Impact of Design Errors on Variation Cost of Selected Building Project in Nigeria
01 Jan 2017-Procedia Engineering (Elsevier)-Vol. 196, pp 847-856
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the impact of design errors on variation cost by investigating the prominent design errors that lead to variation, causes of variation in construction projects and impact of designing errors on the variation cost.
Abstract: Design error has been adjudged to be the main source of variation. However, empirical studies of the cost impact of design errors on variation are scarce. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of design errors on variation cost by investigating the prominent design errors that lead to variation, causes of variation in construction projects and impact of design errors on variation cost. The study was conducted on selected building projects in Nigeria. The mixed method (interview and case study) of research was adopted in the collection of necessary data. Interview was conducted among construction experts to obtain information on causes of variation on building projects. Thirty documents which include valuation breakdowns and variation/change orders documents were obtained by convenience sampling technique and used for the extraction of design errors leading to variations and their associated costs. The data were analyzed with frequencies, sums and percentages. The study found that poor working drawing and lack of coordination among documents are the major causes of variation. Omission of details on structural drawing and wrong description in specifications of architectural drawings among others are prominent design errors that lead to variation. The study indicates that design error account for up to 36% of variation cost. The study concludes that variation costs can be minimized to a large extent if government policies to ensure proper contract documentation are put in place and professionals are restricted from doing the works of others professionals.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the impact of design changes on project cost and identified actions responsible for these changes, and concluded that the design change is one of the predominant factors to cost overrun, and in some cases, may upshot into cost overrun between 5 and 40% of the project cost.
Abstract: Isolation of design phase from construction has made the design changes inevitable in construction projects. Extensive literature appraisal has acknowledged the detrimental effect of design changes on project performances. However, the impact and causes of design changes have been divided up, either separately or project specific. As a result, the relationship between impact and causes of design changes could not be established for general construction. The primary objective of this paper is to examine the impact of design changes on project cost and identifying actions responsible for these changes. The objectives of the study were achieved through a systematic review of past literature published in well-established journals, and contents analyzed. From the extensive literature review, it was established that the design change is one of the predominant factors to cost overrun, and in some cases, may upshot into cost overrun between 5 and 40% of the project cost. Also, many causes of design changes resulting in cost overrun within the perspective of the owner, consultant, and contractors are explored. Some projects experienced closure as a result of owner induced design changes, although these changes may not be significant in number. Design changes as a result of consultants and contractors in some cases might have reduced impact but are frequent. For each consideration, most events leading to design changes can be eliminated by improving on communication and coordination between stakeholders. The main contribution of this research is to bring together the impact and causes of design changes on cost under one platform for effectively managing the design process.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify and categorise the types of risk factors associated in the Chennai construction industry by developing a cumulative value using Risk management procedural index (RMPI), which is a field of ideology and uncertainty which depends on significant projects which vary from nation to nation.
Abstract: Construction risk management plays an important role in the area of buying and selling irrespective of measure, activity and organisation. Risk management is a field of ideology and uncertainty which depends on significant projects which vary from nation to nation. It is essential to decrease the losses faced by the firm and to increase the profit, which can be done to forecast and calculate the risk factors relevant to the construction practices on time. Therefore, the research aims to identify and categorise the types of risk factors associated in the Chennai construction industry by developing a cumulative value using Risk management procedural index. The methodology of the study is to examine and rank the types of risk factors disturbing the construction projects by distributing a questionnaire survey administered to participants such as consultant, contractors and client/developers in the major parts of Chennai. In the result, the proposed RMPI method gives a cumulative value which shows the percentage of risks contributed by the various factors and they are ranked in order of the weighted value. The conclusion of this paper gives a clear forecast to reduce the cost and times overrun, which improves the quality of the construction project. The top three risk factors identified by the RMPI for the Chennai sector are listed as management (∼15%), financial (∼12), and environmental (10%).
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate the causes and effects of design change in building construction projects and find that lack of design review during design process, errors and omission in design, plans change by client, incomplete contract documents, differing site conditions, lack of experience for design evaluation during design period and impediment in prompt decision making process were the most causes of change.
Abstract: -The main parties involved in Construction industry consists of Owner/Employer/client, Engineer/consultant, contractor, bank, insurance and government body. Among these one or more of the parties initiate the design change due to internal and external factors which lead to both time and cost overrun in construction project. The objective of this study is investigating the causes and effects of design change in building construction projects. The research methodology engaged a questionnaire survey containing of fifty-one (51) questions about the cause and effect of design changes during the building construction, which was distributed to the project managers, client and the Engineers. The questionnaire responses were analyzed based on Relative importance index. The results indicated that lack of design review during design process, errors and omission in design, plans change by client, incomplete contract documents, differing site conditions, lack of experience for design evaluation during design period and impediment in prompt decision making process were the most causes of design change. The results also showed that completion schedule delay, increase in project cost, wastage of materials during rework, productivity degradation and working extra hours (overtime) to meet deadlines of the project were the most impacts of design change
Cites background from "Impact of Design Errors on Variatio..."
...The study conducted in Nigeria found that design change due to poor working drawing (omission on structural drawing) leads to variation ....
