scispace - formally typeset
Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/EN14061569

Impact of energy and carbon emission of a supply chain management with two-level trade-credit policy

02 Mar 2021-Energies (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 14, Iss: 6, pp 1569
Abstract: Supply chain management aims to integrate environmental thinking with efficient energy consumption into supply chain management. It includes a flexible manufacturing process, more product delivery to customers, optimum energy consumption, and reduced waste. The manufacturing process can be made more flexible through volume agility. In this scenario, production cannot be constant, and with the concept of volume agility, production is taken as a decision variable under the effect of optimum energy consumption. Considering a two-echelon supply chain, we consider a producer and supplier with two-level-trade-credit policies (TLTCP) with the optimum consumption. To reduce the integrated total inventory cost, we believe that demand is a function of the credit period and selling price. The cost function is analyzed, either with the credit period dependent demand rate or with the selling price dependent demand rate through the numerical examples under energy costs. Energy and carbon emission costs are introduced in setup/ordering cost, holding cost, and item cost for producer and supplier. The effect of inflation on the total cost cannot be ignored; this model is being developed for deteriorating items with the simultaneous impact of volume agility, energy, carbon emission cost, and two-level-trade-credit policies with inflation. This supply chain model was solved analytically and obtained the optimum decision variables in a quasi-closed form solution. An illustrative theorem is being utilized to analyze the optimum result for all the decision parameters. The convexity of the objective function is being obtained analytically as well as graphically. Finally, numerical examples and sensitivity analysis are employed to illustrate the present study and with managerial insights.

... read more

Topics: Supply chain management (60%), Supply chain (60%), Total cost (59%) ... read more

7 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13074016
04 Apr 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: The aim of each company/industry is to provide a final product to customers at the minimum possible cost, as well as to protect the environment from degradation. Ensuring the shortest travel distance between involved locations plays an important role in achieving the company’s/industry’s objective as (i) the cost of a final product can be minimized by minimizing the total distance travelled (ii) finding the shortest distance between involved locations will require less fuel than the longest distance between involved locations. This will eventually result in lesser degradation of the environment. Hence, in the last few years, various algorithms have been proposed to solve different types of shortest path problems. A recently proposed algorithm for solving interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy shortest path problems requires excessive computational efforts. Hence, to reduce the computational efforts, in this paper, firstly, an alternative lexicographic method is proposed for comparing interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy numbers. Then, using the proposed lexicographic comparing method, a new approach (named as Mehar approach) is proposed to solve interval-valued Pythagorean fuzzy shortest path problems. Furthermore, the superiority of the proposed lexicographic comparing method, as well as the proposed Mehar approach, is discussed.

... read more

Topics: Shortest path problem (63%), Fuzzy number (54%), Fuzzy logic (51%)

2 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU131910555
23 Sep 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: The European Union advocates for legislative support to local energy communities. Measures include the promotion of dynamic energy allocation and discriminatory electricity tariffs such as the recent Spanish framework. However, the impact of these normative changes is not yet evaluated. This paper inquires into the impact of dynamic allocation coefficient and different electricity tariffs on the profitability of local energy communities. To do so, a linear optimisation model is developed and applied to real consumer data in Spain around a variable capacity photovoltaic generation plant. Comparing the economic performance of the static or variable power allocation under the effect of changing electricity tariffs. While both measures are beneficial, the new electricity tariffs result in larger profitability increases than the planned variable coefficients. The combination of measures allows for profitability improvements of up to 25% being complementary measures. However, installations that maximise the potential for electricity generation are still not as profitable due to the low purchase price of surplus energy. While discriminatory electricity price tariffs and variable allocation coefficients are positive measures, further measures are needed for these communities to install generation plants as large as the potential that each case allows.

