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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13052648

Impact of Environmental, Social Values and the Consideration of Future Consequences for the Development of a Sustainable Entrepreneurial Intention

02 Mar 2021-Sustainability (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 13, Iss: 5, pp 2648
Abstract: Sustainable entrepreneurship focuses on finding ways to monetize future products, nature conservation, life support, and communities. Therefore, the intention has been identified as one of the key drivers to perceive business opportunities and ultimately leverage them, which increases interest in investigating it, especially from a sustainability perspective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the intention of sustainable entrepreneurship through a modified version of the theory of planned behavior based on survey data of 520 university students studying in Punjab, Pakistan and using structural equation modeling for quantitative analysis. The study sought to incorporate three additional constructs (environmental values, social values, and consideration of future consequences) to explain the relationship between the antecedents of sustainable entrepreneurial intention. This study shows that sustainable entrepreneurship, social norms, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control praise students’ sustainable intentions. Environmental values, intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, and consideration of future consequences (CFC-F and CFC-I) indirectly influence sustainable entrepreneurial intentions. The study also highlights the contradictory roles of CFC-I in reversing the pursuit of sustainable entrepreneurship. Indeed, the finding proposed that educational and other practitioners can improve attitudes and behaviors by promoting sustainable entrepreneurship through value creation and forward-looking activation strategies.

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Open access
01 Jun 2015-
Abstract: Volunteer tourism, as an alternative to mass tourism, has grown significantly since the 1970s, sparking a growing research interest in the subject. However, little research has been conducted about Asian volunteer tourists. The purpose of this study is to compare the strength of perceived behavioral control with self-efficacy to predict volunteer tourists' intentions within the theory of planned behavior. Meta-analysis is also used to examine the effect size of the independent variables derived from the theory of planned behavior. Study results indicate that self-efficacy is a stronger predictor than perceived behavioral control in predicting volunteer tourists' future behavioral intentions.

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20 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PR9040665
01 Apr 2021-
Abstract: The study investigates the Romanian entrepreneurial education training program emphasizing the secondary education student entrepreneurial intents included in technical and professional Vocational Education Training (VET) programs, in order to identify its role in increasing student intention in the process of choosing a career as an entrepreneur among graduates of the vocational and technical Romanian education system. The study research methodology was based on the interpretation of two questionnaires consisting of 23 questions, which were applied to a population of 253 and 159 respondents. The survey period was conducted between 2019 and 2020. The respondents were students from the vocational and technical education system in Romania, mostly from the Central Region of Romania, but the results of the study could be extended to the entire Romanian education system. The data were processed using SPSS software, and the results of the study revealed direct, positive, and significant links between psychological and behavioral traits and entrepreneurial intentions of the student surveyed, moderated by the entrepreneurial education acquired through the school curriculum. These results could also be the basis for developing future policies and programs to encourage entrepreneurial behavior, especially for secondary education students from the Romanian education system, specifically on pre-university education.

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Topics: Vocational education (63%), Curriculum (55%), Education for sustainable development (53%) ... show more

4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13169249
18 Aug 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: Intentions have been described as a key driver of sustainable entrepreneurial opportunity recognition and eventually activity. As a result of this study, interest may increase in entrepreneurship intentions across numerous entrepreneurial levels and styles, specifically from the point of view of sustainability. However, research to date has not been able to completely determine how the intrinsic complications of instantaneously producing social, environmental, and economic means will have an impact on the intentions of university students. This study sought to inspect the impact of self-transcending and self-enhancing value on the advent of intentions. The theory of planned behavior is an adaptive theory that this study quantitatively analyzed using a structural equation model and survey data from 577 university students in Punjab, Pakistan. The empirical findings show that altruistic, biospheric, hedonic, and egoistic values all have an indirect effect on sustainability-driven entrepreneurial intentions, which is important to understand when assessing attitudes toward sustainable entrepreneurship and perceived behavior control. In essence, attitudes, perceived behavior, and social norms all affect aspirations to become a sustainable entrepreneur. In real-world terms, the findings indicate that by using value activation techniques to increase attitudes and educational interest, practitioners may promote sustainable entrepreneurial intentions. It is also suggested how government services could be improved as part of the strategy.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13074056
06 Apr 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: After the UN’s adoption of 17 Sustainable Development Goals in 2015, it became clear that the relationship between sustainability and entrepreneurship was an area for re-examination. Traditional measures of entrepreneurial success rested largely on economic indicators; observatories like the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) extended them, including cultural and social indicators. There is now a real need to measure and analyze the relationship between sustainable entrepreneurship and eco-innovation and drive positive economic activity outcomes, sustainable development, and social welfare. For GEM’s consideration, this paper proposes a reimagined tool by which to measure sustainable entrepreneurship and eco-innovation in businesses and assess their level of alignment with UN SDGs. Specifically, it presents a new measurement method, incorporating, but simplifying, a complex range of variables, which can be crystallized into a set of items (questions) to determine businesses’ commitment to entrepreneurship sustainability—social, economic, and environmental. The results can be cross-referenced with other relevant variables, and indicators proposed by the UN, to determine what causal or explanatory relationships might or might not exist. The proposal represents a valuable extension to existing data gathering tools, and will be of use to researchers and practitioners in the field of entrepreneurship—especially as its sustainability credentials and environmental impact are in the spotlight.