01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the causes and effects of the termination of construction contracts in the 16 Local Government Areas in Ekiti State, Nigeria were investigated and it was shown that lack of continuity, design error, lack of fund by the local government council, failure of prompt payment, change of executive leadership were among identified factors responsible for contract termination in the study area.
Abstract: Local Government Areas are the third tier of government in Nigeria and the closest to the people. The Local Government Areas are charged with the responsibility of delivering the dividend of democracy to meet the fundamental needs of the local community through the provision of infrastructural facilities. This study assessed the causes and effects of the termination of construction contracts in the 16 Local Government Areas in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The exploratory research design was employed with a purposive sampling of construction project contracts awarded in the Local Government Areas of Ekiti State, Nigeria between 2006 and 2015. A structured questionnaire in Likert’s scale was used for data collection and with a response rate of 90%. Data were analysed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (r), Percentages and Importance Index Rate (I.I.R.). Results show that Lack of continuity, design error, lack of fund by the local government council, failure of prompt payment, change of executive leadership were among identified factors responsible for contract termination in the study area. The implication of contract termination from the data analysis include delayed completion, abandonment of the project, variance in final cost and cost overrun, change in the quality of the project when completed due climatic effect. It is concluded the rate of construction contract termination in LGAs in Ekiti state is approximately 1 in 5, these terminations are due to project related, political and administrative factors respectively. It therefore recommended that there is need for concerted effort to reduce the rate of construction contract termination in LGAs in the state. There is also need to formulate policies to mitigate the effect of change in government on construction contracts and to ensure that contracts terminated are promptly re-awarded to avoid delay and abandonment. This will afford the people at the grassroots to effectively enjoy the benefits of these infrastructural facilities. Keywords: Contract termination, Local Government Areas, Infrastructure, Ekiti-State, Nigeria
01 Jan 1978
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a project delivery system for CPM construction, which is based on the Project Delivery System (PDS) and a set of specifications and drawings.
Abstract: 1. The Project Delivery System. 2. Responsibility and Authority. 3. Resident Inspection Office Responsibilities. 4. Documentation: Records and Reports. 5. Specifications and Drawings. 6. Using the Specifications in Contract Administration. 7. Construction Laws and Labor Relations. 8. Construction Safety. 9. Meetings and Negotiations. 10. Risk Allocation and Liability Sharing. 11. Preconstruction Operations. 12. Planning for Construction. 13. Fundamentals of CPM Construction Scheduling. 14. Construction Operations. 15. Value Engineering. 16. Measurement and Payment. 17. Construction Materials and Workmanship. 18. Changes and Extra Work. 19. Claims and Disputes. 20. Project Closeout. 21. Bibliography. 22. Index. 23. Forms Index.
TL;DR: Using findings from this case study along with knowledge from the literature, a systemic causal model for design-error-induced rework is developed and yields insights about architectural and engineering professionals' decision-making and work practices that can influence the occurrence of design errors.
Abstract: The determination as to why projects fail to meet planned schedule, cost, and quality parameters is a leitmotiv within the construction, engineering, and project management literature. Yet, the interrelatedness and behavior of key factors that influence these project performance indicators, particularly regarding design-error-induced rework, have received limited academic examination. Design-induced rework has been reported to contribute more than 70% of the total amount of rework experienced in construction and engineering projects. To address this situation, a forensic management approach to determining how and why rework occurred in a commercial construction project is undertaken. Using findings from this case study along with knowledge from the literature, a systemic causal model for design-error-induced rework is developed. Underlying behavioral dynamics that contributed to design errors (principally related to the management of the design documentation process) were modeled and simulated using system dynamics. The results of such an analysis yield insights about architectural and engineering professionalspsila decision-making and work practices that can influence the occurrence of design errors. The mitigation of design-induced errors would significantly reduce the amount of rework that architectural and engineering firms experience. This would bring with it greater profitability for such firms and improved project performance parameters (schedule, cost, and quality).
TL;DR: In this article, the nature of design errors is explained and the principal underlying causes identified with reference to the normative literature and the authors phenomenological research, and a systemic model for reducing design errors was presented and the enabling role of BIM discussed.
Abstract: An advocated panacea for reducing design errors and rework in construction and engineering projects is building information modeling (BIM) Yet, it would appear that advocates of BIM have overlooked why and how design errors occur In this article, the nature of error is explained and the principal underlying causes identified with reference to the normative literature and the authors phenomenological research A systemic model for reducing design errors is presented and the enabling role of BIM discussed
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors assess the significance of variations as a cause of cost and time overruns in construction projects and find that variations had a significant effect on project cost and cost overruns.
Abstract: Purpose – Variation orders are a common occurrence in construction projects and their impacts have been studied by various authors. However, the contribution of project variations to construction cost and time overruns is yet to be established. The purpose of this study is to assess the significance of variations as a cause of cost and time overruns.Design/methodology/approach – Using a questionnaire survey, responses were obtained from 50 project participants on the causes and effects of project variations. Cost and time data were also collected on 30 completed building projects. The analysis used importance indices and F‐ and t‐tests. The results indicated that variations had a significant effect and accounted for about 79 and 68 per cent of the cost and time overruns, respectively, for the projects studied.Findings – The results indicated that variations had a significant effect on project cost and time overruns and accounted for about 79 and 68 per cent of the cost and time overruns, respectively, for...