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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7150/THNO.54498

Impact of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on atherosclerosis: from pharmacology to pre-clinical and clinical therapeutics.

04 Mar 2021-Theranostics (Ivyspring International Publisher)-Vol. 11, Iss: 9, pp 4502-4515
Abstract: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are new oral drugs for the therapy of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Research in the past decade has shown that drugs of the SGLT2i class, such as empagliflozin, canagliflozin, and dapagliflozin, have pleiotropic effects in preventing cardiovascular diseases beyond their favorable impact on hyperglycemia. Of clinical relevance, recent landmark cardiovascular outcome trials have demonstrated that SGLT2i reduce major adverse cardiovascular events, hospitalization for heart failure, and cardiovascular death in T2DM patients with/without cardiovascular diseases (including atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and various types of heart failure). The major pharmacological action of SGLT2i is through inhibiting glucose re-absorption in the kidney and thus promoting glucose excretion. Studies in experimental models of atherosclerosis have shown that SGLT2i ameliorate the progression of atherosclerosis by mechanisms including inhibition of vascular inflammation, reduction in oxidative stress, reversing endothelial dysfunction, reducing foam cell formation and preventing platelet activation. Here, we summarize the anti-atherosclerotic actions and mechanisms of action of SGLT2i, with an aim to emphasize the clinical utility of this class of agents in preventing the insidious cardiovascular complications accompanying diabetes.

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Topics: Platelet activation (54%), Diabetes mellitus (51%), Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (51%) ... read more
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10 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1124/PHARMREV.120.000096
Suowen Xu1, Iqra Ilyas1, Peter J. Little2, Hong Li3  +11 moreInstitutions (8)
Abstract: The endothelium, a cellular monolayer lining the blood vessel wall, plays a critical role in maintaining multiorgan health and homeostasis. Endothelial functions in health include dynamic maintenance of vascular tone, angiogenesis, hemostasis, and the provision of an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic interface. Dysfunction of the vascular endothelium presents with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, heightened oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, leukocyte adhesion and hyperpermeability, and endothelial cell senescence. Recent studies have implicated altered endothelial cell metabolism and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition as new features of endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is regarded as a hallmark of many diverse human panvascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes. Endothelial dysfunction has also been implicated in severe coronavirus disease 2019. Many clinically used pharmacotherapies, ranging from traditional lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs, and antidiabetic drugs to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors and interleukin 1β monoclonal antibodies, counter endothelial dysfunction as part of their clinical benefits. The regulation of endothelial dysfunction by noncoding RNAs has provided novel insights into these newly described regulators of endothelial dysfunction, thus yielding potential new therapeutic approaches. Altogether, a better understanding of the versatile (dys)functions of endothelial cells will not only deepen our comprehension of human diseases but also accelerate effective therapeutic drug discovery. In this review, we provide a timely overview of the multiple layers of endothelial function, describe the consequences and mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction, and identify pathways to effective targeted therapies. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The endothelium was initially considered to be a semipermeable biomechanical barrier and gatekeeper of vascular health. In recent decades, a deepened understanding of the biological functions of the endothelium has led to its recognition as a ubiquitous tissue regulating vascular tone, cell behavior, innate immunity, cell-cell interactions, and cell metabolism in the vessel wall. Endothelial dysfunction is the hallmark of cardiovascular, metabolic, and emerging infectious diseases. Pharmacotherapies targeting endothelial dysfunction have potential for treatment of cardiovascular and many other diseases.

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Topics: Endothelial dysfunction (65%), Angiogenesis (61%), Endothelium (60%) ... read more

17 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PHRS.2021.105819
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of mortality globally. Atherosclerosis is an important step towards different types of cardiovascular disease. The role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis has been thoroughly investigated in recent years. Moreover, clinical trials have established that diabetic patients are at a greater risk of developing atherosclerotic plaques. Hence, we aimed to review the clinical and experimental impacts of various classes of antidiabetic drugs on the circulating levels of oxLDL. Metformin, pioglitazone, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors were clinically associated with a suppressive effect on oxLDL in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. However, there is an insufficient number of studies that have clinically evaluated the relationship between oxLDL and newer agents such as agonists of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor or inhibitors of sodium-glucose transport protein 2. Next, we attempted to explore the multitude of mechanisms that antidiabetic agents exert to counter the undesirable effects of oxLDL in macrophages, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. In general, antidiabetic drugs decrease the uptake of oxLDL by vascular cells and reduce subsequent inflammatory signaling, which prevents macrophage adhesion and infiltration. Moreover, these agents suppress the oxLDL-induced transformation of macrophages into foam cells by either inhibiting oxLDL entrance, or by facilitating its efflux. Thus, the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties of antidiabetic agents abrogate changes induced by oxLDL, which can be extremely beneficial in controlling atherosclerosis in diabetic patients.