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Topics: Entrepreneurship (64%), Eco-innovation (58%), Sustainable development (57%) ... show more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13116285
02 Jun 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: In this manuscript, the authors aim to explore firstly the association between entrepreneurial mindset and co-creation experience, secondly the association between co-creation experience and entrepreneurial intentions, and thirdly the association between entrepreneurial mindset and entrepreneurial intentions within the sustainability context. In this paper, the authors present the results of the pilot study. Primary data were collected from 500 university students from China, Georgia, Poland, Romania, and Sri Lanka by using a convenient sampling technique, and a literature review was the primary method of the concept development. The authors selected the above-mentioned countries to collect primary data by using a convenient sampling technique based on accessibility; they also visited all analysed countries in order to conduct the pilot survey personally. Descriptive statistics and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were applied as primary statistical methods. The findings reveal that there is a very strong association between co-creation experience and entrepreneurial intentions, a very weak negative association between entrepreneurial mindset and co-creation experience, and, surprisingly, a weak association between entrepreneurial mindset and entrepreneurial intentions. The added value of the conducted pilot research involves filling in a gap regarding the relationship between experience and the subjective norm. In the presented pilot research, co-creation experience was compared with not only entrepreneurial mindset but with entrepreneurial intentions as well. An additional value of this exploratory research is compiling an international comparison. The main contribution of this pilot study is examining the symbiotic mutualism between co-creation and entrepreneurship. Among many platforms of associations, the following can be differentiated: creativity, innovativeness, openness, engagement, awareness, motivation, trust (level of social capital), and recognizing the significance of social and sustainable development objectives. Due to the small sample size, the results cannot be generalised. Results refer only to the respondents. However, the findings of the pilot study are the basis for further research studies on symbiotic mutualism between entrepreneurship and co-creation.

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Topics: Mindset (58%), Entrepreneurship (53%), Exploratory research (53%)

References
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119 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173
Abstract: In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.

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Topics: Moderation (56%), Sobel test (51%), Moderated mediation (51%)

73,170 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
Icek Ajzen1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Research dealing with various aspects of* the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1987) is reviewed, and some unresolved issues are discussed. In broad terms, the theory is found to be well supported by empirical evidence. Intentions to perform behaviors of different kinds can be predicted with high accuracy from attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control; and these intentions, together with perceptions of behavioral control, account for considerable variance in actual behavior. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control are shown to be related to appropriate sets of salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about the behavior, but the exact nature of these relations is still uncertain. Expectancy— value formulations are found to be only partly successful in dealing with these relations. Optimal rescaling of expectancy and value measures is offered as a means of dealing with measurement limitations. Finally, inclusion of past behavior in the prediction equation is shown to provide a means of testing the theory*s sufficiency, another issue that remains unresolved. The limited available evidence concerning this question shows that the theory is predicting behavior quite well in comparison to the ceiling imposed by behavioral reliability. © 1991 Academic Press. Inc.

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Topics: Theory of planned behavior (64%), Reasoned action approach (62%), Expectancy theory (60%) ... show more

55,422 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.2307/3151312
Claes Fornell1, David F. Larcker2Institutions (2)
Abstract: The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addit...

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53,384 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879
Abstract: Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.

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Topics: Response bias (60%)

41,990 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411
James C. Anderson1, David W. Gerbing2Institutions (2)
Abstract: In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.

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30,830 Citations