... read more

Topics: European union (53%), Electricity (52%), Profitability index (52%) ... read more

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/EN14237863
24 Nov 2021-Energies
Abstract: The e-commerce industry has been developing extremely dynamically for many years. This development was intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the research conducted by the authors of this paper, in Poland, during the pandemic, the number of delivered parcels increased 20–100%, depending on the courier company. The research of the authors of this article focused on the energy efficiency of the last mile, which is very important for the efficiency of the entire delivery process to customers. As the authors calculated, the last mile can consume over 70% of energy of the whole distribution channel. The article presents the results of research concerning the energy efficiency of deliveries performed by couriers and express companies in Poland. Two models of distribution used Poland have been compared—direct deliveries to final customers, and deliveries to parcel lockers. The research methods are interviews with the managers and couriers, analysis of the literature, and the simulation method. According to the results of the simulations performed by the authors, distribution with the use of parcels lockers can help reduce the consumption of fuel even by 74–87% per parcel or 36% per m3. Apart from this, the authors calculated the impact of scale of operations on the energy efficiency of the transport processes on the last mile, which is an indirect effect of the growth of the e-commerce market, caused by the pandemic. Based on the results of the original research of the authors, it can be assessed that the growth of the number of the delivered parcels during the pandemic resulted in the consumption of fuel per one parcel being reduced in some cases by over 36%. The novelty of the authors’ research is that the conducted simulations regarded not only the efficiency of the processes, but also the energy consumption in delivering parcels at the last mile and during the pandemic.

... read more

Topics: Last mile (58%), Energy consumption (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/EN14217233
02 Nov 2021-Energies
Abstract: It is because of competencies that there is a possibility of ensuring the strategic safety of each country when it comes to energy security. With the vast development of IT and teamwork, there are various competencies needed in the whole energy sector. The aim of this study is to assess the needs of competencies in the Polish energy labor market as well as the trends among hard ad soft skills also in the context of renewable energy sources. Within an exploratory approach, 245 job advertisements were analyzed using various tools, including general descriptive statistics, Shapiro-Wilk, Kruskal–Wallis H and Mann–Whitney U tests, as well as Spearman’s Rho. The research confirmed that teamwork and MS Office are crucial demands of employers. It is also important that the market is diverse when it comes to competence demands, but soft skills are needed in every position, even purely technical ones.

... read more

Topics: Soft skills (56%), Energy market (56%), Teamwork (53%) ... read more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/EN14217446
08 Nov 2021-Energies
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a model of energy efficient scheduling for series production systems during operation, including setup and shutdown activities. The flow shop system together with setup, shutdown times and energy consumption are considered. Production tasks enter the system with exponentially distributed interarrival times and are carried out according to the times assumed as predefined. Tasks arriving from one waiting queue are handled in the order set by the Multi Objective Immune Algorithm. Tasks are stored in a finite-capacity buffer if machines are busy, or setup activities are being performed. Whenever a production system is idle, machines are stopped according to shutdown times in order to save energy. A machine requires setup time before executing the first batch of jobs after the idle time. Scientists agree that turning off an idle machine is a common measure that is appropriate for all types of workshops, but usually requires more steps, such as setup and shutdown. Literature analysis shows that there is a research gap regarding multi-objective algorithms, as minimizing energy consumption is not the only factor affecting the total manufacturing cost—there are other factors, such as late delivery cost or early delivery cost with additional storage cost, which make the optimization of the total cost of the production process more complicated. Another goal is to develop previous scheduling algorithms and research framework for energy efficient scheduling. The impact of the input data on the production system performance and energy consumption for series production is investigated in serial, parallel or serial–parallel flows. Parallel flow of upcoming tasks achieves minimum values of makespan criterion. Serial and serial–parallel flows of arriving tasks ensure minimum cost of energy consumption. Parallel flow of arriving tasks ensures minimum values of the costs of tardiness or premature execution. Parallel flow or serial–parallel flow of incoming tasks allows one to implement schedules with tasks that are not delayed.

... read more

Topics: Flow shop scheduling (60%), Job shop scheduling (57%), Energy consumption (56%) ... read more


27 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MCM.2011.08.009
Biswajit Sarkar1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This article deals with an EOQ ( Economic Order Quantity ) model for finite replenishment rate where demand and deterioration rate are both time-dependent. In this model, the retailers are allowed a trade-credit offer by the suppliers to buy more items with different discount rates on the purchasing costs. During the credit period, the retailers can earn more by selling their products. The interest on purchasing cost is charged for the delay of payment by the retailers. Some of the items may deteriorate in the course of time. In this regard, the author develops an EOQ model for time varying deterioration rate. The profit function of the model is maximized. Finally, a numerical example and graphical illustrations are used to illustrate the model.

