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Book ChapterDOI: 10.1201/9781351228145-13

Impact of Surface Modification of Activated Carbon on BTEX Removal from Aqueous Solutions: A Review

20 Oct 2017-pp 293-312
Abstract: Environmental contamination caused by primary pollutants endangers human health, therefore, contemporaneous research has been conducted to annihilate its detrimental effects. Polycyclic aromatic compounds along with benzene, toluene, xylene, aniline, and phenol have attracted much attention, since they constitute some of the most common and serious threats to the environment. Activated carbon (AC) is the most implicit form of amorphous carbon for the removal of different organic/inorganic compounds dissolved in the aqueous/gaseous environment. The process of activation is comprised of physical and chemical activation. The production of AC through the physical process encompasses two steps: carbonization and activation. Among the physical, surface, and textural properties of AC, specific surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution have their own specific role in determining the adsorption properties of AC. The fundamental issue for the aqueous solution adsorption is the understanding of adsorption mechanism of AC.

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Topics: Adsorption (57%), Activated carbon (55%), Specific surface area (54%) ...read more
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MOLLIQ.2018.10.105
Abstract: A progressive economic growth and proliferating global population caused adequate provision of clean water as a global issue. The systematic eradication of toxic pollutants from the environment has become a predominant matter from a biological and environmental perspective. Thus, adsorptive removal of hazardous components from wastewater is one of the most captivating strategies for purification technologies. Recently, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been reported to be very promising in the adsorption of various stable organic compounds due to their unique properties essential for further surface modification. In order to get the maximum removal of these pollutants, it is mandatory to understand the interaction mechanisms between the sorbent and sorbate. This review summarizes the recent literature on the adsorptive removal of BTEX from wastewater using CNTs. The impact of various factors (sorption sites of CNTs, physical properties of nanotubes, properties of background solution, and surface chemistry of CNTs) on the adsorption of BTEX over CNTs and the plausible interaction mechanisms such as hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic interaction, dispersive/repulsive interactions, π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding are critically reviewed. The present review has sorted out numerous prevailing gaps in the available information whilst recognizing a number of encouraging avenues and approaches for the upcoming research thrust.

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34 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2020.121190
Abstract: The semiconductor photocatalysis system has been the subject of numerous investigations, as it is an attractive technique for complete mitigation of undesirable pollutant in waste water using UV or solar irradiation. However, the application of nano-sized metal oxide semiconductors in photocatalysis process normally suffers from the coagulation and agglomeration problem, especially in an aqueous medium. Hence, the addition of support material into a photocatalysis system has the potential to yield major steps for tackling major environmental concerns. This review highlights the potential application of Chitosan (CS) as support materials in photocatalyst system. Due to the high surface area and strong adsorption characteristics, CS reduces the amount of intermediates produced during photocatalysis process. In the meantime, the addition of CS would further increase the mass transfer and processes for efficient photodegradation. Indeed, CS allows for fast and easy photocatalyst recovery and re-use with or without regeneration. The objective of this report is to inspire more prospects to use CS as multifunctional support material in photocatalysis system, focusing on mitigation, degradation and mineralization of different ranged pollutants in wastewater.

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Topics: Photocatalysis (53%)

20 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JHAZMAT.2019.05.066
Abstract: In this study, the impact of different oxidizing agents on the structural integrity of activated carbon (AC) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was studied for the removal of BTX from aqueous solution. Seven different combinations of green oxidizing agents (mild organic acids) in conjugation with NaOCl (basic oxidizing agent) were used. The modified adsorbents were analyzed by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Boehm titration, Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential, and variable pressure field emission scanning electron microscope (VPFESEM). The results suggested that the carbonaceous sorbents modified with combination of citric acid tartaric acid, malic acid and salicylic acid (CTMS-I) showed increased surface area (O-AC: 871.67 m2/g, O-MWCNTs: 336.37 m2/g) and total pore volume (O-AC: 0.59 cm3/g, O-MWCNTs: 0.04 cm3/g), with the significantly improved thermal stability. Preliminary batch adsorption experiments conducted using the present prepared O-AC and O-MWCNTs, showed an improved performance towards the adsorption of BTX, compared with other available reported adsorbents in the literature.

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Topics: Adsorption (56%), Oxidizing agent (54%), Activated carbon (53%) ...read more

11 Citations

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIORTECH.2005.11.006
Abstract: Palm shell was used to prepare activated carbon using potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as activating agent. The influence of carbonization temperatures (600-1000 degrees C) and impregnation ratios (0.5-2.0) of the prepared activated carbon on the pore development and yield were investigated. Results showed that in all cases, increasing the carbonization temperature and impregnation ratio, the yield decreased, while the adsorption of CO2 increased, progressively. Specific surface area of activated carbon was maximum about 1170 m2/g at 800 degrees C with activation duration of 2 h and at an impregnation ratio of 1.0.

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Topics: Activated carbon (57%), Carbonization (57%), Potassium carbonate (54%) ...read more

366 Citations