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2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOMEDICINES9060699
20 Jun 2021-Biomedicines
Abstract: The endothelium is the single-cell monolayer that lines the entire vasculature. The endothelium has a barrier function to separate blood from organs and tissues but also has an increasingly appreciated role in anti-coagulation, vascular senescence, endocrine secretion, suppression of inflammation and beyond. In modern times, endothelial cells have been identified as the source of major endocrine and vaso-regulatory factors principally the dissolved lipophilic vosodilating gas, nitric oxide and the potent vascular constricting G protein receptor agonists, the peptide endothelin. The role of the endothelium can be conveniently conceptualized. Continued investigations of the mechanism of endothelial dysfunction will lead to novel therapies for cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discuss the impact of endothelial dysfunction on cardiovascular disease and assess the clinical relevance of endothelial dysfunction.

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Topics: Endothelial dysfunction (65%), Endothelium (62%), Inflammation (50%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS22168786
Abstract: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Recent clinical studies indicate that sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes. The mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of SGLT2 inhibitors is not completely clear but may involve direct actions on vascular cells. SGLT2 inhibitors increase the bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide and thereby restore endothelium-dependent vasodilation in diabetes. In addition, SGLT2 inhibitors favorably regulate the proliferation, migration, differentiation, survival, and senescence of endothelial cells (ECs). Moreover, they exert potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in ECs. SGLT2 inhibitors also inhibit the contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells and block the proliferation and migration of these cells. Furthermore, studies demonstrate that SGLT2 inhibitors prevent postangioplasty restenosis, maladaptive remodeling of the vasculature in pulmonary arterial hypertension, the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms, and the acceleration of arterial stiffness in diabetes. However, the role of SGLT2 in mediating the vascular actions of these drugs remains to be established as important off-target effects of SGLT2 inhibitors have been identified. Future studies distinguishing drug- versus class-specific effects may optimize the selection of specific SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with distinct cardiovascular pathologies.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.682853
Xiaojun Feng1, Wenxu Chen1, Xiayun Ni1, Peter J. Little2  +3 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Metformin is one of the most widely prescribed hypoglycemic drugs and has the potential to treat many diseases. More and more evidence shows that metformin can regulate the function of macrophages in atherosclerosis, including reducing the differentiation of monocytes and inhibiting the inflammation, oxidative stress, polarization, foam cell formation and apoptosis of macrophages. The mechanisms by which metformin regulates the function of macrophages include AMPK, AMPK independent targets, NF-κB, ABCG5/8, Sirt1, FOXO1/FABP4 and HMGB1. On the basis of summarizing these studies, we further discussed the future research directions of metformin: single-cell RNA sequencing, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), epigenetic modification, and metformin-based combination drugs. In short, macrophages play an important role in a variety of diseases, and improving macrophage dysfunction may be an important mechanism for metformin to expand its pleiotropic pharmacological profile. In addition, the combination of metformin with other drugs that improve the function of macrophages (such as SGLT2 inhibitors, statins and IL-1β inhibitors/monoclonal antibodies) may further enhance the pleiotropic therapeutic potential of metformin in conditions such as atherosclerosis, obesity, cancer, dementia and aging.

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Topics: Metformin (56%), Foam cell (55%), AMPK (52%)

1 Citations


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153 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1504720
Bernard Zinman1, Christoph Wanner2, John M. Lachin3, David Fitchett2  +8 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: BACKGROUND The effects of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2, in addition to standard care, on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk are not known. METHODS We randomly assigned patients to receive 10 mg or 25 mg of empagliflozin or placebo once daily. The primary composite outcome was death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, as analyzed in the pooled empagliflozin group versus the placebo group. The key secondary composite outcome was the primary outcome plus hospitalization for unstable angina. RESULTS A total of 7020 patients were treated (median observation time, 3.1 years). The primary outcome occurred in 490 of 4687 patients (10.5%) in the pooled empagliflozin group and in 282 of 2333 patients (12.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the empagliflozin group, 0.86; 95.02% confidence interval, 0.74 to 0.99; P = 0.04 for superiority). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of myocardial infarction or stroke, but in the empagliflozin group there were significantly lower rates of death from cardiovascular causes (3.7%, vs. 5.9% in the placebo group; 38% relative risk reduction), hospitalization for heart failure (2.7% and 4.1%, respectively; 35% relative risk reduction), and death from any cause (5.7% and 8.3%, respectively; 32% relative risk reduction). There was no significant between-group difference in the key secondary outcome (P = 0.08 for superiority). Among patients receiving empagliflozin, there was an increased rate of genital infection but no increase in other adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events who received empagliflozin, as compared with placebo, had a lower rate of the primary composite cardiovascular outcome and of death from any cause when the study drug was added to standard care. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly; EMPA-REG OUTCOME ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01131676.)

