproportionate toll on the workforce, particularly social workers. The current paper compares the mental wellbeing and quality of working life of social workers in the United Kingdom (UK) before and during the pandemic. Data were collected in 2018 (N=1195) and 2020 (N=1024) using two cross-sectional surveys. To account for the differences between the datasets, propensity score matching was employed prior to effect estimation, utilising demographic and work-related variables common to both datasets. The differences between the two time-points were estimated using multiple regressions. Both mental wellbeing and quality of working life were significantly higher during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 compared to 2018. This suggests that during the highpoint of the pandemic in the UK, increased support, and changes to working practices, such as reprioritisation of work and other initiatives, may be responsible for increased mental wellbeing and quality of working life. While acknowledging the known pressures on UK social workers during the COVID-19 pandemic this evidence suggests a mixed picture of the pandemic with lessons for managers and employers.

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Topics: Quality of working life (55%), Social work (51%), Workforce (51%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/SW/SWAB043
25 Oct 2021-Social Work
Abstract: Both media and academic reports have highlighted COVID-19's negative impacts on mental health and safety in the United States, yet care and service gaps persist. Evidence suggests that a default to in-person service delivery did not meet clients' needs before the pandemic, and that unmet needs have ballooned since COVID-19 spread throughout the United States due to a combination of increased stress, social isolation, and fewer available services during lockdowns. This article reviews literature on online interventions' utility and effectiveness in preventing and treating problems likely exacerbated under pandemic conditions, including mental health conditions, anger, couple dynamics, parenting, and alcohol misuse. The article also describes barriers to evidence-based e-interventions' wider and more consistent use, highlights some vulnerable populations' unique service needs, outlines service gaps that online programs might effectively mitigate, and offers a path by which social workers can lead an interdisciplinary charge in researching, developing, and implementing e-interventions during the current pandemic and beyond.

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Topics: Service delivery framework (56%), Psychological intervention (54%), Mental health (53%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-021-86670-9
29 Mar 2021-Scientific Reports
Abstract: Trying to manage the dramatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection spread, many countries imposed national lockdown, radically changing the routinely life of humans worldwide. We hypothesized that both the pandemic per se and the consequent socio-psychological sequelae could constitute stressors for Italian population, potentially affecting the endocrine system. This study was designed to describe the effect of lockdown-related stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in a cohort of young men. A prospective, observational clinical trial was carried out, including patients attending the male infertility outpatient clinic before and after the national lockdown for COVID-19 pandemic. The study provided a baseline visit performed before and a follow-up visit after the lockdown in 2020. During the follow-up visit, hormonal measurements, lifestyle habits and work management were recorded. Thirty-one male subjects were enrolled (mean age: 31.6 ± 6.0 years). TSH significantly decreased after lockdown (p = 0.015), whereas no significant changes were observed in the testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol and prolactin serum levels. No patient showed TSH serum levels above or below reference ranges, neither before nor after lockdown. Interestingly, TSH variation after lockdown was dependent on the working habit change during lockdown (p = 0.042). We described for the first time a TSH reduction after a stressful event in a prospective way, evaluating the HPT axis in the same population, before and after the national lockdown. This result reinforces the possible interconnection between psychological consequences of a stressful event and the endocrine regulation.

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Topics: Outpatient clinic (53%), Population (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPSYG.2021.698075
Lori R. Kogan1, Cori Bussolari2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Numerous recent studies have shown that COVID-19 and the accompanying mandated lifestyle changes have resulted in significant negative effects on people's mental health. To meet the increased need for mental health support, while also maintaining physical safety, a variety of telehealth services have been created or expanded. A body scan mindfulness program is an intervention that can easily be modified to be offered virtually. This study was designed to determine if a virtual body scan mindfulness exercise, with participants' holding their dog or a pillow/blanket, could reduce their stress and anxiety as well as that of the facilitators. Significant differences in pre/post-State Anxiety Assessment scores for participants and facilitators were found. These results are discussed within the framework of the human animal bond and the potential of this form of intervention as a useful virtual tool for participants and facilitators alike.

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Topics: Mindfulness (53%), Anxiety (51%), Mental health (50%)

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
14 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included in this Review. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.

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Topics: Quarantine (52%)

6,092 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/BF02103658
Abstract: The development of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, an instrument for assessing positive outcomes reported by persons who have experienced traumatic events, is described. This 21-item scale includes factors of New Possibilities, Relating to Others, Personal Strength, Spiritual Change, and Appreciation of Life. Women tend to report more benefits than do men, and persons who have experienced traumatic events report more positive change than do persons who have not experienced extraordinary events. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory is modestly related to optimism and extraversion. The scale appears to have utility in determining how successful individuals, coping with the aftermath of trauma, are in reconstructing or strengthening their perceptions of self, others, and the meaning of events.

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3,602 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10705500802222972
Bruce W. Smith1, Jeanne Dalen1, Kathryn T. Wiggins1, Erin M. Tooley1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background: While resilience has been defined as resistance to illness, adaptation, and thriving, the ability to bounce back or recover from stress is closest to its original meaning. Previous resilience measures assess resources that may promote resilience rather than recovery, resistance, adaptation, or thriving. Purpose: To test a new brief resilience scale. Method: The brief resilience scale (BRS) was created to assess the ability to bounce back or recover from stress. Its psychometric characteristics were examined in four samples, including two student samples and samples with cardiac and chronic pain patients. Results: The BRS was reliable and measured as a unitary construct. It was predictably related to personal characteristics, social relations, coping, and health in all samples. It was negatively related to anxiety, depression, negative affect, and physical symptoms when other resilience measures and optimism, social support, and Type D personality (high negative affect and high social inhibition) were controlled. There were large differences in BRS scores between cardiac patients with and without Type D and women with and without fibromyalgia. Conclusion: The BRS is a reliable means of assessing resilience as the ability to bounce back or recover from stress and may provide unique and important information about people coping with health-related stressors.

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Topics: Coping (psychology) (51%), Social inhibition (50%)

2,064 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/BF00975140
Abstract: Within the context of their new constructivist self-development theory, the authors discuss therapists' reactions to clients' traumatic material. The phenomenon they term “vicarious traumatization” can be understood as related both to the graphic and painful material trauma clients often present and to the therapist's unique cognitive schemas or beliefs, expectations, and assumptions about self and others. The authors suggest ways that therapists can transform and integrate clients' traumatic material in order to provide the best services to clients, as well as to protect themselves against serious harmful effects.

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1,744 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJM200111153452024
Abstract: Background People who are not present at a traumatic event may experience stress reactions. We assessed the immediate mental health effects of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Methods Using random-digit dialing three to five days after September 11, we interviewed a nationally representative sample of 560 U.S. adults about their reactions to the terrorist attacks and their perceptions of their children's reactions. Results Forty-four percent of the adults reported one or more substantial symptoms of stress; 90 percent had one or more symptoms to at least some degree. Respondents throughout the country reported stress symptoms. They coped by talking with others (98 percent), turning to religion (90 percent), participating in group activities (60 percent), and making donations (36 percent). Eighty-four percent of parents reported that they or other adults in the household had talked to their children about the attacks for an hour or more; 34 percent restricted their children's television viewing...

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1,487 Citations