... read more

Topics: Economic order quantity (58%), Purchasing (51%)

218 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EJOR.2007.05.042
Abstract: Usually it is assumed that the supplier would offer a fixed credit period to the retailer but the retailer in turn would not offer any credit period to its customers, which is unrealistic, because in real practice retailer might offer a credit period to its customers in order to stimulate his own demand. Moreover, it is observed that credit period offered by the retailer to its customers has a positive impact on demand of an item but the impact of credit period on demand has received a very little attention by the researchers. To incorporate this phenomenon, we assume that demand is linked to credit period offered by the retailer to the customers. This paper incorporates the concept of credit-linked demand and develops a new inventory model under two levels of trade credit policy to reflect the real-life situations. An easy-to-use algorithm is developed to determine the optimal credit as well as replenishment policy jointly for the retailer. Finally, numerical example is presented to illustrate the theoretical results followed by the sensitivity of various parameters on the optimal solution.

... read more

Topics: Trade credit (65%), Payment (53%)

211 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10479-014-1745-9
Abstract: The purpose of this study is two-fold. The first is to consider supplier’s and retailer’s trade-credit policy for fixed lifetime products and the second is to extend Mahata’s 2012 model with time varying deterioration where Mahata (Expert Syst Appl 39(3):3537–3550, 2012) wrote exponential deterioration but actually he considered constant deterioration. We assume that the suppliers offer full trade-credit to retailers but retailers offer partial trade-credit to their customers. Some numerical examples along with graphical representations are given to illustrate the model.

... read more

114 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2018.02.289
Waqas Ahmed1, Biswajit Sarkar1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Global warming due to excessive use of fossil fuels has driven researchers to focus on sustainable energy sources for the future. For clean production systems, biofuel is expanding the domain of renewable and sustainable energy supplies. An efficient and sustainable supply chain plays a pivotal role in ensuring this supply. In this research, crop residuals in different agricultural zones, transportation for shipment of residual biomass as well as biofuel, multiple biorefineries, and multiple market centers are considered. The expense of the resources, the yield of residual biomass in agricultural zones, and the demand of market centers are represented by fuzzy numbers as they are assumed to be uncertain. The carbon emissions cost at all stages of the supply chain was also incorporated into this model. This objective of this study is to develop a supply chain model that minimizes the total cost of a second generation biofuel supply chain and location-allocation for agricultural zones and biorefineries to meet the uncertain demand for market centers. Two numerical examples are analyzed, and the results proves that the cost of biofuel production in biorefineries contributed 52.16%, which is a major proportion of the total cost. In the entire supply chain, the transportation sector is the foremost source of carbon emissions in an environment with 88.50% of the total carbon emissions. The results confirms that the proposed model is viable for designing second generation biofuel supply chains under uncertainty. Significant managerial insights of this research are also described to better express the efficiency of the model.

... read more

Topics: Supply chain (61%), Supply chain management (57%), Biofuel (52%) ... read more

102 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJPE.2014.03.007
Abstract: This paper investigates the issue of channel coordination for a two echelon supply chain consisting of one manufacturer and one retailer. In this supply chain, the demand is sensitive to promotional efforts/sales teams׳ initiatives. A production-inventory model is developed that considers the procurement cost per unit as a function of the production rate. To resolve the issues of channel coordination and promotion-based demand, a variety of centralized coordinating systems are explored. An analytical method is employed to achieve optimal production rate, production lot size, backlogging and the initiatives of sales teams so that the profits of both manufacturer and retailer are maximized. Some numerical examples are solved in order to better understand the proposed production-inventory model. The results of a sensitivity analysis are also provided. Finally, some conclusions and future researches are included.

... read more

Topics: Demand chain (61%), Supply chain (58%), Channel coordination (57%) ... read more

89 Citations