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Topics: Empagliflozin (70%), Relative risk reduction (54%), Cause of death (52%) ... read more

5,890 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1611925
Bruce Neal, Vlado Perkovic1, Vlado Perkovic2, Kenneth W. Mahaffey3  +7 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: BackgroundCanagliflozin is a sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that reduces glycemia as well as blood pressure, body weight, and albuminuria in people with diabetes. We report the effects of treatment with canagliflozin on cardiovascular, renal, and safety outcomes. MethodsThe CANVAS Program integrated data from two trials involving a total of 10,142 participants with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Participants in each trial were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin or placebo and were followed for a mean of 188.2 weeks. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. ResultsThe mean age of the participants was 63.3 years, 35.8% were women, the mean duration of diabetes was 13.5 years, and 65.6% had a history of cardiovascular disease. The rate of the primary outcome was lower with canagliflozin than with placebo (occurring in 26.9 vs. 31.5 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% c...

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Topics: Canagliflozin (61%), Gliflozin (57%), Type 2 diabetes (53%) ... read more

3,546 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.287.19.2570
15 May 2002-JAMA
Abstract: ContextComplications of atherosclerosis cause most morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Despite the frequency and severity of disease, proven medical therapy remains incompletely understood and underused.ObjectiveTo review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and medical and invasive treatment of atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus.Data SourcesUsing the index terms diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular diseases, cerebrovascular accident, endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, platelets, thrombosis, cholesterol, hypertension, hyperglycemia, insulin, angioplasty, and coronary artery bypass, we searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 1976 to 2001. Additional data sources included bibliographies of identified articles and preliminary data presented at recent cardiology conferences.Study SelectionWe selected original investigations and reviews of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy of atherosclerosis in diabetes. We selected randomized, double-blind, controlled studies, when available, to support therapeutic recommendations. Criteria for data inclusion (168 of 396) included publication in a peer-reviewed journal or presentation at a national cardiovascular society–sponsored meeting.Data ExtractionData quality was determined by publication in peer-reviewed literature. Data extraction was performed by one of the authors.Data SynthesisDiabetes mellitus markedly increases the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, and death. The metabolic abnormalities caused by diabetes induce vascular dysfunction that predisposes this patient population to atherosclerosis. Blood pressure control, lipid-lowering therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, and antiplatelet drugs significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. Although diabetic patients undergo revascularization procedures because of acute coronary syndromes or critical limb ischemia, the outcomes are less favorable than in nondiabetic cohorts.ConclusionsSince most patients with diabetes die from complications of atherosclerosis, they should receive intensive preventive interventions proven to reduce their cardiovascular risk.

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Topics: Diabetes mellitus (57%), Myocardial infarction (54%), Critical limb ischemia (54%) ... read more

2,476 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE08938
Peter Duewell1, Hajime Kono1, Katey J. Rayner2, Katey J. Rayner3  +17 moreInstitutions (9)
29 Apr 2010-Nature
Abstract: The inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis is well established but the agent(s) that incite inflammation in the artery wall remain largely unknown. Germ-free animals are susceptible to atherosclerosis, suggesting that endogenous substances initiate the inflammation. Mature atherosclerotic lesions contain macroscopic deposits of cholesterol crystals in the necrotic core, but their appearance late in atherogenesis had been thought to disqualify them as primary inflammatory stimuli. However, using a new microscopic technique, we revealed that minute cholesterol crystals are present in early diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions and that their appearance in mice coincides with the first appearance of inflammatory cells. Other crystalline substances can induce inflammation by stimulating the caspase-1-activating NLRP3 (NALP3 or cryopyrin) inflammasome, which results in cleavage and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1 family cytokines. Here we show that cholesterol crystals activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in phagocytes in vitro in a process that involves phagolysosomal damage. Similarly, when injected intraperitoneally, cholesterol crystals induce acute inflammation, which is impaired in mice deficient in components of the NLRP3 inflammasome, cathepsin B, cathepsin L or IL-1 molecules. Moreover, when mice deficient in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) were bone-marrow transplanted with NLRP3-deficient, ASC (also known as PYCARD)-deficient or IL-1alpha/beta-deficient bone marrow and fed on a high-cholesterol diet, they had markedly decreased early atherosclerosis and inflammasome-dependent IL-18 levels. Minimally modified LDL can lead to cholesterol crystallization concomitant with NLRP3 inflammasome priming and activation in macrophages. Although there is the possibility that oxidized LDL activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo, our results demonstrate that crystalline cholesterol acts as an endogenous danger signal and its deposition in arteries or elsewhere is an early cause rather than a late consequence of inflammation. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and indicate new potential molecular targets for the therapy of this disease.

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Topics: Inflammasome (63%), AIM2 (60%), NALP3 (57%) ... read more

2,417 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1812389
Declare–Timi Investigators1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Background The cardiovascular safety profile of dapagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 that promotes glucosuria in patients with type 2 diabetes, is undefined. Methods We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes who had or were at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease to receive either dapagliflozin or placebo. The primary safety outcome was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke. The primary efficacy outcomes were MACE and a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure. Secondary efficacy outcomes were a renal composite (≥40% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate to <60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area, new end-stage renal disease, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes) and death from any cause. Results We evaluated 17,160 patients, including 10,186 without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, ...

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Topics: Dapagliflozin (60%), Type 2 diabetes (53%), Diabetes mellitus (53%) ... read more

2,197 Citations